BYO3D 2011: History

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Driven by the recent resurgence of 3D cinema, depth cameras and stereoscopic displays are becoming commonplace in the consumer market. Introduced last October, Microsoft Kinect has already fostered gesture-based interaction for applications well beyond the intended Xbox 360 platform. Similarly, consumer electronics manufacturers have begun selling stereoscopic displays and inexpensive stereoscopic cameras. Most commercial 3D displays continue to require cumbersome eyewear, but inexpensive, glasses-free 3D displays are imminent with the release of the Nintendo 3DS.
At SIGGRAPH 2010, the Build Your Own 3D Display course demonstrated how to construct both LCD shutter glasses and glasses-free lenticular screens, providing Matlab-based code for batch encoding of 3D imagery. This follow-up course focuses more narrowly on glasses-free displays, describing in greater detail the practical aspects of real-time, OpenGL-based encoding for such multi-view, spatially multiplexed displays.
The course reviews historical and perceptual aspects, emphasizing the goal of achieving disparity, motion parallax, accommodation, and convergence cues without glasses. It summarizes state-of-the-art methods and areas of active research. And it provides a step-by-step tutorial on how to construct a lenticular display. The course concludes with an extended question-and-answer session, during which prototype hardware is available for inspection.

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  • http://coolpics.911mb.com/galleries-coolpics/OpticalIllusions/WiggleVision/WiggleVision1.phphttp://www.brianharte.co.uk/blog/47-stereograms/http://prometheus.med.utah.edu/~bwjones/2009/03/focus-stacking/
  • http://www.pc.rhul.ac.uk/staff/J.Zanker/PS1061/L4/PS1061_4.htmhttp://psychinaction.files.wordpress.com/2010/02/picture2.jpg
  • BYO3D 2011: History

    1. 1. Course Outline<br /><ul><li>Introduction: History and Physiology
    2. 2. Constructing Glasses-free 3D Displays
    3. 3. Multi-view Rendering using OpenGL
    4. 4. Multi-view Interlacing using GLSL
    5. 5. Designing Content for Glasses-free 3D Displays
    6. 6. Emerging Technology
    7. 7. Q & A and Demonstrations</li></li></ul><li>Limitations of Conventional Displays<br />Monocular Depth Cues Supported by Conventional Displays<br /><ul><li>relative and familiar size
    8. 8. perspective and occlusion
    9. 9. texture gradient, shading and lighting, atmospheric effects</li></li></ul><li>Limitations of Conventional Displays<br />Monocular Depth Cues with Conventional Displays<br /><ul><li> relative and familiar size
    10. 10. perspective and occlusion
    11. 11. texture gradient, shading and lighting, atmospheric effects</li></li></ul><li>What is missing?<br />Additional Monocular Depth Cues<br /><ul><li> motion parallax [Hermann von Helmholtz, 1866]
    12. 12. accommodation</li></li></ul><li>Binocular Depth Cues<br />“It being thus established that the mind perceives an object of three dimensions by means of the two dissimilar pictures projected by it on the two retinae, the following question occurs: What would be the visual effect of simultaneously presenting to each eye, instead of the object itself, its projection on a plane surface as it appears to that eye?”<br />Binocular Depth Cues<br /><ul><li> retinal disparity [Charles Wheatstone, 1838]
    13. 13. convergence</li></li></ul><li>Physiology of Depth Perception<br />Monocular Cues<br />Motion Parallax<br />Perspective<br />Relative Size<br />Atmospheric Effects<br />Occlusion<br />Texture<br />Shading/Lighting<br />Also sometimes called psychological cues, these effects can be captured by a monocular camera and perceived by a viewer of a traditional screen.<br />
    14. 14. Physiology of Depth Perception<br />Another Monocular Cue<br />Accommodation<br />Binocular Cues<br />Convergence<br />Stereopsis<br />This is the cue added by 3D displays covered in this course<br />The brain determines depth by observing the scene disparity between two viewpoints<br />Can simulate this depth cue by multiplexing a different synthetic image to each eye<br />These effects are due to physical functions of the eye, and not interpretation of the scene<br />
    15. 15. Conflicting Cues<br />The HVS can ignore conflicting or missing depth cues<br />Understand depth in 2D (monocular) video<br />Perceive shape in “noise”<br />magiceye.com<br />Ponzo Illusion: © Walt Anthony 2006 <br />
    16. 16. Missing Binocular Cues<br />Ponzo Illusion<br />We perceive depth without binocular cues<br />Depth perception changes perception of line length<br />
    17. 17. Only Binocular Cues<br />Random Dot Stereograms<br />BelaJulesz<br />
    18. 18. Violating Accommodation Cues<br />All presented displays do this<br />Possibly leads to fatigue over time<br />
    19. 19. Course Outline<br /><ul><li>Introduction: History and Physiology
    20. 20. Physiology
    21. 21. History
    22. 22. Constructing Glasses-free 3D Displays
    23. 23. Multi-view Rendering using OpenGL
    24. 24. Multi-view Interlacing using GLSL
    25. 25. Designing Content for Glasses-free 3D Displays
    26. 26. Emerging Technology
    27. 27. Q & A and Demonstrations</li></li></ul><li>Early History<br />1838 Wheatstone Stereoscopes<br />1848 Brewseter<br />1881 Popularized by Oliver Wendell Holmes<br />1853 Earliest Anaglyph photographs<br />Viewmaster<br />1939-Today Equivalent<br />http://courses.ncssm.edu/gallery/collections/toys/html/exhibit01.htm<br />Leonardo DaVinci had realized that two images would be needed for stereo viewing, but never created a 3D painting<br />
    28. 28. 20th Century<br />1908 Lippmann, Integral Imaging, Lenticular Printing<br />1934 Polarizing Glasses (two synchronized projectors)<br />1950s Anaglyph and polarizing glasses popular to counter rise of television<br />
    29. 29. Interesting Historical Examples<br />American Civil War-era stereoscopic photos<br /><ul><li>Available from the US library of congress
    30. 30. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/search - Search for “stereographs civil war prints”
    31. 31. Lincoln in 3D
    32. 32. Selection of stereographs converted to red-cyan anaglyph images
    33. 33. John J. Richter: ISBN 978-0811872317</li></li></ul><li>Interesting Historical Examples<br />Colorized stereoscopic photos <br />T. Enami, Japan ca. 1895<br />http://www.howtobearetronaut.com//2010/06/old-japan-in-3d<br />
    34. 34. Course Outline<br /><ul><li>Introduction: History and Physiology
    35. 35. Constructing Glasses-free 3D Displays
    36. 36. Multi-view Rendering using OpenGL
    37. 37. Multi-view Interlacing using GLSL
    38. 38. Designing Content for Glasses-free 3D Displays
    39. 39. Emerging Technology
    40. 40. Q & A and Demonstrations</li>

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