Nielsen Consumer Post Recession Report Sept09


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Nielsen Consumer Post Recession Report Sept09

  1. 1. Consumers in a Post-Recession World: A Nielsen Report September 2009
  2. 2. How has the deepest global recession since the Great Depression of the 20th Century affected consumers globally? Global banks have returned to profit, restoring confidence in a new financial structure. Stimulus plans put into action by governments are starting to take effect and the IMF has revised a more positive forecast for economic growth and recovery in the next year. But how has the deepest global recession since the Great Depression affected consumers globally? In this report, Nielsen uncovers how consumers in different regions will embrace the post-recession world and how recessionary habits may prove harder to break for consumers in the US and Europe – compared to consumers in BRIC markets (Brazil, Russia, India, China) and Asia - who are preparing to spend their way into prosperous times again. 2
  3. 3. Consumers in a Post Recession World Hopes for a full economic recovery accelerated in 26 out of 28 major global markets in the 2nd Quarter of 2009 according to the latest Nielsen Global Consumer Confidence Index conducted in late June 2009. Driven by renewed consumer optimism and stock market gains in BRIC and key Asian markets, the Nielsen Global Consumer Confidence Index rose five Index points to 82 from 77. In addition, the number of consumers and countries who believe their economy is currently in recession declined six Index points in the last three months, with the most positive feelings of recovery emanating from the BRIC and Asian markets. In the last few months, consumers and market sentiment has switched from recession to recovery – signaling a major turning point for the Global Financial Crisis. 3
  4. 4. Do you think your country will be out of an economic recession in the next 12 months? June 2009 0% to 15% 15% to 30% Global Average: 26% 30% to 45% 45% to 60% Source: Nielsen Global Online Consumer Survey June 2009: 14,029 respondents in Europe, Asia Paci c, Middle East and North America Nielsen Global Consumer Confidence Index 2nd quarter, 2009 113 112 104 103 99 96 96 March June 95 94 93 92 90 90 89 89 89 88 87 87 86 85 84 82 82 82 81 82 81 81 80 80 80 79 78 78 77 77 76 75 73 73 72 72 72 71 70 70 67 65 63 60 60 60 51 42 40 31 JP PL AE al DE FR ZA ES UA AR AU Y CA ID TR BR IT US PH RU GB SG TH HK NZ TW KO IN CN M ob Gl Base : All respondents n= 17107 Source: Nielsen Global Online Consumer Survey June 2009: 14,029 respondents in Europe, Asia Paci c, Middle East and North America 4
  5. 5. Cautious Consumers And while talk of a global recession may be receding, many Many consumers who cut back on new clothes, out-of-home consumers plan to hold on to their thrifty recessionary habits, entertainment and take-away meals and switched to cheaper according to a Nielsen study on consumers in the post- grocery brands to make ends meet plan to stick to these new recession world. habits even when economic conditions improve, according to a recent Nielsen survey of 52 global markets. Even The severity of this recession has brought about a change though consumer confidence is returning in most countries, in consumer values, spending habits and lifestyle choices in the tactics and cutbacks that consumers adopted for the many parts of the world, with some indication that consumers recession may be here to stay for many Europeans, Pacific and in the West will continue to refrain from excessive or American consumers. Forty eight percent of Americans say unnecessary spending across all aspects of their lifestyles - at they will continue to save on gas/electricity bills, 22 percent least in the short term. of Australians will continue to cut down on take-away meals and 23 percent of French say they will continue to use their car less. Perceptions of now being a good or bad time for people to buy the things they want and need 100 80 60 55 49 48 47 45 40 40 38 29 29 27 28 23 21 20 20 19 19 20 17 3 4 3 2 2 2 0 AP EU MEAP LA NA Global Average Base : All respondents n = 17107 Excellent Good Not so good Bad Source: Nielsen Global Online Consumer Omnibus June 2009: 14,029 respondents in Europe, Asia Paci c, Middle East and North America 5
  6. 6. According to the Nielsen survey, nearly one in three (29%) emerging markets of South Africa, Turkey and Latin America global consumers will continue to economise on gas and will try to reduce telephone expenses in the post-recession electricity, while one in six will continue to cut down on take- era. Of all regions, Europeans will still be watching their away meals. One in six global consumers will continue to expenditure on out-of-home entertainment most closely. purchase cheaper grocery products, spend less on new clothes, cut down on out-of-home entertainment and one in seven will Not surprisingly, consumers in the US and Europe -- hardest reduce telephone expenses. hit by the global recession -- are most determined to cling to future cost saving measures in the post-recession world. Saving on gas and electricity, cutting down on take-away Consumers in the BRIC markets, on the other hand, are meals and spending less on new clothes (and switching to generally looking forward to putting recent recessionary cheaper groceries) are key global trends today that may stick behaviours behind them and returning to their previous in the post recession world. On a regional basis, Pacific, North spending patterns, especially Chinese and Russian consumers. American and Western European consumers will continue to switch to cheaper grocery products, while consumers in the Russian and Chinese consumers are utilizing spare cash to keep up with latest fashion trends Top 10 countries who spend spare cash on purchasing new clothes 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 53 49 50% 46 45 41 40% 36 34 34 34 33 30% 20% 10% 0% RU CN UA PH BR PL DE FR AR IN Source: Nielsen Global Online Consumer Survey June 2009: 14,029 respondents in Europe, Asia Pacific, Middle East and North America 6
  7. 7. After covering essential living costs, consumers are putting their spare cash away for the future 47 Putting into savings 48 31 Holidays / vacations 34 28 New clothes 31 31 Paying off debts / credit cards / loans 30 25 Out of home entertainment 27 21 New technology products 25 22 Home improvements / decorating 25 18 Investing in shares of stock / mutual funds 22 13 I have no spare cash 13 10 Retirement fund 11 2 Don' t know/undecided 2 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 % Source: Nielsen Global Online Consumer Survey March 2009: 26, 719 respondents in 53 markets globally Mar-09 Jun-09 And Nielsen Global Online Consumer Survey June 2009: 14, 029 respondents in Europe, Asia Pacific, Middle East and North America Q: Once youhave covered essential living expenses, which of the following statements best desribes what you do with your spare cash. In the latest Nielsen Consumer Confidence Survey, BRIC and Survey conducted in March 2009, China recorded just a seven Asian markets scored the greatest increases in Consumer point drop in consumer confidence in the past six months Confidence Indices in the past three months. The Confidence compared to double-digit declines in Russia, Brazil and India. Index climbed 13 points in India and rose eight points in Russia In the latest Nielsen Consumer Confidence Index in late June, and Brazil. consumer confidence in China increased six Index points. While the BRIC markets did not escape the ravages of the Despite the global recession hitting hard in 2008, China still global recession, the downturn is unlikely to have a marked managed to achieve moderate GDP growth. The Chinese long-term impact on consumer behaviour. Unlike their government’s immediate response to the turndown with Western counterparts, resilient and adaptable BRIC consumers a domestic stimulus package - equal to 13 percent of the simply tightened their belts temporarily and will soon return country’s GDP - played a significant factor in reassuring the to their previous spending habits and lifestyle. The experience Chinese that they would not be headed for a protracted of previous economic crises in Latin America in particular has economic slowdown. According to Nielsen, advertising produced a very adaptable consumer who had learnt to act spend in China still grew by 17 percent in 2008, driven by quickly and make necessary lifestyle cuts during downturns. ad increases in pharmaceutical/health, toiletries, beverages, Among the BRIC nations and perhaps all nations globally, the business/industry/agriculture and food products. Sales of Chinese today remain the most confident of an economic FMCG products remained robust and rose by 21 percent last rebound in the near future. In the Nielsen Global Confidence year compared to 2007. 7
  8. 8. The World Bank’s revised forecast for China’s economic growth rate to 7.2 percent this year from their previous 6.5 percent is Growth slowed in China but a global indication for China’s recovery. After the World Bank positive signs have emerged revision, the Chinese stock hit a 10 month high in mid-June fuelled by increasing consumer confidence and optimism. FMCG consumer sales and media ad spend in China stalled in the first Quarter, but towards Urban unemployment remains below five percent and personal the end of the second Quarter positive signs investment in the stock market has rebounded in early 2009, emerged, with many indices bouncing back sharply with an 18 percent increase compared to the same time last in May and June. Second tier cities and modern year, according to the latest Nielsen Personal Finance Monitor trade outlets in general were most affected with conducted from December 2008 to February 2009. consumer confidence low and consumers reigning in the purse strings. Lower tier cities and rural Nielsen’s China Travel Monitor (conducted in January, 2009) areas felt little impact, with some experiencing also reported that over 50 percent of Chinese respondents double digit sales growth and high consumer planned to travel in China domestically in the next 12 months, and 16 percent planned to travel overseas. Among domestic confidence throughout the first half of the travellers, nearly four in 10 said the financial crisis had no year – and since the global economic crisis hit impact whatsoever on their travel plans and only four percent in the fourth Quarter 2008. China experienced said they would cancel their travel plans altogether. volume and value declines in the modern trade for many FMCG categories, especially food. Falling Consumer confidence in Russia has also been spurred by recent commodity prices, retailer stimulated price cuts stock market gains. Russia’s two main stock exchanges are up and government food pricing controls, further over 70 percent in the first half of 2009 – and the stabilization pressured end-consumer prices. This converges of the rouble and rally in oil prices significantly increased on a tight squeeze on value growth for FMCG and consumer confidence. Nielsen’s Consumer Confidence Index some other key consumer segments. in Russia rose seven points between March and May this year – the first increase recorded since the second half of 2007 and During the second quarter sales growth has started the highest single increase since the survey started in 2005. to recover and as this continues and conditions gradually stabilize globally, MNCs are returning to While Russians are still well aware of inflation and their investments in China, despite it being a more unemployment, they’re starting to see beyond the crisis and challenging local environment today than it was a are hoping for a quick return to previous spending patterns few months ago. with one in six Russians saying they won’t retain any of their recessionary habits once the economy improves – and they are looking to open their wallets again to spend on their favourite pastime – clothes shopping. This is a significant turnaround in Russian consumer sentiment and as confidence in the economy is restored, consumers’ desire for branded products and luxury goods will be reignited, bolstering Russia’s reputation as a purchasing powerhouse for high end consumer products. Like Russians, Chinese consumers say they’ll be willing to take the time to hunt around for the best price on a bank loan or insurance but they not prepared to cut back on their fashion spend or out-of-home entertainment in the post-recession era. 8
  9. 9. Global Trends On a global scale, continuing to save on gas and electricity As economic recovery gathers pace, consumption and bills has become a lifestyle habit. Among those 69 percent spending will increase – but the post recession consumer who have already taken action to reduce these bills since the is likely to consume very differently. The post-recession onset of the recession, over 50 percent of Australians, Kiwis, consumer will think twice and sometimes thrice about making South Africans, Filipinos, UK, Irish and US consumers say they purchases, big or small. The recession affected all social will continue to take further action to reduce household utility classes and has fundamentally changed how consumers bills. consume – and particularly in the West where it’s now fashionable to be frugal; and trendy to be thrifty. Consumers cost-cutting actions in June were more dramatic than they anticipated in March Global Average 50 Try to save on gas and electricity 40 55 Spend less on new clothes 22 54 Cut down on out-of-home entertainment 20 46 Cut down on take-away meals 24 43 Switch to cheaper grocery brands 21 34 Cut down on telephone expenses 21 38 Delay upgrading technology, eg. PC, Mobile, etc 14 37 Cut down on holidays / short breaks 11 28 Use my car less often 17 Delay the replacement of 34 major household items 10 Look for better deals on home loans, 23 insurance, credit cards, etc 15 24 Cut out annual vacation 7 22 Cut down on at-home entertainment 8 18 Cut down on or buy cheaper brands of alcohol 8 13 Cut down on smoking 9 12 I have taken other actions not listed above 16 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 % Source: Nielsen Global Online Consumer Survey March and June 2009 Actions taken in June 09 Actions predicted in March 09 Base : All Respondents those who said yes at Q10 (code 1) n=9947 9
  10. 10. In the US, Australia and many Western European nations, sales Organic Living of bottled water have been in decline for the past two years. Under current circumstances in the West, it’s unlikely that This new mind-set has been directly impacted by consumers’ bottled water will rebound to its previously high-growth levels growing concerns about the world we live in, and the world of five years ago. that will exist for future generations. In the USA, sales growth of organic products nosedived as the Consumers, especially in the West, are realizing that economy worsened. For the 4-week period ending in mid- sustainability, recycling, organic food, bottled water, waste May 2009, dollar sales of UPC-coded products with an organic and the global environment as a whole are all related to the label claim grew by just two percent compared to 24 percent actions they choose to take today. in the previous year. Between 2005 and 2006, many organic Organic food and bottled water may prove to be among the products posted growth rates of 30 percent according to first victims of the recession as the new consumer mind-set Nielsen. Manufacturers and producers of organic products are gathers momentum. At the onset of the recession, consumers being challenged to prove that their product is truly “better cut back on spending on organic products and bottled water for you, and better for the planet”. Consumers need good for economic reasons. Having done without them for several economic – and now, scientifically or medically proven -- months or over a year, consumers may question if they really reasons to justify paying extra for organic products, especially need these products in their lives again, especially with an as it’s becoming known that carbon emissions are often lower ongoing controversial debate on the real “goodness” of organic from the non-organic alternative. products and the recycling and waste issues created by plastic, For US consumers, the top recessionary habits households bottled water. have made part of their lifestyle are saving on gas/electricity USA: The economy takes it toll on organics +35% +30% +25% +20% +15% Monthly sales growth of organics +10% below 4% in last five periods +5% +0% 8 6 08 6 8 6 09 07 9 07 06 7 07 08 07 /0 0 /0 /0 0 0 /0 0/ 2/ 6/ 1/ 2/ 6/ 4/ 9/ 7/ 4/ 9/ 06 25 14 21 /2 /2 /2 /1 /0 /2 /1 /1 /2 /0 /2 / / / / 04 08 06 03 09 02 02 05 05 07 01 10 12 11 11 /E /E /E /E /E /E /E /E /E /E /E /E /E /E /E W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 UPC-Coded Organics Source: Scantrack & LabelTrends, services of The Nielsen Company; (FDM ex-Walmart) % Change in 4-Week Dollar Sales vs. YAGO 10
  11. 11. (48%), cutting down on take-away meals (28%) and The winners in the take-away meal sector have been those continuing to switch to cheaper grocery products (28%). companies that have changed their offering to become family- But while they’ll cut back in these areas, other parts of their friendly eateries with an accent on value and healthy food lifestyle will see some rebound. Over 40 percent of US options. Designer-look and family-friendly McCafes from consumers said they’ll be spending on travel and holidays, McDonalds in Europe have been extremely popular during the dining out and out-of-home entertainment according to downturn as families have embraced a low-cost family eating recent survey of 10,000 Nielsen HomescanTM households in option in a modern, family-friendly environment. the USA, a clear indication that while consumers are preparing to loosen their purse-strings in coming months, restraint will be key. The only two Dow Jones In many ways, the recession served to accelerate and intensify companies to grow in 2008 were many of the trends that were emerging before the economic downturn. There has been a decreasing trend for take-away Walmart and McDonalds. And meals, mainly due to growing health and wellness trends, recently Starbucks announced but the cost of take-away meals in developed markets has accelerated this considerably. Among those saying “no” to plans to lower prices on basic take-away meals are Australians, New Zealanders, Japanese, offerings, but raise prices on Irish, South Africans, Brazilians and USA consumers. others. Segmentation is the key to success in this environment. Consumers cut down on out-of-home entertainment significantly more than they predicted 100 90 80 70 66 65 60 61 60 54 % 50 45 40 30 26 19 19 19 20 20 16 10 0 NA MEAP EU LA AP Global Average Source: Nielsen Global Online Consumer Survey March and June 2009 Actions taken in June 09 Actions predicted in March 09 Base : All Respondents those who said yes at Q10 (code 1) n=9947 11
  12. 12. Staying in will continue to be the new ‘going out’, especially Brands, as consumers experience the range and quality on for around one in five Turkish and US consumers. As offer. In these markets, and for these ‘newly trialled’ Retail consumers decreased their out-of-home entertainment Brand categories, consumers may not see reason to switch budgets there has been a welcome return to traditional social back again. In previous downturns, consumers switched to values with an emphasis on family and friends. cheaper products faster and it took a while for them to switch back to branded products. In this environment, leading brand Some FMCG manufacturers have been quick to capitalize on manufacturers need to focus on regaining customer loyalty consumers’ need for reassurance and security in these days, and ensuring growth of their brand equity. with the return of retro-style ads evoking carefree, secure times of childhood. Even when economic conditions improve, A key driver of Retail Brand growth is the amount of more consumers globally say they will continue to cut back innovation and commitment that Retailers are putting on out-of-home entertainment while only six percent will cut behind them, and the range of products available. FMCG back on at-home entertainment. manufacturers have also responded to consumers’ changing needs for extra-value, introducing products focusing on Many Europeans, Americans and Pacific consumers said they convenience, functionality and innovation. For the average will continue to switch to cheaper priced grocery products shopper, there’s never been such a range of choice in terms of – another trend which accelerated during the recession in products and price as there is now. Similarly, with shopping certain markets and grocery categories -- and looks set to habits largely defined by the retail landscape, there has been continue in the post-recession world. Around one in three Kiwi greater acceptance and popularity for shoppers to frequent and US consumers, along with over 20 percent of German, the predominantly Retail Brand supermarkets of Aldi and Lidl. French, UK, Australians, Malaysians and Singaporeans say they In Europe 1500 Aldi and Lidl stores opened between 2006 and will continue to switch to cheaper grocery brands even when 2008 and their expansion continues. economic conditions improve. When it comes to grocery shopping, what people say and what they do isn’t necessarily the same thing. It is true to say that Retail Brands have benefited from the ‘credit crunch’ brought about by the recession. Countries such as the UK, Switzerland and Germany had highly Retail Brand share in Europe: developed Retail Brand 8 years, 7 countries and 1944 categories propositions prior to 37.9% the recession, where 36.7% 37.2% the growth of Retail 35.6% 34.7% Brands had more to do 33.3% with the consolidation 32.1% 31.3% of retail ownership. This gave more Head Office 31.4% buyers the critical 30.1% 30.6% mass required in their 29.3% 28.7% 28.0% categories to make a 27.0% 27.4% Retail Brand financially viable. The recession may well 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 have stimulated a lot more trial – and then Source: The Nielsen Company Value Share Volume Share conversion – to Retail 12
  13. 13. Retail Brands and retailer concentration 50% CH 45% UK 40% 35% Ger Value share of Retail Brands Bel 30% Aut Can Fra 25% Por Ned Spa Den Swe Slo 20% USA NZ Cze Nor Fin Ita Hun Aus 15% Pol Gre 10% Tur 5% Rus 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Retailer Concentration Source: The Nielsen Company 13
  14. 14. Switzerland 46% Argentina 8% UK 44% Chile 7% Germany 32% 32% Spain 29% Columbia Source: The Nielsen Company Source: The Nielsen Company 6% Belgium 28% Mexico Austria 27% 5% Canada 26% Brazil 5% France 26% Retail Brand value share in Europe Netherlands 24% Venezuela 2% Portugal 22% Hong Kong 5% Slovakia 22% 22% Retail Brand value share - a global snapshot Sweden 21% Singapore 3% Denmark 21% Malaysia Finland 19% 2% New Zealand 18% South Korea 2% Czech Rep. 18% USA 17% Taiwan 2% Hungary 17% Thailand Norway 1% 17% Italy Indonesia 1% Australia 14% 14% China Poland 12% 1% Greece 11% Phillippines 1% Turkey 8% Average 14
  15. 15. In the Nielsen Global Online survey, fifteen percent of global consumers said they will spend less on new clothes even when the economy recovers, compared to 37 percent who have cut back on clothes spending during the recession. While the Chinese, Russians, UAE and Indians will be among the first to update their wardrobes in the post-recession world, those pledging to spend considerably less on fashion are Singaporeans, Malaysians, Italians, Turkish, Brazilians and Australians. The Challenge for Marketers in the Post-Recession World Major international FMCG and fashion manufacturers face the same dilemma in the post-recession world – how to convince consumers to switch back to their ‘old’ brands or try new brands when they have experienced and been satisfied with the quality of a lower-priced option they’ve switched to during the recession. This question has played on manufacturers’ minds throughout the recession resulting in an increased focus on product innovation. Nielsen BASES information indicates that over 50 percent of tested products have succeeded with consumers and among forty new products that Nielsen tracked in the USA last year; none were adversely affected by the recession. The economic downturn sowed some ripe seeds for product innovation – marketers know they’re going to need a particularly innovative product that hits all the right spots with consumers to pry them away from their usual brand. Success in the post-recession era is based on achieving the right combination of value, product innovation and competitive differentiation. In addition to product innovation, manufacturers now have to consider the impact of brand values and corporate responsibility on sales. Brand values used to be the domain of the marketer but these days, it has become a purchasing factor. The post-recession consumer has reassessed their lifestyle and has become a more socially aware and ethically- minded buyer. They expect the same values to resonate in the brands they buy and companies they buy from. The successful, post-recession FMCG company will have to be ethically and socially accountable in the way their products are sourced and manufactured, environmentally aware and good corporate citizens in every way. 15
  16. 16. Consumer in the Philippines and China are dedicated to spending on new technology How consumers use spare cash after covering essential living costs - Top #10 spending on new technology products 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 45 43 40 40% 34 34 32 30% 28 27 27 26 20% 10% 0% PH CN BR ID RU IN TR IT UA DE Base : Source: Nielsen Global Online Consumer Survey June 2009 All respondents n = 14029 There’s some bright news for manufacturers of household and white goods in the post recession era – consumers who have delayed purchases of some essential household goods for the past two years are looking to finally replace them. Replacing white goods is one of the few areas where Europeans aren’t willing to cut back on any more in an improved economy – although they’ll still hunt for the best value. In Asia, tech savvy consumers in Japan and Korea aren’t prepared to wait much longer to upgrade their current PC and mobile models. In contrast, ten percent of Chinese said they’re willing to continue to delay their tech purchases. Korea aren’t prepared to wait much longer to upgrade their current PC and mobile models. In contrast, ten percent of Chinese said they’re willing to continue to delay their tech purchases. 16
  17. 17. Country Abbreviations AE United Arab Emirates IT Italy AR Argentina JP Japan AT Austria KO South Korea AU Australia LT Lithuania BE Belgium LV Latvia BR Brazil MX Mexico CA Canada MY Malaysia CH Switzerland NL Netherlands CL Chile NO Norway CN China NZ New Zealand CO Colombia PH Philippines CZ Czech Republic PK Pakistan DE Germany PL Poland DK Denmark PT Portugal EE Estonia RO Romania EG Egypt RU Russia ES Spain SA Saudi Arabia FI Finland SE Sweden FR France SG Singapore GB United Kingdom TH Thailand GR Greece TR Turkey HK Hong Kong TW Taiwan HU Hungary US United States ID Indonesia VE Venezuela IE Ireland VN Vietnam IL Israel ZA South Africa IN India Nielsen Global Online Consumer Survey Nielsen’s Quarterly GlobalOnlineConsumer Survey polled 26, 719 consumers in 53 markets in Europe, Asia Pacific, North The Nielsen Global Online Consumer Survey America and the Middle East from March 19 to April 2, 2009 and polled 14, 029 respondents in 28 markets in Europe, Asia A twice-yearly online study, the Nielsen Online Global Consumer Confidence survey polled 26, 719 consumers in 53 markets in Pacific, Middle East and North America from June 15 to June 29, 2009 about their confidence levels and economic outlook. The Nielsen ConsumerNorth America and the Middle East from consumers’ confidence in the jobtheir confidenceof theirand economic Europe, Asia Pacific, Confidence Index is developed based on March 19 to April 2, 2009 about market, status levels outlook. The Nielsen Consumer Confidence Index is developed based on consumers’ confidence in the job market, status of their personal finances and readiness to spend. personal finances and readiness to spend. The Nielsen Company The Nielsen Company The Nielsen Company is a global information and media company with leading market positions in marketing and consumer The Nielsen Company is a global information and media company with leading market positions in marketing and consumer information, television and other media measurement, online intelligence, mobile measurement, trade shows and business publications (Billboard, The Hollywood Reporter, Adweek). The privately held companymeasurement, trade shows and business information, television and other media measurement, online intelligence, mobile is active in more than 100 counties, with headquarters in New The Hollywood Reporter, Adweek). The privately held company is active in more than 100 countries, with publications (Billboard, York, USA. For more information, please visit, headquarters in New York, USA. For more information, please visit, 11 17