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WHAT IS DIRECTING? DIRECTING is said to be a process in which the managers instruct, guide and oversee the performance of the workers to achieve predetermined goals. Pengarahan adalah proses mempengaruhi orang-orang agar mereka mau berusaha secara antusias untuk mencapai tujuan organisasi atau kelompok. Pengarahan terutama berkaitan dengan aspek antar pribadi.
WHY DIRECTING IS NEEDED? It Initiates Actions It Ingrates Efforts Means of It Provides Coping up with the changes Efficient Utilization of Resources
ELEMENTS IN DIRECTING Motivation Discipline Communication
MOTIVATION Motivation is the word derived from the word ’motive’ which means needs, desires, wants or drives within the individuals. It is the process of stimulating people to actions to accomplish the goals. It is the process of stimulating people to actions to accomplish the goals. In the work goal context the psychological factors stimulating the people’s behaviour can be : desire for money success recognition job-satisfaction team work, etc
IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION Motivation is a very important for an organization because of the following benefits it provides:1. Puts human resources into action2. Improves level of efficiency of employees3. Leads to achievement of organizational goals4. Builds friendly relationship5. Leads to stability of work force
NEED-WANT-SATISFACTION CHAIN Which Which Give Which Give rise to Wants Tension Action Satisfaction cause to rise to Result in NeedsThe process of motivation consists of three stages:-1. A felt need or drive2. A stimulus in which needs have to be aroused3. When needs are satisfied, the satisfaction or accomplishment of goals.
DISCIPLINEMeans: to instruct a person to follow a particular code of conduct or "order.“
WHY DISCIPLINE IS IMPORTANT? Disiplin diperlukan untuk mengarahkan seseorang/karyawan untuk bertindak dengan benar sesuai dengan peraturan yang telah ditetapkan oleh perusahaan. Konsekuensi dari ketidakdisliplinan adalah hukuman. Di Housekeeping pelanggaran-pelanggaran atau ketidakdislipinan yang sering terjadi adalah: Pertengkaran (Quarrel) Tidak patuh pada atasan (Insubordination) Keracunan (Intoxcination) Terlalu banyak izin/terlambat/absen (Excessive unexcused tardiness or absences) Pencurian (Theft) Melanggar aturan (Unlawful)
LANGKAH-LANGKAH UNTUKMENINGKATKAN KEDISLIPINAN1. Spoken Warning/Oral Warning Supervisor/Housekeeper melalukan tindakan peringatan dengan membetulkan kesalahan dari karyawan, secara lisan berusaha membantu, mendorong dan membimbing untuk memperbaiki kesalahannya.2. Written Warning Apabila konseling dan spoken warning dirasakan tidak efektif atau gagal maka langkah berikutnya berupa peringatan secara tertulis dimana semua masalah ditulis dalam form yang disebut employee warning notice dimana tertulis tanggal, waktu dan pelanggaran yang terjadi, rangkap tiga dan harus ditandatangani oleh karyawan yang bersangkutan maupun supervisor. Salah satu tembusannya disimpan pada file karyawan.
3.Suspension Langkah selanjutnya adalah pemberian sangsi yaitu untuk sementara tidak menerima gaji atau upah (ini merupakan pemberian hukuman secara tradisional). Untuk saat sekarang di beberapa organisasi suspension merupakan periode dimana karyawan yang melakukan kesalahan diberi kesempatan untuk di investigasi, setelah selesai biasanya penggajian berlaku kembali seperti semula.
4. Termination Merupakan langkah terakhir dalam proses peningkatan disiplin, langkah ini dipakai apabila langkah-langkah lainnya mengalami kegagalan. Dalam keadaan normal termination harus dilakukan setelah langkah- langkah lain pernah diberlakukan kepada karyawan yang bersangkutan sebelumnya dan biasanya sudah dicatat dalam dokumen karyawan (file) : informal counseling session spoken warning written warning suspension (and investigation) Sebagian besar organisasi tidak dapat segera melakukan termination tanpa melihat pelanggaran yang terjadi, pada umumnya pelanggaran seperti perkelahian, pencurian, pengrusakan barang milik hotel, pelanggaran segi moral (immoral) dan pelanggaran-pelanggaran lainnya. Peraturan hotel (house rules) ada pada buku pegangan (handbook) karyawan dan semua karyawan mengetahui konsekuensinya apabila melakukan pelanggaran terhadap peraturan hotel tersebut.
SAMPLE SET OF HOUSE RULES Strict enforcement of these policies will help protect our employees and ensure that our hotel runs in an efficient manner. Listed below are some of the violations which may result in immediate suspension or termination, at the option of the hotel. Being discourteous. Rude, insubordinate, or using abusive language to a guest or fellow employee. Fighting, stealing, unauthorized possession of hotel property, or gambling on hotel premises. Unauthorized use of alcohol, possession, use, or appearance of being under the influence of alcohol, narcotics, intoxicants, or other substances prohibited by law, or the abuse of medication whether obtained legally or illegally, while on hotel premises. Possession of lethal weapons or other items prohibited by law while on hotel premises. Indecent, immoral, or disorderly conduct in the hotel, including willful destruction of property and failure to follow safety procedures. Falsification of work or time records, reports or guest checks. Being in an unauthorized area of the hotel while working or in a non-public area of the building after hours without prior permission from your department head. Socializing with guests on hotel premises. Removing anything from the hotel without permission. Sleeping while on duty.
COMMUNICATION The process of passing any information from one person to the other person with the aid of some medium. “penyampaian informasi dari pengirim kepada penerima dimana informasi itu dapat dipahami oleh si penerima”. Sender ---------------------------Receiver Information
THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS Feedback TransmissionThought Encording Reception Decording Understanding Of Massage Noise
THE VARIOUS TYPES OFCOMMUNICATION Verbal communication Non verbal communication Visual Communication
THE IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION IN AN ORGANIZATION Communication promotes motivation by informing and clarifying the employees about the task to be done, the manner they are performing the task, and how to improve their performance if it is not up to the mark. Communication is a source of information to the organizational members for decision-making process as it helps identifying and assessing alternative course of actions. Communication also plays a crucial role in altering individual’s attitudes, i.e., a well informed individual will have better attitude than a less-informed individual. Organizational magazines, journals, meetings and various other forms of oral and written communication help in moulding employee’s attitudes. Communication also helps in socializing. In todays life the only presence of another individual fosters communication. It is also said that one cannot survive without communication. As discussed earlier, communication also assists in controlling process. It helps controlling organizational member’s behaviour in various ways. There are various levels of hierarchy and certain principles and guidelines that employees must follow in an organization. They must comply with organizational policies, perform their job role efficiently and communicate any work problem and grievance to their superiors. Thus, communication helps in controlling function of management.
THE COMMUNICATION FLOW IN THEORGANIZATION In an organization, communication flows in 5 main directions Downward Upward Lateral Diagonal External
DOWNWARD FLOW OFCOMMUNICATION Communication that flows from a higher level in an organization to a lower level is a downward communication. In other words, communication from superiors to subordinates in a chain of command is a downward communication. This communication flow is used by the managers to transmit work-related information to the employees at lower levels. Employees require this information for performing their jobs and for meeting the expectations of their managers. Downward communication is used by the managers for the following purposes :1. Providing feedback on employees performance2. Giving job instructions3. Providing a complete understanding of the employees job as well as to communicate them how their job is related to other jobs in the organization.4. Communicating the organizations mission and vision to the employees.5. Highlighting the areas of attention. Organizational publications, circulars, letter to employees, group meetings etc are all examples of downward communication. In order to have effective and error-free downward communication, managers must: Specify communication objective Ensure that the message is accurate, specific and unambiguous. Utilize the best communication technique to convey the message to the receiver in right form
UPWARD FLOW OF COMMUNICATION Communication that flows to a higher level in an organization is called upward communication. It provides feedback on how well the organization is functioning. The subordinates use upward communication to convey their problems and performances to their superiors. The subordinates also use upward communication to tell how well they have understood the downward communication. It can also be used by the employees to share their views and ideas and to participate in the decision-making process. Upward communication leads to a more committed and loyal workforce in an organization because the employees are given a chance to raise and speak dissatisfaction issues to the higher levels. The managers get to know about the employees feelings towards their jobs, peers, supervisor and organization in general. Managers can thus accordingly take actions for improving things. Grievance Redressal System, Complaint and Suggestion Box, Job Satisfaction surveys etc all help in improving upward communication. Other examples of Upward Communication are -performance reports made by low level management for reviewing by higher level management, employee attitude surveys, letters from employees, employee-manager discussions etc.
LATERAL / HORIZONTALCOMMUNICATION Communication that takes place at same levels of hierarchy in an organization is called lateral communication, i.e., communication between peers, between managers at same levels or between any horizontally equivalent organizational member. The advantages of horizontal communication are as follows:1. It is time saving.2. It facilitates co-ordination of the task.3. It facilitates co-operation among team members.4. It provides emotional and social assistance to the organizational members.5. It helps in solving various organizational problems.6. It is a means of information sharing7. It can also be used for resolving conflicts of a department with other department or conflicts within a department.
Diagonal Communication: Communication that takes place between a manager and employees of other workgroups is called diagonal communication. It generally does not appear on organizational chart. For instance :To design a training module a training manager interacts with an Operations personnel to enquire about the way they perform their task. External Communication: Communication that takes place between a manager and external groups such as - suppliers, vendors, banks, financial institutes etc. For instance: To raise capital the Managing director would interact with the Bank Manager.