Directing initiates action and it is from here actual work starts. Direction is said to be consisting of human factors. In simple words, it can be described as providing guidance to workers is doing work. In field of management, direction is said to be all those activities which are designed to encourage the subordinates to work effectively and efficiently. According to Human, “Directing consists of process or technique by which instruction can be issued and operations can be carried out as originally planned” Therefore, Directing is the function of guiding, inspiring, overseeing and instructing people towards accomplishment of organizational goals.Direction has got following characteristics:1.Pervasive Function - Directing is required at all levels of organization. Every manager provides guidance and inspiration to his subordinates.2.Continuous Activity - Direction is a continuous activity as it continuous throughout the life of organization.3.Human Factor - Directing function is related to subordinates and therefore it is related to human factor. Since human factor is complex and behaviour is unpredictable, direction function becomes important.4.Creative Activity - Direction function helps in converting plans into performance. Without this function, people become inactive and physical resources are meaningless.5.Executive Function - Direction function is carried out by all managers and executives at all levels throughout the working of an enterprise, a subordinate receives instructions from his superior only.6.Delegate Function - Direction is supposed to be a function dealing with human beings. Human behaviour is unpredictable by nature and conditioning the people’s behaviour towards the goals of the enterprise is what the executive does in this function. Therefore, it is termed as having delicacy in it to tackle human behaviour.
Directing or Direction function is said to be the heart of management of process and therefore, is the central point around which accomplishment of goals take place. A few philosophers call Direction as “Life spark of an enterprise”. It is also called as on actuating function of management because it is through direction that the operation of an enterprise actually starts. Being the central character of enterprise, it provides many benefits to a concern which are as follows:-1. It Initiates Actions - Directions is the function which is the starting point of the work performance of subordinates. It is from this function the action takes place, subordinates understand their jobs and do according to the instructions laid. Whatever are plans laid, can be implemented only once the actual work starts. It is there that direction becomes beneficial. 2. It Ingrates Efforts - Through direction, the superiors are able to guide, inspire and instruct the subordinates to work. For this, efforts of every individual towards accomplishment of goals are required. It is through direction the efforts of every department can be related and integrated with others. This can be done through persuasive leadership and effective communication. Integration of efforts bring effectiveness and stability in a concern. 3. Means of Motivation - Direction function helps in achievement of goals. A manager makes use of the element of motivation here to improve the performances of subordinates. This can be done by providing incentives or compensation, whether monetary or non - monetary, which serves as a “Morale booster” to the subordinates Motivation is also helpful for the subordinates to give the best of their abilities which ultimately helps in growth. 4. It Provides Stability - Stability and balance in concern becomes very important for long term sun survival in the market. This can be brought upon by the managers with the help of four tools or elements of direction function - judicious blend of persuasive leadership, effective communication, strict supervision and efficient motivation. Stability is very important since that is an index of growth of an enterprise. Therefore a manager can use of all the four traits in him so that performance standards can be maintained. 5. Coping up with the changes - It is a human behaviour that human beings show resistance to change. Adaptability with changing environment helps in sustaining planned growth and becoming a market leader. It is directing function which is of use to meet with changes in environment, both internal as external. Effective communication helps in coping up with the changes. It is the role of manager here to communicate the nature and contents of changes very clearly to the subordinates. This helps in clarifications, easy adaptions and smooth running of an enterprise. For example, if a concern shifts from handlooms to powerlooms, an important change in technique of production takes place. The resulting factors are less of manpower and more of machinery. This can be resisted by the subordinates. The manager here can explain that the change was in the benefit of the subordinates. Through more mechanization, production increases and thereby the profits. Indirectly, the subordinates are benefited out of that in form of higher remuneration. Efficient Utilization of Resources - Direction finance helps in clarifying the role of every subordinate towards his work. The 6. resources can be utilized properly only when less of wastages, duplication of efforts, overlapping of performances, etc. doesn’t take place. Through direction, the role of subordinates become clear as manager makes use of his supervisory, the guidance, the instructions and motivation skill to inspire the subordinates. This helps in maximum possible utilization of resources of men, machine, materials and money which helps in reducing costs and increasing profits. From the above discussion, one can justify that direction, surely, is the heart of management process. Heart plays an important role in a human body as it serves the function pumping blood to all parts of body which makes the parts function. In the similar manner, direction helps the subordinates to perform in best of their abilities and that too in a healthy environment. The manager makes use of the four elements of direction here so that work can be accomplished in a proper and right manner. According to Earnest Dale, “Directing is what has to be done and in what manner through dictating the procedures and policies for accomplishing performance standards”. Therefore, it is rightly said that direction is essence of management process.
Motivation is a very important for an organization because of the following benefits it provides:- Puts human resources into actionEvery concern requires physical, financial and human resources to accomplish the goals. It is through motivation that the human resources can be utilized by making full use of it. This can be done by building willingness in employees to work. This will help the enterprise in securing best possible utilization of resources. Improves level of efficiency of employeesThe level of a subordinate or a employee does not only depend upon his qualifications and abilities. For getting best of his work performance, the gap between ability and willingness has to be filled which helps in improving the level of performance of subordinates. This will result into- Increase in productivity, Reducing cost of operations, and Improving overall efficiency. Leads to achievement of organizational goalsThe goals of an enterprise can be achieved only when the following factors take place :- There is best possible utilization of resources, There is a co-operative work environment, The employees are goal-directed and they act in a purposive manner, Goals can be achieved if co-ordination and co-operation takes place simultaneously which can be effectively done through motivation. Builds friendly relationshipMotivation is an important factor which brings employees satisfaction. This can be done by keeping into mind and framing an incentive plan for the benefit of the employees. This could initiate the following things: Monetary and non-monetary incentives, Promotion opportunities for employees, Disincentives for inefficient employees. In order to build a cordial, friendly atmosphere in a concern, the above steps should be taken by a manager. This would help in: Effective co-operation which brings stability, Industrial dispute and unrest in employees will reduce, The employees will be adaptable to the changes and there will be no resistance to the change, This will help in providing a smooth and sound concern in which individual interests will coincide with the organizational interests, This will result in profit maximization through increased productivity. Leads to stability of work forceStability of workforce is very important from the point of view of reputation and goodwill of a concern. The employees can remain loyal to the enterprise only when they have a feeling of participation in the management. The skills and efficiency of employees will always be of advantage to employees as well as employees. This will lead to a good public image in the market which will attract competent and qualified people into a concern. As it is said, “Old is gold” which suffices with the role of motivation here, the older the people, more the experience and their adjustment into a concern which can be of benefit to the enterprise. From the above discussion, we can say that motivation is an internal feeling which can be understood only by manager since he is in close contact with the employees. Needs, wants and desires are inter-related and they are the driving force to act. These needs can be understood by the manager and he can frame motivation plans accordingly. We can say that motivation therefore is a continuous process since motivation process is based on needs which are unlimited. The process has to be continued throughout.We can summarize by saying that motivation is important both to an individual and a business. Motivation is important to an individual as: Motivation will help him achieve his personal goals. If an individual is motivated, he will have job satisfaction. Motivation will help in self-development of individual. An individual would always gain by working with a dynamic team. Similarly, motivation is important to a business as: The more motivated the employees are, the more empowered the team is. The more is the team work and individual employee contribution, more profitable and successful is the business. During period of amendments, there will be more adaptability and creativity. Motivation will lead to an optimistic and challenging attitude at work place.
Therefore, we can say that motivation is a psychological phenomenon which means needs and wants of the individuals have to be tackled by framing an incentive plan.Given below are important guidelines that outline the basic view of motivation:Harmonize and match the subordinate needs with the organizational needs. As a leader, the executive must ensure that the business has the same morals and ethics that he seeks in his employees. He should make sure that his subordinates are encouraged and trained in a manner that meets the needs of the business. Appreciation and rewards are key motivators that influence a person to achieve a desired goal. Rewarding good/ exceptional behavior with a small token of appreciation, certificate or letter can be a great motivator. If a certificate is awarded to a person, it should mention the particular act or the quality for which the individual is being rewarded. Being a role model is also a key motivator that influences people in reaching their goals. A leader should set a good example to ensure his people to grow and achieve their goals effectively. Encouraging individuals to get involved in planning and important issues resolution procedure not only motivates them, but also teaches the intricacies of these key decision-making factors. Moreover, it will help everyone to get better understanding of their role in the organization. The communication will be unambiguous and will certainly attract acknowledgement and appreciation from the leader. Developing moral and team spirit certainly has a key impact on the well-being of an organization. The metal or emotional state of a person constitutes his or her moral fabric. A leader’s actions and decisions affect the morale of his subordinates. Hence, he should always be aware of his decisions and activities. Team spirit is the soul of the organization. The leader should always make sure his subordinates enjoy performing their duties as a team and make themselves a part of the organization’s plans. A leader should step into the shoes of the subordinates and view things from subordinate’s angle. He should empathize with them during difficult times. Empathizing with their personal problems makes them stronger-mentally and emotionally. A meaningful and challenging job accomplished inculcates a sense of achievement among employees. The executive must make their employees feel they are performing an important work that is necessary for the organization’s well-being and success. This motivational aspect drives them to fulfill goals. Remember, “To become an efficient leader, you must be self-motivated”. You must know your identity, your needs and you must have a strong urge to do anything to achieve your goals. Once you are self-motivated, only then you can motivate others to achieve their goals and to harmonize their personal goals with the common goals of the organization.
The main components of communication process are as follows: Context - Communication is affected by the context in which it takes place. This context may be physical, social, chronological or cultural. Every communication proceeds with context. The sender chooses the message to communicate within a context.Sender / Encoder - Sender / Encoder is a person who sends the message. A sender makes use of symbols (words or graphic or visual aids) to convey the message and produce the required response. For instance - a training manager conducting training for new batch of employees. Sender may be an individual or a group or an organization. The views, background, approach, skills, competencies, and knowledge of the sender have a great impact on the message. The verbal and non verbal symbols chosen are essential in ascertaining interpretation of the message by the recipient in the same terms as intended by the sender.Message - Message is a key idea that the sender wants to communicate. It is a sign that elicits the response of recipient. Communication process begins with deciding about the message to be conveyed. It must be ensured that the main objective of the message is clear.Medium - Medium is a means used to exchange / transmit the message. The sender must choose an appropriate medium for transmitting the message else the message might not be conveyed to the desired recipients. The choice of appropriate medium of communication is essential for making the message effective and correctly interpreted by the recipient. This choice of communication medium varies depending upon the features of communication. For instance - Written medium is chosen when a message has to be conveyed to a small group of people, while an oral medium is chosen when spontaneous feedback is required from the recipient as misunderstandings are cleared then and there.Recipient / Decoder - Recipient / Decoder is a person for whom the message is intended / aimed / targeted. The degree to which the decoder understands the message is dependent upon various factors such as knowledge of recipient, their responsiveness to the message, and the reliance of encoder on decoder.Feedback - Feedback is the main component of communication process as it permits the sender to analyze the efficacy of the message. It helps the sender in confirming the correct interpretation of message by the decoder. Feedback may be verbal (through words) or non-verbal (in form of smiles, sighs, etc.). It may take written form also in form of memos, reports, etc.
WHAT IS DIRECTING? DIRECTING is said to be a process in which the managers instruct, guide and oversee the performance of the workers to achieve predetermined goals. Pengarahan adalah proses mempengaruhi orang-orang agar mereka mau berusaha secara antusias untuk mencapai tujuan organisasi atau kelompok. Pengarahan terutama berkaitan dengan aspek antar pribadi.
WHY DIRECTING IS NEEDED? It Initiates Actions It Ingrates Efforts Means of It Provides Coping up with the changes Efficient Utilization of Resources
ELEMENTS IN DIRECTING Motivation Discipline Communication
MOTIVATION Motivation is the word derived from the word ’motive’ which means needs, desires, wants or drives within the individuals. It is the process of stimulating people to actions to accomplish the goals. It is the process of stimulating people to actions to accomplish the goals. In the work goal context the psychological factors stimulating the people’s behaviour can be : desire for money success recognition job-satisfaction team work, etc
IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION Motivation is a very important for an organization because of the following benefits it provides:1. Puts human resources into action2. Improves level of efficiency of employees3. Leads to achievement of organizational goals4. Builds friendly relationship5. Leads to stability of work force
NEED-WANT-SATISFACTION CHAIN Which Which Give Which Give rise to Wants Tension Action Satisfaction cause to rise to Result in NeedsThe process of motivation consists of three stages:-1. A felt need or drive2. A stimulus in which needs have to be aroused3. When needs are satisfied, the satisfaction or accomplishment of goals.
DISCIPLINEMeans: to instruct a person to follow a particular code of conduct or "order.“
WHY DISCIPLINE IS IMPORTANT? Disiplin diperlukan untuk mengarahkan seseorang/karyawan untuk bertindak dengan benar sesuai dengan peraturan yang telah ditetapkan oleh perusahaan. Konsekuensi dari ketidakdisliplinan adalah hukuman. Di Housekeeping pelanggaran-pelanggaran atau ketidakdislipinan yang sering terjadi adalah: Pertengkaran (Quarrel) Tidak patuh pada atasan (Insubordination) Keracunan (Intoxcination) Terlalu banyak izin/terlambat/absen (Excessive unexcused tardiness or absences) Pencurian (Theft) Melanggar aturan (Unlawful)
LANGKAH-LANGKAH UNTUKMENINGKATKAN KEDISLIPINAN1. Spoken Warning/Oral Warning Supervisor/Housekeeper melalukan tindakan peringatan dengan membetulkan kesalahan dari karyawan, secara lisan berusaha membantu, mendorong dan membimbing untuk memperbaiki kesalahannya.2. Written Warning Apabila konseling dan spoken warning dirasakan tidak efektif atau gagal maka langkah berikutnya berupa peringatan secara tertulis dimana semua masalah ditulis dalam form yang disebut employee warning notice dimana tertulis tanggal, waktu dan pelanggaran yang terjadi, rangkap tiga dan harus ditandatangani oleh karyawan yang bersangkutan maupun supervisor. Salah satu tembusannya disimpan pada file karyawan.
3.Suspension Langkah selanjutnya adalah pemberian sangsi yaitu untuk sementara tidak menerima gaji atau upah (ini merupakan pemberian hukuman secara tradisional). Untuk saat sekarang di beberapa organisasi suspension merupakan periode dimana karyawan yang melakukan kesalahan diberi kesempatan untuk di investigasi, setelah selesai biasanya penggajian berlaku kembali seperti semula.
4. Termination Merupakan langkah terakhir dalam proses peningkatan disiplin, langkah ini dipakai apabila langkah-langkah lainnya mengalami kegagalan. Dalam keadaan normal termination harus dilakukan setelah langkah- langkah lain pernah diberlakukan kepada karyawan yang bersangkutan sebelumnya dan biasanya sudah dicatat dalam dokumen karyawan (file) : informal counseling session spoken warning written warning suspension (and investigation) Sebagian besar organisasi tidak dapat segera melakukan termination tanpa melihat pelanggaran yang terjadi, pada umumnya pelanggaran seperti perkelahian, pencurian, pengrusakan barang milik hotel, pelanggaran segi moral (immoral) dan pelanggaran-pelanggaran lainnya. Peraturan hotel (house rules) ada pada buku pegangan (handbook) karyawan dan semua karyawan mengetahui konsekuensinya apabila melakukan pelanggaran terhadap peraturan hotel tersebut.
SAMPLE SET OF HOUSE RULES Strict enforcement of these policies will help protect our employees and ensure that our hotel runs in an efficient manner. Listed below are some of the violations which may result in immediate suspension or termination, at the option of the hotel. Being discourteous. Rude, insubordinate, or using abusive language to a guest or fellow employee. Fighting, stealing, unauthorized possession of hotel property, or gambling on hotel premises. Unauthorized use of alcohol, possession, use, or appearance of being under the influence of alcohol, narcotics, intoxicants, or other substances prohibited by law, or the abuse of medication whether obtained legally or illegally, while on hotel premises. Possession of lethal weapons or other items prohibited by law while on hotel premises. Indecent, immoral, or disorderly conduct in the hotel, including willful destruction of property and failure to follow safety procedures. Falsification of work or time records, reports or guest checks. Being in an unauthorized area of the hotel while working or in a non-public area of the building after hours without prior permission from your department head. Socializing with guests on hotel premises. Removing anything from the hotel without permission. Sleeping while on duty.
COMMUNICATION The process of passing any information from one person to the other person with the aid of some medium. “penyampaian informasi dari pengirim kepada penerima dimana informasi itu dapat dipahami oleh si penerima”. Sender ---------------------------Receiver Information
THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS Feedback TransmissionThought Encording Reception Decording Understanding Of Massage Noise
THE VARIOUS TYPES OFCOMMUNICATION Verbal communication Non verbal communication Visual Communication
THE IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION IN AN ORGANIZATION Communication promotes motivation by informing and clarifying the employees about the task to be done, the manner they are performing the task, and how to improve their performance if it is not up to the mark. Communication is a source of information to the organizational members for decision-making process as it helps identifying and assessing alternative course of actions. Communication also plays a crucial role in altering individual’s attitudes, i.e., a well informed individual will have better attitude than a less-informed individual. Organizational magazines, journals, meetings and various other forms of oral and written communication help in moulding employee’s attitudes. Communication also helps in socializing. In todays life the only presence of another individual fosters communication. It is also said that one cannot survive without communication. As discussed earlier, communication also assists in controlling process. It helps controlling organizational member’s behaviour in various ways. There are various levels of hierarchy and certain principles and guidelines that employees must follow in an organization. They must comply with organizational policies, perform their job role efficiently and communicate any work problem and grievance to their superiors. Thus, communication helps in controlling function of management.
THE COMMUNICATION FLOW IN THEORGANIZATION In an organization, communication flows in 5 main directions Downward Upward Lateral Diagonal External
DOWNWARD FLOW OFCOMMUNICATION Communication that flows from a higher level in an organization to a lower level is a downward communication. In other words, communication from superiors to subordinates in a chain of command is a downward communication. This communication flow is used by the managers to transmit work-related information to the employees at lower levels. Employees require this information for performing their jobs and for meeting the expectations of their managers. Downward communication is used by the managers for the following purposes :1. Providing feedback on employees performance2. Giving job instructions3. Providing a complete understanding of the employees job as well as to communicate them how their job is related to other jobs in the organization.4. Communicating the organizations mission and vision to the employees.5. Highlighting the areas of attention. Organizational publications, circulars, letter to employees, group meetings etc are all examples of downward communication. In order to have effective and error-free downward communication, managers must: Specify communication objective Ensure that the message is accurate, specific and unambiguous. Utilize the best communication technique to convey the message to the receiver in right form
UPWARD FLOW OF COMMUNICATION Communication that flows to a higher level in an organization is called upward communication. It provides feedback on how well the organization is functioning. The subordinates use upward communication to convey their problems and performances to their superiors. The subordinates also use upward communication to tell how well they have understood the downward communication. It can also be used by the employees to share their views and ideas and to participate in the decision-making process. Upward communication leads to a more committed and loyal workforce in an organization because the employees are given a chance to raise and speak dissatisfaction issues to the higher levels. The managers get to know about the employees feelings towards their jobs, peers, supervisor and organization in general. Managers can thus accordingly take actions for improving things. Grievance Redressal System, Complaint and Suggestion Box, Job Satisfaction surveys etc all help in improving upward communication. Other examples of Upward Communication are -performance reports made by low level management for reviewing by higher level management, employee attitude surveys, letters from employees, employee-manager discussions etc.
LATERAL / HORIZONTALCOMMUNICATION Communication that takes place at same levels of hierarchy in an organization is called lateral communication, i.e., communication between peers, between managers at same levels or between any horizontally equivalent organizational member. The advantages of horizontal communication are as follows:1. It is time saving.2. It facilitates co-ordination of the task.3. It facilitates co-operation among team members.4. It provides emotional and social assistance to the organizational members.5. It helps in solving various organizational problems.6. It is a means of information sharing7. It can also be used for resolving conflicts of a department with other department or conflicts within a department.
Diagonal Communication: Communication that takes place between a manager and employees of other workgroups is called diagonal communication. It generally does not appear on organizational chart. For instance :To design a training module a training manager interacts with an Operations personnel to enquire about the way they perform their task. External Communication: Communication that takes place between a manager and external groups such as - suppliers, vendors, banks, financial institutes etc. For instance: To raise capital the Managing director would interact with the Bank Manager.