Mobiles in Burma (Myanmar)
                Cross-Border Movement Strategies
                Under Authoritarian Regimes


...
This is Burma

                        Population: 60 million
                        Those in Exile: 4 million
          ...
Saffron Revolution
                Mobile phones were used by monks and other citizen
                journalists to send ...
constrained context.
                 OpenNet Initiative, Pulling the Plug: A Technical Review of the Internet Shutdown in...
Burma’s Borders

                       In Burma the cost of a GSM
                       sim card is 2.5 million kyat.
  ...
How information travels
                       Actions are recorded with
                       mobile phones, uploaded to...
Impact of Technology
                       In Thailand, internet access
                       is frequent. There, we fou...
Digital Democracy
                Problem                                Solution                        .
               ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Mobiles In Burma 2008

1,309

Published on

1 Comment
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,309
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
19
Comments
1
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Mobiles In Burma 2008

  1. 1. Mobiles in Burma (Myanmar) Cross-Border Movement Strategies Under Authoritarian Regimes Wednesday, October 15, 2008 1
  2. 2. This is Burma Population: 60 million Those in Exile: 4 million Less than 1% mobile phone market penetration KEY INDICATORS worst best GDP per capita, PPP (constant 2000 international $) ........ 1,446 3.50 Life expectancy at birth (years) ............................................. 61 4.19 Literacy rate (% of people age 15+) ..................................... 90 6.00 Human development index (out of 177)............................... 130 3.52 Rule of law (out of 208) ...................................................... 202 1.87 Voice and accountability (out of 208) .................................. 208 0.69 Digital opportunity index (out of 180) .................................. 176 1.36 Internet users (% of population) ........................................... 0.1 3.07 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Source (by indicator): IMF 2006; World Bank 2006a, 2006a; UNDP 2006; World Bank 2006c, 2006c; ITU 2006, 2004 OpenNet Initiative, Internet Filtering in Burma in 2005: A Country Study, at http://opennet.net/studies/burma/. Wednesday, October 15, 2008 2
  3. 3. Saffron Revolution Mobile phones were used by monks and other citizen journalists to send information to the outside world. Wednesday, October 15, 2008 3
  4. 4. constrained context. OpenNet Initiative, Pulling the Plug: A Technical Review of the Internet Shutdown in Burma, at http://opennet.net/research/bulletins/013. Figure 1. Timeline of Events, Aug. 19, 2007 - Oct. 13, 2007 Text Saffron Revolution Internet in Burma Willfrom Burma are always asking forthat silencing mobiles andand assistance “People governments learn information as well as requesting for help the internet are a necessary step in any crackdown? from [the] outside world but very little of their voices reach the world and most are lost in the endless state of the government vacuum.” — Burmese blogger Wednesday, October 15, 2008 4
  5. 5. Burma’s Borders In Burma the cost of a GSM sim card is 2.5 million kyat. This equals approximately $2000 (17,000 rand) on the black market conversion rate. At the official rate this is approximately $393,400 (3,351,324 rand). Bangladesh Dollars 4.18 Local Currency 250 Rand 31.39 India (Delhi) 7.77 300 54.46 Thailand 6.84 200 50.14 China (Yunnan) 14.6 100 124.4 South Africa 23.48 200 200 Wednesday, October 15, 2008 5
  6. 6. How information travels Actions are recorded with mobile phones, uploaded to flash drives, taken across borders, uploaded to servers, sent to trusted contacts. Is there a better way? Wednesday, October 15, 2008 6
  7. 7. Impact of Technology In Thailand, internet access is frequent. There, we found a correlation between access to internet and self- identification as an activist Since then, internet access has grown, including affordable and reliable GPRS on mobiles Wednesday, October 15, 2008 7
  8. 8. Digital Democracy Problem Solution . Regional instability Cross-border communication World’s longest running civil Networking among war traditionally divided groups Rampant use of child soldiers Providing 21st century education Over 3.5 million internally displaced persons and Connecting refugees with refugees their resettled communities Severe censorship Freedom of information Wednesday, October 15, 2008 8
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×