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  • 1. Suomi Finland
  • 2. Geography
    The northernmost country on the European continent
    Seventh largest country in Europe
    Between Sweden and Russia, also border with Norway
    No high mountains
    Forests and woodland: 76%
    188 000 lakes of over 500 square meters
  • 3. Basics
    population 5 325 208
    17peoplepersquare kilometer
    77 %lives in the provinces of South and West Finland
    Beautiful nature
    Sauna, sisu, Sibelius
    Official languages: Finnish and Swedish
  • 4.
  • 5. History
    The new republic
    Turning towards Western Europe
    Trade withBritain
    Military trained in France
    World War II
    Finland foughtthreewars:
    the Winter War alone against the Soviet Union
    the Continuation War with Nazi Germany against the Soviet Union
    the Lapland War against Germany
  • 6. In World War II, only three European
    capitals were never occupied:
    Moscow, London and Helsinki.
  • 7. History
    Unique position in the Cold War
    the country was heavily influenced by the Soviet Union, but retained democracy and a market economy
    The reparations to the Soviet Union caused Finland to transform itself from a primarily agrarian economy to an industrialised one
  • 8. History
    By 1975 GDP per capita was the 15th highest in the world
    Various industries benefited from trade privileges with the Soviets
    • Early 1990s recession
    -- Miscalculated macroeconomic decisions, a banking crisis, the collapse of a primary trading partner (the Soviet Union) and a global economic downturn
  • 9.
  • 10. EconomyNow
    Services 2/3 of the economy
    Key part of foreigntrade is manufacturing;
    Metal, forest, chemicalproducts
  • 11. EconomyNow
    Main companies
    (a quarter of Finland's exports in 2003)
    (largestpapermanufacturer in the world)
  • 12. EconomyNow
    Exports 2005
    Russia 11,0 %
    Sweden 10,8 %
    Germany 10,6 %
    UK 6,7 %
    USA 5,8 %
    Netherlands 4,8 %
    France 3,4 %
    • Imports 2005
    Germany 14,9 %
    Russia 14,0 %
    Sweden 10,5 %
    China 6,0 %
    UK 4,5 %
    USA 4,2 %
    Netherlands 4,0 %
  • 13. Taxation
    The middle income worker suffers from a nearly 60% tax wedge
    Capital gains tax and corporate tax are 26%, about the EU median
    Those with capital holdings are able to exploit the gap between 60% and 26%  increasing inequality
    Alcoholic beverages are separately taxed and highly restricted
     Much of the taxes are spent on public sector employees, many of which are jobs-for-life and amount to 124,000 state employees and 430,000 municipal employees  sustainable? (Finland’s population only 5,2m)
  • 14. Demographics
  • 15. Demographics
    Foreigners in Finland
  • 16. Employment
    Workforcecurrently67,5% of the population
    Unemploymentrate 7,3% (192 000)
    Unemployedbetweenages 15-24: ~40 000
    Baby boomers (bornafter WWII) willretire in the nextfewyears, whichshouldease the situation
  • 17. GenderEquality
    Finland a pioneer
    In 1906, Finland became the first country in Europe to give women the right to vote in national elections and the first country in the world to give them right to be electoral candidates
    Most women (83%) mainly work full time
    Extensive system of public childcare
    The pay gap between men and women in Finland (20%) is, however, above the OECD average
    The president since 2000 has been a woman
  • 18. Media Usage
    Conclusions: Total timespent on media similaracross
    generationssimilar, buttype of medium useddifferrent
    - e.g. internet vs. radio
  • 19. Internet Usage (2008)
    Daily Internet users 66 % (16-74y)
    70 % read online magazines
    87 % of Internet users used online banking services
    80 % of even the 60-74 age group banked online!
    Young, well-educated persons living in the capital region or large towns most likely to follow politics online
    Elderlyuse Internet but for conveniencereasons, not for entertainment orcommunication. Willtheyfollow the younger in Internet habits?
    2. Young have
    a new way of becomingpolitical: theystillhaveopinions
    but a different forum to express themselvesthanthosepreviousgenerationsareused to.
  • 20. Education
    Egalitarian Nordic system, no tuition fees for full-time students
    However, there are plans to introduce tuition fees to students from outside the European Union
    In the OECD's international assessment of student performance Finland has consistently been among the highest scorers worldwide
    Over 45% of 25-34 year olds have higher education
    - On average, ittakes 13 years for someonewithhighereducation to achieveworker’saveragesalary Is itworthstudying?
    - Toomanyacademicallyeducated?
  • 21. Status Symbols
    Professional competence
    Building yourownwealth
    Good general knowledge, inc. languageskills
    Stablerelationship to closestfamilymembers
     NOTimportant:
    • Leadership
    • 22. Bought beauty (plasticsurgeries, furs etc.)
    • 23. Having a youngerpartner
    • 24. Going to church
  • ”Exceptional” ConsumpitonPatterns
     10 kg per annum per capita consumption level, the highest in the world.
    Ice Cream
    annual ice cream consumption is the highest in Europe: 13.5 litres per capita
    High consumption of strong spirits compared to wine 
     the tendency in Finnish drinking culture to maximiseintoxication.
  • 25. Otherculturalcuriosities
    Tradition of Violence
    Finns have fourth most firearms in the world per capita (right after US, Yemen, Switzerland)
    High level of domestic violence
    Twoschoolshootings in oneyear (’07-’08), 19 killed
    Twice the Western average of manslaughters
    2,000 Finns died of alcohol-related causes in 2005
     Leading cause of death
  • 26. References