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Exploration ofonlinediscussionv4

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  • http://stephenbrookfield.com/papers.html
  • http://www.jiscinfonet.ac.uk/InfoKits/effective-use-of-VLEs/intro-to-VLEs/introtovle-approaches/introtovle-models
  • Transcript

    • 1. Exploration of Online Discussion Mary Loftus
    • 2. What are we going to look at?
      • MSc. in Software & Information Systems
      • The Student Experience
      • Effective Online Discussion
      • The Research Experience
        • Working with Facilitators to explore the Role of Feedback & Expectations
        • The Feedback Tool
      • Using the Literature to Develop a Model for Managing Discussion
        • The Role of Facilitator
        • The Role of Online Student
        • The Learning Model
    • 3. The MSc. SIS Programme
    • 4. MSc. Software & Information Systems
      • 2-year fully online Masters programme
      • Co-created & co-delivered by IT department, NUI Galway and Regis University (USA)
      • MODEL = short, accelerated, 8-week modules
      • Continuous assessment: weekly assignments, discussion forum, final exam
      • Structured & Intensive
    • 5. MSc. Software & Information Systems
      • New programme: launched in 2004-05 (now in its 3 rd year)
      • Student recruitment and retention has been high
      • Mix of experienced and new on-line facilitators
      • Cross-cultural issues (Ireland & USA)
    • 6. MSc. Software & Information Systems
      • Core Modules
      • MCT611 - Computer Architecture and Operating Systems
      • MCT610 - Software Engineering
      • MCT612 - Application Programming
      • MCT613 - Database Architecture
      • MCT614 - Database Concepts
      • MCT615 - Database Administration
      • MCT616 - Oracle 9iAS Portal Server
      • MCT617 - Enterprise Portal Design & Development using XML
      • Elective Modules
      • MCT618 - Object Oriented Design
      • MCT619 - Object Oriented Programming
      • MCT621 - Artificial Intelligence
      • MCT622 - Real-Time Systems
      • MCT623 - Graphics Programming
      • MCT620 - Distributed Systems
    • 7. MScSIS Weekly Cycle
    • 8. Bloom’s Taxonomy
    • 9. The Student Experience
    • 10. The Student Experience
      • Very Powerful Learning Experience
      • Highly Participatory
      • Structured & Managed
      • Student Centred
      • Encourages Student-Student Interaction
      • Role of the Internet
    • 11. Effective Online Discussion
      • When discussion was good it was very, very good!
        • Forced students to absorb course content
        • Facilitated sharing of experience
        • Perspectives from different students forced reconsideration
        • Encouraged students to test & explore course material
        • => Much deeper learning than individual could expect working alone
    • 12.
      • When discussion wasn’t so good we only reached the first of these stages:
        • Forced students to absorb course content
        • Encouraged students to test & explore course material
        • Facilitated sharing of experience
        • Perspectives from different students forced reconsideration
        • => Much deeper learning than individual could expect working alone
      But… it didn’t always work
    • 13. What would ensure that discussion would work better?
      • Feedback from the facilitator to each student?
      • Solution : Design a web based interface to help facilitators evaluate student contributions
    • 14. The Research Experience: Working with Facilitators to explore the Role of Feedback & Expectations
    • 15. Research Project
      • The research project examined feedback as a means to ensure quality discussion
      • Concentrated on Facilitator  Student feedback
      • Designed an online tool to facilitate this feedback process
    • 16. Research Project Process
      • Began with an Online Discussion and a reversal of roles
      • Student became facilitator & Facilitators took the participant role
    • 17. The Facilitator/Student Discussion
      • The Discussion resulted in both sides appreciating the lot of the other!
      • Researcher developed an appreciation for the student-centred learning model
      • Facilitators reflected upon and evaluated their assumptions and approaches
      • It also highlighted the potential for a mismatch in expectations between students and facilitators
    • 18. Discussion – Student Expectations & Issues
      • Expectations
      • Expecting lectures
      • Expecting facilitator to provide ‘the answers’
      • Unsure of norms & expectations
      • Frustrations
      • Focused on the facilitator – rather than peers
      • Seeking reassurance & validation from the facilitator
      • Engaging with content rather than with other students
    • 19.
      • Expectations
      • These are adult learners – no lecturing
      • Encourage students to engage with each other
      • Support students to work together to find and evaluate knowledge
      • Assessment – how to assess discussion
      • Frustrations
      • Students dumping long posts - not responding to others
      • Lack of student-student interaction
      • Facilitators’ feedback seemingly ignored
      Discussion – Facilitator Expectations & Issues
    • 20. What did we learn?
      • Clarify Expectations!
    • 21. The Feedback Tool
    • 22. Built on MScSIS Discussion Rubric
      • Consistency of Participation
      • Content of Posts
      • Responsiveness
      • Multiplier:
        • x .5 for 1 post
        • x .8 for 2 posts
        • x 1 for 3 posts
      • * Rubric developed by MSc SIS Facilitator Team
      • 2
      • 5
      • 3
      • _______
      • 10
      • x .8 (for two posts)
      • Result: 8
    • 23. To Develop The Feedback Tool
      • Enabled Facilitator to Analyse WebCT posts
      • & Immediately assign marks
    • 24. Report generates ‘Discussion Score’
      • All marks are collated and an overall mark calculated
    • 25. Will this Tool address the Issues?
      • The feeling at the end of this project was that no, creating dynamic discussion involves more than a simple feedback mechanism.
      • Such a tool will help clarify expectations and measure outcomes – but it is not enough to power the discussion dynamic
      • Also the analysis of separate student posts will not capture the subtleties of a complete discussion
    • 26. Developing a Model for Online Discussion From the Literature
    • 27. A Discussion Model
      • Feedback is important, but more is involved:
      • Need to Build a Learning Community (Salmon, Palloff & Pratt, Garrison & Anderson)
      • Clarify Values & Expectations (Brookfield & Preskill)
      • The following must be clear & explicit
        • Role of the Facilitator
        • Role of the Online Student
        • The Learning model (Garrison & Anderson)
      • Teach students how discussion should work
    • 28. Role of Facilitator
      • Facilitate a collaborative learning environment:
      • Invite students to Learn from each other
      • Facilitate Social Interaction
      • Align Discussion with Learning Objectives & Assessment Requirements
      • Share & Discuss Assessment Rubric
      • Clarify Background & Objectives for each Discussion
    • 29. Role of Facilitator
      • Model desired Discussion Approach – Open, Enquiring, Testing, Experimenting, Evaluating
      • Provide Structure & Encouragement to fan the flames of Discussion
      • Provide Feedback
      • Acknowledge & Reward Collaborative Effort
      • Summarise the Learning that Emerged from Discussion – and the Evaluate the Process – so Students will be able to Repeat it
    • 30. Role of Online Student
      • How to Explain Discussion to Students
        • Apply ‘real life’ experience to topic
        • Break down the topic
        • Ask Questions
        • Explore & Try Things out
        • Listen to what other students say
        • Build on each other’s Contributions
        • Use a Team Approach
        • Finally Evaluate the topic and your Learning
    • 31. The Learning Model
      • Student Centred
      • Driven by Student Interaction
      • Social Constructivism – knowledge is constructed collectively and developed as a result of a social interaction
      • Ideas should be tried out and tested
      • Explain This To Students!
    • 32. Will this model work for you?
      • Perhaps!
      • But:
        • Every course will have different priorities
        • Every facilitator will have their own style
        • Every set of students will present different dynamics
    • 33. Resources to help Develop your Model for Discussion
    • 34. Brookfield & Preskill
      • Respect
      • Assume good intent
      • Invite students to discuss good discussion
      • Invite Student  Facilitator feedback Critical Incident Questionnaire
      • Promote Critical Thinking
    • 35. Palloff & Pratt
      • Build a Learning Community
      • Promote a Collaborative approach to learning
      • The Group vs. the Individual
      • The process:
        • Set the stage
        • Model the process
        • Guide the process
        • Evaluate the process
    • 36. Garrison & Anderson
      • Build a Community of Inquiry
        • Social Presence
        • Cognitive Presence
        • Teaching Presence
    • 37. Salmon
      • 5 Stage Model
      • Guide Students through:
        • Access & Motivation
        • Online Socialisation
        • Information Exchange
        • Knowledge Construction
        • Development
    • 38. What would your model look like?
    • 39. Summary
      • Effective Online Discussion
      • Expectations
      • Discussion Assessment
      • Model for Managing Online Discussion
        • The Role of Facilitator
        • The Role of Online Student
        • The Learning Model
    • 40. List of references
      • Brookfield & Preskill, Stephen. (2005). Discussion as a Way of Teaching: Tools and Techniques for Democratic Classrooms (2nd Edition). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
      • Palloff & Pratt. (2004). Collaborating Online: Learning Together in Community . San Francisco: Jossey-Bass .
      • Garrison & Anderson. (2003) E-Learning in the 21st Century: A Framework for Research and Practice . RoutledgeFalmer
      • Salmon, Gilly. (2003). E-Moderating: The Key to Teaching and Learning Online (2nd Edition). UK: Taylor & Francis
    • 41. Links to Papers
      • Black, Alison. (2005) The Use of Asynchronous Discussion: Creating a Text of Talk
      • Herring M, (2002) Using Discussion Boards to Integrate Technology into the College Classroom
      • Knowlton. Dave S., (2001) Promoting Durable Knowledge Construction through Online Discussion
      • Rovai , AP (2002) Building Sense of Community at a Distance

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