• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Listening  a skills 11 17
 

Listening a skills 11 17

on

  • 2,679 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
2,679
Views on SlideShare
2,626
Embed Views
53

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
107
Comments
0

2 Embeds 53

http://ucitoeflworkshop.pbworks.com 38
http://www.edmodo.com 15

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Listening  a skills 11 17 Listening a skills 11 17 Presentation Transcript

    • UCI Extension Paper-Based TOEFL Workshop Listening Part A (2) Listening Comprehension Skills 11-17 Longman Preparation Course for the TOEFL Test Tutorial prepared by Marla Yoshida 1
    • The Listening Comprehension Section As you remember, the Listening Comprehension Section of the TOEFL is divided into three parts: Part A: Short conversations (30 dialogs, one question each) Part B: Long conversations (2 conversations, several questions each) Part C: Longer talks (3 talks, several questions each) Let’s look at more strategies for doing well on Part A. 2
    • Language functions Some questions in Part A are about the functions of language— all the different things we can do with words. For example, we can: • Express an opinion • Agree or disagree with someone else’s opinion • Make, accept, and refuse invitations or suggestions • Express certainty, uncertainty, or surprise • And many more useful functions. It’s important to understand the expressions and idioms related to these functions that are often found on the TOEFL. We need to recognize what the speakers are trying to do. Let’s look at some of these expressions. 3
    • Agreement and disagreement Often speakers on the TOEFL agree or disagree with another speaker. These are expressions that show agreement with a positive statement (one that does not have not or ’nt in it): • So do I. So did I. So can I. etc. • I do too. I did too. I can too. etc. • Me too. (This sounds more informal.) For example: (Woman) I think that lecture was really boring. (Man) So do I! It was so dull! 4
    • Agreement and disagreement When we agree with a negative statement (one that uses not or ’nt), we can say: • Neither do I. Neither did I. Neither can I. etc. • I don’t either. I didn’t either. I can’t either. etc. • Me either. (This sounds very informal.) For example: (Woman) I don’t think that homework was difficult. (Man) Neither do I. It was pretty easy. 5
    • Agreement and disagreement We can also use the following idioms and expressions to agree with any statement, positive or negative: • • • • • • • • • I agree. I’ll say! You bet! You can say that again! I’ll second that. Isn’t it? Wasn’t he? Didn’t they? etc. Isn’t it, though? Wasn’t he, though? etc. Who wouldn’t? Who doesn’t? etc. I couldn’t agree with you more. (= I strongly agree.) 6
    • Agreement and disagreement When we disagree with a statement (positive or negative), we can use these expressions. Sometimes the speaker will also begin with “I’m sorry.” • • • • • I disagree. I couldn’t agree with you less. (= I strongly disagree.) That’s not the way I see it. I can’t say I agree. Well, I don’t know about that. For example: (Woman) (Man) I think that lecture was really boring. I couldn’t agree with you less. It was fascinating! 7
    • Showing uncertainty Sometimes the second speaker shows uncertainty about what the first speaker said. Here are some expressions that might be used. • I’m not so sure about that. • As far as I know. As far as I can tell. (This implies that I may not know everything, so maybe I’m wrong.) • …. isn’t it? ….didn’t he? ….won’t they? etc. * For example: (Woman) Didn’t the teacher say our test was next Monday? (Man) I’m not so sure about that. * When the intonation of these tag questions goes up at the end, they express uncertainty—I don’t really know. When the intonation goes down, it shows certainty—I just want you to agree with me. 8
    • Suggestions Some conversations are about making a suggestion. Here are some expressions that you might hear: • • • • • • • • • Why not + VERB? Why don’t we + VERB? Let’s + VERB. Have you ever thought of + VERBing? Do you want to + VERB? You might want to + VERB. You could always + VERB. Maybe you could + VERB. Try + VERBing 9
    • Suggestions To agree with a suggestion, a speaker might use these expressions: • Good idea! That’s an idea. • Sounds good to me. • Why not! (In this case, it’s not really a question.) • By all means. • Why didn’t I think of that? (Again, it’s not really a question.) • That’s worth a try. • Thanks, I’ll give it a try. For example: (Woman) Why don’t we go to Starbucks? (Man) Why not! 10
    • Suggestions To refuse a suggestion, a speaker might use these expressions: • I don’t think/believe so. • I don’t think that will work. • I already thought of that. (This implies that I already tried it and it didn’t work.) • Can I take a rain check? (= Can we do it another time?) • Don’t look at me! (because I’m not going to do it) • No way! (This is much stronger/less polite than the others.) For example: (Woman) Let’s memorize all the words in the dictionary! (Man) I don’t think that will work. …………………….. (Woman) Why don’t we go to Starbucks? (Man) Can I take a rain check? I don’t have time today. 11
    • Emphatic expressions of surprise Sometimes a speaker expresses surprise by emphasizing certain words. In this case, we know that the speaker did not expect something to be true. He/she had assumed that the opposite was true. For example: (Woman) Did you see Paul driving around in his new Prius? (Man) Then he DID get a new car. (Question) What had the man thought? In your test book, you read: (A) Paul would definitely get a Prius. (B) Paul did not know how to drive. (C) Paul’s Prius was in the repair shop. (D) Paul would not get a new car. 12
    • Emphatic expressions of surprise We know that answer (D) is correct. The man was surprised that Paul had been driving a new Prius, so he must have assumed that he didn’t have one. (Woman) Did you see Paul driving around in his new Prius? (Man) Then he DID get a new car. (Question) What had the man thought? In your test book, you read: (A) Paul would definitely get a Prius. (B) Paul did not know how to drive. (C) Paul’s Prius was in the repair shop. (D) Paul would not get a new car.  13
    • Emphatic expressions of surprise We can use emphatic stress to show surprise. If the sentence has a be verb or a helping verb (a modal, be, have, etc.), we emphasize that. It becomes louder, longer, and higher in pitch. Often the emphatic sentence begins with then or so. The children are awake. (Ordinary sentence. No surprise.) So the children ARE awake. (Surprise! I thought they were asleep.) You’ve finished your work. (Ordinary sentence. No surprise.) Then you HAVE finished your work. (I thought you hadn’t finished.) (In an emphatic sentence, we don’t use a contraction.) Dogs can swim. (Ordinary sentence with a modal. No surprise.) So dogs CAN swim. (I thought they couldn’t. I’m surprised.) 14
    • Emphatic expressions of surprise If the sentence has just an ordinary verb with no be verb or helping verb, we add do, does, or did and emphasize it: You play tennis. (Ordinary present tense sentence. No surprise.) Then you DO play tennis. (I’m surprised! I thought you didn’t.) Sacramento is the capital of California. (Ordinary sentence.) So Sacramento IS the capital of California. (I’m surprised. I could have sworn it was Los Angeles.) Emily won the contest. (Ordinary past tense sentence. No surprise.) Emily DID win the contest. (I’m surprised! I thought she didn’t.) 15
    • Wishes In Part A, speakers sometimes say, “I wish…” This implies that the wish is impossible. If I say “I wish I could swim,” it implies that I can’t swim. (Wish is different than hope. Wishes are not true. Hopes might still come true.) (Woman) It’s too bad you have to stay here and work. (Man) Yes, I really wish I could go with you to the concert. (Question) What does the man mean? In your test book, you read: (A) Maybe he will go with the woman to the concert. (B) He is unable to go to the concert. (C) He’s happy to be going to the concert. (D) He’s going to the concert, but not with the woman. 16
    • Wishes Answer (B) is correct. If the man wishes he could go, it implies that he can’t go. (Woman) It’s too bad you have to stay here and work. (Man) Yes, I really wish I could go with you to the concert. (Question) What does the man mean? In your test book, you read: (A) Maybe he will go with the woman to the concert. (B) He is unable to go to the concert.  (C) He’s happy to be going to the concert. (D) He’s going to the concert, but not with the woman. 17
    • More information about wishes An affirmative wish implies a negative reality. I wish I had time to help.  I don’t have time to help. I wish I were good at math.  I’m not good at math. I wish I had finished my work.  I didn’t finish my work. A negative wish implies an affirmative reality. I wish I didn’t have to do this.  I have to do this. I wish I weren’t late.  I’m late. I wish I hadn’t forgotten my purse.  I forgot my purse. 18
    • More information about wishes A wish with a past tense verb is talking about the present. I wish I had time to help.  I don’t have time to help now. I wish I were good at math.  I’m not good at math now. I wish I didn’t have to do this.  I have to do this now. I wish I weren’t late.  I’m late now. A wish with a past perfect tense verb is talking about the past. I wish I had finished it.  I didn’t finish it in the past. I wish I had been on time.  I wasn’t on time in the past. I wish I hadn’t forgotten it.  I forgot it in the past. I wish I hadn’t eaten that bug.  I ate a bug in the past. Yuck. 19
    • Untrue conditions Conditional sentences are something like wishes. In unreal conditional sentences, the implication is that the opposite of the condition is true. (Man) Do you think you’ll be able to go to the party? (Woman) If I had time, I would go. (Question) What does the woman say about the party? In your test book, you read: (A) Maybe she’ll go. (B) She has time, so she’ll go. (C) She is going even if she doesn’t have time. (D) It’s impossible for her to go. 20
    • Untrue conditions Answer (D) is correct. “If I had time” implies that the woman does not have time, so she won’t go to the party. (This is different than “If I have time, I’ll go.” In that case, she might have time, and she might go.) (Man) Do you think you’ll be able to go to the party? (Woman) If I had time, I would go. (Question) What does the woman say about the party? In your test book, you read: (A) Maybe she’ll go. (B) She has time, so she’ll go. (C) She is going even if she doesn’t have time. (D) It’s impossible for her to go.  21
    • More information about untrue conditions An affirmative unreal condition implies a negative reality. If she were at home, she could help us.  She’s not at home, and she can’t help us. I would have helped you if I’d know you needed me.  I didn’t help you, and I didn’t know you needed me. A negative unreal condition implies an affirmative reality. We could invite him if he didn’t have class today.  We can’t invite him because he has class today. If we hadn’t gotten lost, we would have been here earlier.  We got lost, so we weren’t here earlier. 22
    • More information about untrue conditions An unreal condition with a past tense verb is talking about something that’s not true in the present. If she were at home, she could help us.  She’s not at home now, and she can’t help us now. We could invite him if he didn’t have class today.  We can’t invite him now because he has class today (now). An unreal condition with a past perfect tense verb is talking about something that wasn’t true in the past. I would have helped you if I’d know you needed me.  I didn’t help you, and I didn’t know you needed me (past). If we hadn’t gotten lost, we would have been here earlier.  We got lost, so we weren’t here earlier (past). 23
    • More information about untrue conditions In untrue conditions, we use were instead of was. Using were in this way is more common in American English than in British English. (In casual speaking, Americans also often say “If I was…,” but not on the TOEFL.) If I were you, I would study harder. If she were at home, she could help us. Sometimes we make conditional sentences without if. Then we invert the subject and verb in the conditional clause. Had I known you needed help, I would have been there. ( = If I had known you needed help…) Had they had time, they would have gone to Disneyland. ( = If they had had time…) 24
    • Phrasal verbs and idioms Many questions in Part A contain phrasal verbs (two- or three-part verbs, like get up, call off, or put up with). For example: (Man) What time does the meeting start? (Woman) Didn’t you hear that it was called off by the director? (Question) What does the woman say about the meeting? In your test book, you read: (A) The director called a meeting. (B) The director phoned her about the meeting. (C) The director called the meeting to order. (D) The director canceled the meeting. 25
    • Phrasal verbs and idioms The correct answer is (D) because call off means cancel. The wrong answers try to fool us with other meanings of call. (Man) What time does the meeting start? (Woman) Didn’t you hear that it was called off by the director? (Question) What does the woman say about the meeting? In your test book, you read: (A) The director called a meeting. (B) The director phoned her about the meeting. (C) The director called the meeting to order. (D) The director canceled the meeting.  26
    • Phrasal verbs and idioms Other questions contain idioms whose meaning is hard to predict (like a piece of cake, which means it’s easy.) We can’t predict that just by knowing the meanings of piece and cake. For example: (Man) I have to take Advanced Biology next semester. (Woman) Don’t worry about it. It’s a piece of cake. (Question) What does the woman mean? In your test book, you read: (A) The man should eat a piece of cake. (B) The man should worry about the course. (C) The man shouldn’t take part in the course. (D) The course is easy. 27
    • Phrasal verbs and idioms As long as we know that a piece of cake means it’s easy, we know that the correct answer is (D). Even if we didn’t know this idiom, we could guess that (A) is incorrect because it has nothing to do with a biology class. It’s obviously a trick answer. (Man) I have to take Advanced Biology next semester. (Woman) Don’t worry about it. It’s a piece of cake. (Question) What does the woman mean? In your test book, you read: (A) The man should eat a piece of cake. (B) The man should worry about the course. (C) The man shouldn’t take part in the course. (D) The course is easy.  28
    • Phrasal verbs and idioms It’s helpful to memorize the meanings of phrasal verbs and idioms. There are lists of phrasal verbs and common idioms in the back of our textbook. There are also many books and websites with lists of idioms. Try these: Activities for ESL: http://a4esl.org/q/h/idioms.html Dave’s ESL Café: http://www.eslcafe.com/idioms/ Video clips using idioms: http://www.22frames.com/idiomlist.aspx 29
    • Summary In this section, you have learned these strategies for the Listening Comprehension Section, Part A: • Be aware of language functions: What are the speakers doing with language? • Wishes: If we wish something, the opposite is actually true. • Untrue conditions: If we use “if” with an untrue condition, the opposite is actually true. • Learn the meanings of as many phrasal verbs and idioms as you can. 30