Toefl skills 6 8 more than one clause


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Toefl skills 6 8 more than one clause

  1. 1. 1<br />UCI ExtensionPaper-Based TOEFL WorkshopSentences with More Than One Clause<br />Structure and Written Expression Skills 6-8<br />Longman Preparation Course for the TOEFL Test<br />Tutorial prepared by Marla Yoshida<br />
  2. 2. 2<br />Review: What is a clause?<br /><ul><li>A clause is a group of words that has a subject and a verb.
  3. 3. Every sentence has at least one clause. Some have more.
  4. 4. These sentences have one clause:</li></ul>[Kittensare cute.]<br />[The studentshave been studying in the library.]<br /><ul><li>These sentences have more than one clause:</li></ul>[Kittensare cute,] [but spidersaren’t.] (2 clauses)<br />[The students[whohave been studying]are tired] [because studyingis hard work.] (3 clauses)<br />Now let’s look at several different ways to join two clauses.<br />
  5. 5. 3<br />Coordinate connectors (conjunctions)<br /><ul><li>One way to join two clauses is by using acoordinate connector(also called a coordinating conjunction).
  6. 6. You can remember these connectors by thinking of the word FANBOYS. (Their first letters spell out this word.)</li></ul>For* We will remember you, for you have helped us greatly.<br />And The sun is shining, and the birds are singing.<br />Nor* He never smiled, nor did he laugh. <br />But I was looking for my book, but I couldn’t find it.<br />Or Did you do your homework, or did you forget?<br />Yet You look familiar, yet I can’t remember your name.<br />So I don’t have any money, so I can’t buy anything.<br />*For sounds rather formal or poetic. In everyday speech, we don’t use it often as a coordinate connector. (Of course, we often us it as a preposition: This is for you.)<br />*Notice the inverted order of subject and verb in a clause that begins withnor.<br />
  7. 7. 4<br />commas<br />Coordinate connectors (conjunctions)<br /><ul><li>When you join two sentences with a coordinate connector, put a comma after the first clause, before the connector. </li></ul>[It’s chilly today] , [so I’ll wear a jacket].<br />[The boy was tired ] , [but he had fun].<br /><ul><li>With coordinate connectors, you can’t move the second clause to the beginning of the sentence:</li></ul>[It’s chilly today ] , [so I’ll wear a jacket]. OK<br />[So I’ll wear a jacket] , [it’s chilly today]. No!<br />
  8. 8. 5<br />Subordinating conjunctions<br /><ul><li>We can also join two clauses by using a subordinating conjunction, such as after, because, if,although, and many others. For example:</li></ul>I’ll do my homework after I watch TV.<br />No, you need to do your homework before you watch TV.<br />Whenever I do my homework, I watch TV.<br />If you watch TV, you won’t be able to concentrate.<br />I can concentrate even though I’m watching TV!<br />Unless you turn off the TV, you’ll get a bad grade on your test because you won’t remember anything.<br />OK. I’ll turn off the TV since you think it’s important.<br />Good. Now that you’ve turned off the TV, you’ll be able to study. <br />
  9. 9. 6<br />Subordinating conjunctions<br /><ul><li>A clause that begins with a word like before, after, or because is called an adverb clause.It often answers one of these questions: When? Why? How? Where?
  10. 10. Adverb clauses are also subordinate clauses.* An adverb clause cannot be a sentence by itself. It needs an independent clause to go along with it to be a complete sentence.</li></ul>[I’m going to take a break] [because I’ve been studying hard.]<br />[Because I’ve been studying hard.]<br />*There are also other kinds of subordinate clauses: adjective clauses, noun clauses, etc.<br />Independent clause + Dependent clause = Complete sentence<br />Just a dependent clause = Not a complete sentence<br />
  11. 11. 7<br />Subordinating conjunctions<br /><ul><li>Subordinating conjunctions can have several types of meanings:
  12. 12. Time
  13. 13. Cause</li></li></ul><li>8<br />Subordinating conjunctions<br /><ul><li>Condition
  14. 14. Contrast
  15. 15. Manner
  16. 16. Place</li></li></ul><li>9<br />Subordinating conjunctions<br /><ul><li>A few conjunctions can be used with more than one meaning:</li></ul>Since I’m here, I might as well help you. (Cause)<br />Since I was ten years old, I’ve enjoyed soccer. (Time)<br />As I told you before, soccer is fun. (Manner)<br />As I was going home, I saw my friend. (Time) <br />
  17. 17. 10<br />Subordinating conjunctions<br /><ul><li>With subordinating conjunctions, you can move the subordinate clause to the beginning of the sentence:</li></ul>[I’ll wear a jacket] [because it’s cold]. OK<br />[Because it’s cold] , [I’ll wear a jacket]. OK<br />[I get sleepy] [whenever I listen to music]. OK<br />[Whenever I listen to music] , [I get sleepy]. OK<br />[I’d buy a new car] [if I were rich]. OK<br />[If I were rich] , [I’d buy a new car]. OK<br />
  18. 18. 11<br />Subordinating conjunctions<br /><ul><li>Punctuation: If the independent clause comes first, don’t use a comma between the clauses.</li></ul>[I’ll wear a jacket] [because it’s cold]. <br />[I’d buy a new car] [if I were rich]. <br /><ul><li>If the dependent clause comes first, put a comma between the clauses:</li></ul>[Because it’s cold] , [I’ll wear a jacket]. <br />[If I were rich] , [I’d buy a new car]. <br />no commas<br />commas<br />
  19. 19. 12<br />Conjunctive adverbs<br /><ul><li>We can also join two clauses with a conjunctive adverb. These are words like however, therefore, or consequently. These words are sometimes called transitions. For example:</li></ul>Bob says he speaks ten languages; however, I don’t believe him.<br />Bob says he speaks ten languages. However, I don’t believe him.<br />Homework is important; therefore, I’ll do it carefully.<br />Homework is important. Therefore, I’ll do it carefully.<br />The bus was late; consequently, I was late for class.<br />The bus was late. Consequently, I was late for class.<br />
  20. 20. 13<br />Conjunctive adverbs<br /><ul><li>Here are some common conjunctive adverbs:</li></li></ul><li>14<br />Conjunctive adverbs<br /><ul><li>A conjunctive adverb goes between the two clauses it connects.</li></ul>Homework is important; therefore, I’ll do it carefully. OK<br />Therefore, I’ll do it carefully; homework is important. No!<br /><ul><li>Think about the meaning of the conjunctive adverb and make sure you attach it to the right clause. It has to make sense.</li></ul>It’s raining; therefore, I’ll take an umbrella. <br />This makes sense, and the grammar is correct too.<br />I’ll take an umbrella; therefore, it’s raining. <br />The grammar is fine, but this doesn’t make sense. The umbrella didn’t cause the rain.<br />
  21. 21. 15<br />Conjunctive adverbs<br /><ul><li>Punctuation: Threre are three possibilities:
  22. 22. Put a semicolon after the first clause and a comma after the conjunctive adverb:</li></ul>Bob says he’s a millionaire; however, I don’t believe him.<br />Or you can put a period after the first clause and a comma after the conjuctive adverb:<br />Bob says he’s a millionaire. However, I don’t believe him.<br /><ul><li>Sometimes a conjunctive adverb comes in the middle of a clause. Then it has commas before and after it.</li></ul>Bob says he’s a millionaire. I, however, don’t believe him.<br />The cost of gas has increased. Many drivers, therefore, will use their cars less often.<br />semicolon comma<br />period capital letter comma<br />commas<br />
  23. 23. 16<br />Summary<br />In this section, you have learned how to make these kinds of clauses:<br /><ul><li>Two clauses joined by a coordinate connector
  24. 24. Adverb clauses with subordinating conjunctions
  25. 25. Clauses joined by conjunctive adverbs</li>