Skills 30 36 verbs

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Skills 30 36 verbs

  1. 1. UCI Extension Paper-Based TOEFL Workshop Verbs Structure and Written Expression Skills 30-36 Longman Preparation Course for the TOEFL Test Tutorial prepared by Marla Yoshida 1
  2. 2. Forms of verbs • Every verb can have several different forms. In grammar books, we often see lists of irregular verbs that include these three forms: base form, past form, and past participle. (For example, go went gone, come came come, eat ate eaten, or walk walked walked. • The base form can also be called the plain form or the present form. • For regular verbs, the past and past participle forms add –ed to the verb. However, there are many irregular verbs whose forms are hard to predict. We just have to memorize those. • Verbs also have a present participle form that ends in –ing (going, coming, eating). 2
  3. 3. Forms of verbs • For example, here are the main forms of a few verbs: Base form Past Past Participle Present Participle Regular: walk love rob explain walked loved robbed explained walked loved robbed explained walking loving robbing explaining Irregular: be have do sing cut was, were had did sang cut been had done sung cut being having doing singing cutting 3
  4. 4. Verb tenses • We can combine these forms with helping verbs like be and have to make all the verb tenses of English. Here are the verb tenses related to present time: Verb Tense Simple present Present progressive (present continuous) Present perfect Present perfect progressive (present perfect continuous) Example Meaning* I often walk to school. He often walks to school. I am walking now. He is walking now. A habitual or repeating action. A current action. An action that began in the I have already walked five past but continues to be miles. true. A past action He has already walked five (indefinite time) that could miles. happen again.) An action that began in the I have been walking for an past but is continuing now hour. He has been walking (with emphasis on the fact for an hour. that it is still happening. * Explanations of meanings are from Keys to Teaching Grammar to English Language Learners by Keith S. Folse. University of Michigan Press, 2009. 4
  5. 5. Verb tenses • Here are the verb tenses related to past time: Verb Tense Simple past Past progressive (past continuous) Past perfect Past perfect progressive (past perfect continuous) Example I walked to school yesterday. He walked to school yesterday. While I was walking to school, I stopped at Starbucks. I had walked to school many times before I bought a car. I had been walking for two hours by the time I stopped. Meaning* A single past event. A past action that was happening (when it was interrupted by another). A past action that was completed before a second past action. An action that began in the past before a second past action (with emphasis on the duration of the action). 5
  6. 6. Verb tenses • Here are the verb tenses related to future time: Verb Tense Example Future with be going to I am going to walk soon. He is going to walk soon. Future with will Future progressive (future continuous) Future perfect Future perfect progressive (future perfect continuous) Meaning* An event in the future, especially one already planned. An event in the future, I will walk tomorrow. especially one that is I’ll walk with you if you want scheduled or expresses me to. strong desire to do something. I will be walking at 10:00 An action that will be taking tonight. place at some point in the He will be walking too. future. By the time I graduate, I An action that will be will have read 100 finished by a specified time textbooks. in the future. How long an action has By the time I get to school, been happening at a future I will have been walking for point; focus is on the an hour. duration. 6
  7. 7. Things to watch out for: Have as a helping verb • With the helping verb have or one of its forms (have, has, had, having), use a past participle to form one of the perfect tenses. We have finished our homework already. Had he heard that song before? I don’t remember having heard that song. • Be careful not to make mistakes like these: We have finishing our homework already. Have you saw that movie? The students begun to study. Tom might have finish his homework. 7
  8. 8. Things to watch out for: Be as a helping verb • With the helping verb be or one of its forms (am, is, are, was, were, be, been, being), use a present participle to form one of the progressive tenses: We are watching a movie right now. Were you studying in the library all day yesterday? • Or use a past participle to form the passive voice: These pictures were drawn by Mrs. Smith’s students. Nobody enjoys being laughed at. • Be careful not to make mistakes like these: Everyone listening to music. The soccer players were play all afternoon. My hamburger was ate by my dog. The dog is scolds by its owner. 8
  9. 9. Things to watch out for: Modals • These words are called modals. They’re a kind of helping verb. can could will would shall should may might must had better • Modals do not add –s when the subject is he, she, or it. We might go to the beach tomorrow. Tom might go to the beach. He might go to the beach. • After modals, use the base form of the verb. Most soccer players can run very fast. You’d better learn those irregular verb forms. • Be careful not to make mistakes like these: I might to buy a new car sometime soon. That composer cans write beautiful music. That composer can writes beautiful music. 9
  10. 10. Things to watch out for: Mixing verb tenses • Make sure the verb tense matches the meaning. Don’t change tenses without a reason. • If you see a sentence that has both present and past tense verbs, it might be a mistake, like these: When I visited Las Vegas, I see a show. • In this sentence, it would be better to use all past or all present: When I visited Las Vegas, I saw a show. (in the past) OR When I visit Las Vegas, I see a show. (every time) • Sometimes it’s OK to mix verb tenses, if that fits the meaning of the sentence. I did my homework yesterday, so now I have free time. Everyone is talking about what they did yesterday. 10
  11. 11. Things to watch out for: Present & past perfect • The present perfect tense is formed with have + past participle. It often describes events that started in the past and last until now. Bob has studied French for four years (until now). • The past perfect tense is formed with had + past participle. It describes events that happened before another event in the past. Bob had studied French for four years (before he stopped). • Be sure to use the correct tense to fit the meaning. Some combinations don’t work together: Bob had studied French before he decides to stop. (Past perfect and present don’t usually go together.) Bob has studied French for four years until he stopped. (Present perfect and past don’t usually go together.) 11
  12. 12. Things to watch out for: Time expressions • Some time expressions are usually used with particular tenses. Even though these rules don’t work 100% in real life, they are commonly followed on the TOEFL. Simple Past (two years) ago last (year) in (1920) Present Perfect or Pres. Perf. Progressive since (1920) by now lately recently for (ten years) Past Perfect or Past Perf. Progressive by (1920) (time in the past) by the time + past for (ten years, ending in the past) Bob studied French last year. Bob has studied French for four years (until now). I’ve been studying a lot lately. By last night, I had already studied three chapters. Bob had lived in Ohio for a year before he moved here. 12
  13. 13. Things to watch out for: Time expressions • Be especially careful not to use the present perfect tense when a specific time is indicated: They have visited Disneyland last Saturday. I have lived in Tokyo in 1978. 13
  14. 14. Things to watch out for: Verbs in noun clauses • Sentences with verbs like say, tell, believe, and know, or with expressions like It is certain that…, It is obvious that… are often followed by noun clauses. We all know [that we need to study]. (now) We all know [that we will need to study]. (in the future) We all knew [that we needed to study]. (in the past) It was obvious [that he hadn’t gotten enough sleep]. It was obvious [that he would have to get more sleep]. • The tense in the noun clause depends on two things: 1. Whether the action in the noun clause happened before, during, or after the action in the main clause and… 2. The tense in the main clause. 14
  15. 15. Things to watch out for: Verbs in noun clauses Main clause Noun clause time time Noun clause tense Example Present Before main clause Same as main clause After main clause Past Present Will + VERB I know that yesterday was Friday. I know that today is Saturday. I know that tomorrow will be Sunday. Past Before main clause Same as main clause After main clause Past perfect Past Would + VERB I knew that Tom had gone home. I knew that Tom was still there. I knew that Tom would go home soon. • Don’t use will in a noun clause when the main verb is past: We all thought [that the party will be a lot of fun]. • Don’t use would in a noun clause when the main verb is present: We all think [that the party would be a lot of fun]. 15
  16. 16. Summary In this section, you have learned about these things: • Verbs have several different forms. • Verbs can be used in many different tenses. • It’s important to form verb tenses correctly and to use them with appropriate time expressions. 16

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