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©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SAScaling up globally:30 years of FOSS4G developmentKeynoteMarkus NetelerFondazione Edmund MachRe...
©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SAImg. courtesy: J Westervelt 2006:Early GRASS Community Views on FOSSTHE 80s … the beginning
©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SATHE 80s ...1980 – LAGRID – J. Westervelt masters thesis:GIS software, developed on a mainframe ...
©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SABoolean combination - gridcell and polygonWeighted overlay - gridcell and polygon (reworked lat...
©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SATHE 80s ...1984 – GRASS running on SUN-1 and Masscomp1985 – GRASS 1.0, GRASSnet established(pre...
©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SATHE 80s ...1989 – GRASS 3.1First release available on Internet(uxc.cso.uiuc.edu)But how was sof...
©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SATHE 90s … visualizationand analysisSource:http://skagit.meas.ncsu.edu/~helena/gmslab/gsoils/viz...
©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SATHE 90s ...1990 – GRASS 4.0Letter-dot format adopted for commands (e.g. d.rast and g.region)199...
©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SATHE 90s ...1992 – New graphics technology became available: openGLSoftware distribution:“Moon“ ...
©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SATHE 90s ...ORGANIZATIONS1992GRASS Inter-Agency Coordinating Committee→ Open GRASS Foundation (O...
©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SATHE 90s ...http://grass.osgeo.org/home/history/documents/
©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SASource:http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/8552410.stmTHE 90s …Internet growth as a crucialpr...
©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SADo you remember:30 slackware disks downloaded,but unfortunately in FTP ASCIImode (7 bit, not 8)...
©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SATHE 90s ...An interactive GIS via WWW, perhaps the first “Web Processing“service...1994-1998 – ...
©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SATHE 90s ...GRASSLinks
©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SATHE 90s ...Internet, its tools and geeks spreading!1996 – GeoTools project started1998 – deegre...
©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SASince 2000...May the FOSS be with you
©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SA2001 – OSSIM initial revision in CVSPostGIS startedGeoNetwork opensource startedGeoServer start...
©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SASince 2000...growing communitiesChulalongkorn University,Bangkok 2004:FOSS4G is born!Jim Wester...
©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SASince 2000...growing communitiesQGIS Hackfest Pisa 2010Mapbendercode sprint 2007FOSS4G Conferen...
©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SACommunity sprints, even more...
©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SACommunicationFlow of bug reporting and solution:2. Developerdetects bug 60%20%20%(Percentages a...
©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SAOrganization of distributed source codemanagement: “Code habitats”Two main types of developers ...
©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SAOrganization of distributed source codemanagement: “Code habitats”http://www.youtube.com/watch?...
©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SACode vettingLegal aspectsLicense compliance (e.g., GPL)No code copying from books like “Numeric...
©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SASince 2010...Source: Blog of Arnulf Christl
©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SAEmergency supportHaiti, January 2010:7.0 magnitude earthquakeAvailable Geodata:almost absentSee...
©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SAA few days later ..:international crowd mappingSee also:http://hot.openstreetmap.org/projects/h...
©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SANew: Crowdfunding of development
©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SANew cool stuff: plotting GIS dataFromRadartovoxelsto3D plots
©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SANew cool stuff:massive data processing● Since 2005 GRASS GIS is running natively on 64bit CPUs●...
©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SAMassive data processing:also for youhttps://plus.google.com/u/0/communities/1111477866746875624...
©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SAMarkus NetelerFondazione E. Mach (FEM)Centro Ricerca e InnovazioneGIS and Remote Sensing Unit38...
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Scaling up globally: 30 years of FOSS4G development. Keynote at FOSS4G-CEE 2013, Romania

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In my presentation I briefly review 3 decades of Open Source GIS development, from the 80th to the present.

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  • Good afternoon and welcome to my talk with the bold title „ Scaling up globally: 30 years of FOSS4G development“ I am very happy to be here, and would like to thank the organizers for the kind invitation. In my presentation I'll briefly review 3 decades of Open Source GIS development, compressed to 30 minutes! Hence, omissions are unavoidable. BTW: The term FOSS4G was coined only in 2004 but I use it in the title as an hommage to the community and its ideals. So, let's now look back 30 years – back to the 80 th ...
  • Well... what's this? Do you recognise it?
  • Hence we start in 1980: A student named Jim Westervelt was completing his Master thesis. He wrote the LAGRID software which became the core of the later GRASS GIS software. In the early 1980s the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (USA/CERL) in Champaign, Illinois, began to explore the possibilities of using GIS to conduct environmental research, assessments, monitoring and management of lands under the stewardship of the U.S. Department of Defense. Bill Goran of CERL conducted a survey and discovered that no existing GIS satisfied their needs. Hence CERL hired several programmers, and began to develop a hybrid raster-vector GIS for the VAX UNIX minicomputers (photo) . Lynn Van Warren was the founding software architect of GRASS. Very important: PROJ (today PROJ.4) – the Cartographic Projections Library essential for many projects, was started in 1983 by Gerald Evenden
  • CERL then upgraded their machines to the latest technology, see what you could get for 33,000 USD.... e.g. including a 80MB disks for 6500 USD. Around 1984 new analytical functionality was available, some command names at least the GRASS users in this room will be familiar with :-) Please note that it took still another almost 10 years to have the World Wide Web being invented...
  • In the corner photo you see what data exchange meant in those days. Landsat 5 was launched in 1984, GRASS 1.0 was released a year later. Of huge importance for the Free Software development was the publication of the GNU manifesto by Richard Stallman (the “four freedoms” were defined). In 1987 a GRASS video was produced with William Shatner, known as Captain Kirk of Star Trek, being the speaker. And 5.25 inch floppies were becoming fashion in these days for tiny data sets!
  • And then finally an initial internet release of Open Source GIS software! Still there was almost nobody online in those days, at least not able to download 100 MB of source code... The big spread of internet happened due to the acceptance of TCP/IP as protocol. Information exchange happened via FTP. Today all geeks are sharing code via SVN or git or other online code sharing repositories. But back in the 80th there was no online system like this. Either manual management or at most RCS which is file based.
  • So, the first decade of Open Source GIS concluded with the online publication of software (yet with a tiny user group being also online). Consider to think back when you went online the first time! Anyway, let us hop into the next decade: the 90th! A lot happened here, new hardware, new software, and way more data! And especially the advent of the internet society was a social revolution.
  • In 1990 GRASS 4.0 came out, a key release which was the foundation for the GRASS' architecture. On the “social” side, two mailing lists were started, the grass-user and the grass-dev lists. Those are probably the longest, active mailing lists of the internet with more than 2 decades of archive! Still no WWW, but information exchange happened FTP and Gopher. The photo shows core developers: - Michael Shapiro - Jim Westervelt - Bill Goran (the coordinator)
  • With the availability of new graphics CPUs a completely new way of rendering became possible. OpenGL was designed with hardware acceleration. Like this, fly-thoughs as seen in the left figure as well as 3D and even 4D animations came to life (here, water contamination modeled as voxels which are changing in time). I remember from working as a student at the Hannover CeBIT computer fair, to enjoy the demos of the SGI machines while carrying around newspapers across the fair area.
  • At the level of organizations many changes occurred: the GIS world became more professional and organized. In 1992 the GRASS Interagency Coordinating Commitee was founded, it was turned into the Open GRASS Foundation which then became the OpenGIS Consortium. The timeline shows the evolution. While Tim Berners-Lee constituted the World Wide Web Consortium, the today's OGC was established.
  • The rationale behind the establishing of the OGC you find described in an article written by Kenn Gardels. It got published in the “GRASSCLIPPINGS” issue of Fall 1993. Here the fact that interoperability is a core issue is pointed out. BTW: If you are interested, the scan is online, all links in my presentation which I'll upload later, are pointing to the respective documents.
  • This map shows the internet accessibility in the year 1998 – people being online in percent. As you see, in those days internet was yet restricted to a few countries in terms of accessibility. And, obviously: without internet no distributed source code development nor easy geodata exchange.
  • In the year 1993 the first Web application came up, the Xerox PARC map viewer [refer to the previous talk of Maria Brovelli] In 1994 the 1.0 version of Linux was released and shortly after GRASS GIS ported to it. This was still a tough job since the compiler tools where not as mature as nowadays. The year 1995 was a key year for the WebGIS community with the start of the Mapserver project. And... wow, a first spam email reached the ML
  • What happened in the WebGIS sector: Probably less known is the this first “Web Processing“ style service which was published back in 1994. It was an interactive GIS controllable through the WWW, developed by Susan Huse based on her PhD thesis. This system was able to ...
  • … perform true analysis in a user controllable way using CGI scripts. Of course it is not comparable with anything you can do today but remember the internet accessibility map of 1998 which I have shown earlier. We are still in the “prototype” years and draft WPS specifications were published only almost a decade later.
  • With the advent of the collaborative internet based development tools , a series of new projects like GeoTools, deegree, GDAL/OGR were started. In 1998 I started the European GRASS GIS server, completely non-authorized of course (except for the ILN landscape architecture institute at the university)... it turned out to be a good idea to take control. BTW: Anyone here remembering the year 2000 bug? It stimulated us to move the GRASS code from manual code management via email to something more sophisticated called CVS. This was a server based code repository and checkins became independent of a single person who had to read emails and act upon.
  • Well, we happily survived the Year 2000 bug and reached the next decade... Now Communities growing together! This drawing has been done by the older daugther of Venka (Venkatesh Raghavan in Osaka) for the initial 2004 FOSS4G conference in Bangkok which I'll mention shortly
  • In just a few years a lot of new software projects were started, I don't have the time to illustrate them in details. You see that all adopted the collaborative tools for development. From the demand to get coordination among these projects the idea arose to create an umbrella foundation , OSGeo, as illustrated by Jeff McKenna earlier today.
  • For the term “FOSS4G” we have to thank Venka once more. He proposed the conference title in 2004 for the conference at Chulalongkorn University. Also Jim Westervelt came to give us an authentic lecture about the early days at this meeting.
  • The next slides will be much more familiar for you... code sprint photos Here the mapbender team in 2007 and the QGIS hackfest in Pisa in 2010.
  • For those not familiar with it: - it is a gathering of likeminded people - no need to be a developer - newcomers are there up to core developers Instead of writing 10 emails to discuss an issue, we just discuss it directly, rarely long with some beer And: The outcome of such a week is often impressive. Next chance for you: on Thursday this week!
  • After these years of community based software development, the emerge of Wikipedia also crowd mapping came up. No need to explain OpenStreetMap here but for sure the Haiti earthquake example is to be mentioned. It is illustrating an outstanding effort of people around the globe gathering virtually together and helping in an emergency situation. The map shows the geodata situation in January 2010 when a magnitude 7 earthquake occurred – almost no geodata available which were urgently needed.
  • This is the situation a few days later. Based on high resolution satellite data which were made available by the big data providers, the OSM community was able to generate in an extremely short time a detailed coverage of digital data. A similar effort was done after the Great East Japan Earthquake 2011, you will remember it.
  • The increasing demand for geospatial data in the Web browser and increasing interactivity naturally requires the adoption of new emerging technologies. An interesting new method of fundraining, instead of direct sponsoring by a few is after crowd knowledge (Wikipedia) and crowd mapping (OSM) now crowd funding where till a deadline a certain funding goal should be achieved. Example: OpenLayers 3 funding, aiming at more than 300,000 USD – and they are almost there!
  • There are also new possibilities for plotting maps: from 2D to 3D using rapid prototyping technologies which have been directly connected to Open Source GIS. Here an example of the polar ice cap of Mars (so, no need to restrict yourself to mother Earth): The processing chain was: from Radar remote sensing data to voxels to 3D plots
  • Since we like to think big, why to getting our tools on Supercomputers running... Indeed, we are already there: PROJ4, GDAL and GRASS GIS are available even on TOP500 systems. The harder part was to get it compiled on Non-Linux Supercomputers :-) For massive data processing currently job managers are supported. Work is underway for GPU based clusters which require a major source code restructuring.
  • Since not everybody has a supercomputer reachable, a lot of efforts have been done on processing massive data on even consumer hardware. Here an example from a power user who managed to process 8.5 billion lidar points on his home computer. With this touching base I would like to conclude my quick ride through 30 years of Open Source GIS development and conclude with...
  • Happy birthday, GRASS GIS And Thanks to all FOSS4G contributors all over the world. Thank you for listening
  • Transcript of "Scaling up globally: 30 years of FOSS4G development. Keynote at FOSS4G-CEE 2013, Romania"

    1. 1. ©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SAScaling up globally:30 years of FOSS4G developmentKeynoteMarkus NetelerFondazione Edmund MachResearch and Innovation CentreDepartment of Biodiversity and Molecular EcologyGIS and Remote Sensing UnitFOSS4G Central and Eastern Europe 201316th - 20th June, National Library of RomaniaBucharest, RomaniaPostGISomics
    2. 2. ©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SAImg. courtesy: J Westervelt 2006:Early GRASS Community Views on FOSSTHE 80s … the beginning
    3. 3. ©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SATHE 80s ...1980 – LAGRID – J. Westervelt masters thesis:GIS software, developed on a mainframe computer,then ported to Cromemco Z-80. FORTRAN1982 – FHIS (Fort Hood Information System)Vax 11/780 minicomputer, UNIX, C language.Programmer: L. Van Warren1983 – "GIS Version 1 Reference Manual"by J. Westervelt and M. OShea, 29 July 1983Included GIS programs:1983 – PROJ4 library development started by Gerald I. Evendenarctogriparea_statscell_statscellmod (grid editor)coin (r.coin)combine (boolean combination)distance (r.buffer)dotmap (graphics on adot-matrix printer)erase (d.erase)griptocelllayer_info (r.info)list (g.list)over (d.rast, but for b/w monitor)reclass (r.reclass)sho_over (display images created by over)table (stats associated with over)whats_here (r.info with a mask)window (g.region)Vax 11/780minicomputer
    4. 4. ©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SABoolean combination - gridcell and polygonWeighted overlay - gridcell and polygon (reworked later into r.mapcalc)Distance-from (now r.buffer)Isoline generation (grid to poly - now r.contour)Coincident tabulation (now r.coin)Mathematical combination (reworked later into r.mapcalc)THE 80s ...August, 1983 – U. S. Army Corps of EngineersConstruction Engineering Research Laboratory(USA/CERL) in Champaign, IllinoisPurchase of first Sun-150 computers (2) – specs:● $8.900 16 bit, 10Mhz, 256Kb memory, 10Mbps Ethernet,17" b/w monitor (100*800)● $3.400 1Mbyte extra memory● $2.000 3/4M Fast Sun Memory● $1.590 Barko color monitor● $6.540 80Mbyte hard disk● $1.900 Disk controller board● $5.500 Dot Matrix printer● $1.500 Vanilla UNIX software -or-● $2.000 4.2BSD plus library of graphics software1983/1984 New analysis capabilities added in GRASS GIS:Source:http://lists.osgeo.org/pipermail/grass-psc/2012-December/000985.html… 33k USD
    5. 5. ©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SATHE 80s ...1984 – GRASS running on SUN-1 and Masscomp1985 – GRASS 1.0, GRASSnet established(pre-mailing list)15 March 1985: first commercial Internet domain name registered1985 – Richard Stallman publishes the GNU Manifesto1987 – GRASS 2.0; first issue of GRASSClippings NewsletterGRASS video narrated by William Shatner (Captain Kirk of Star Trek)1988 – GRASS 3.0; Army R&D Achievement Award (Webster, Goran,Shapiro, Westervelt)
    6. 6. ©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SATHE 80s ...1989 – GRASS 3.1First release available on Internet(uxc.cso.uiuc.edu)But how was software developed? Locally!While Revision Control System (RCS) was available a sometimesused, yet no server based system like “CVS“ (CVS 1.0 in 1990)(today: SVN, git, …)TCP/IP goes global (1989–2010)However:By 1992, still less than 15,000 .com domains registered...See also:● http://grass.osgeo.org/home/history/● http://wiki.osgeo.org/wiki/Open_Source_GIS_History● http://grass.osgeo.org/uploads/grass/history_docs/westervelt2004_GRASS_roots.pdf
    7. 7. ©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SATHE 90s … visualizationand analysisSource:http://skagit.meas.ncsu.edu/~helena/gmslab/gsoils/vizrep2.html
    8. 8. ©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SATHE 90s ...1990 – GRASS 4.0Letter-dot format adopted for commands (e.g. d.rast and g.region)1991 – First mailing lists
    9. 9. ©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SATHE 90s ...1992 – New graphics technology became available: openGLSoftware distribution:“Moon“ FTP server of CERL(note: still 2 years to wait for WWW!)SG3DSGI Indigo
    10. 10. ©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SATHE 90s ...ORGANIZATIONS1992GRASS Inter-Agency Coordinating Committee→ Open GRASS Foundation (OGF)→ OpenGIS Consortium (OGC)1994 – Tim Berners-Lee decided to constitute theWorld Wide Web Consortium (W3C)1994 – Open Geospatial Consortium(OGC) foundedOpen GIS Open GeospatialConsortium (OGC) Consortium (OGC)GRASS InteragencySteering Commitee1990 1992 2006Open GRASSFoundation (OGF)1994 2004OSGeo
    11. 11. ©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SATHE 90s ...http://grass.osgeo.org/home/history/documents/
    12. 12. ©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SASource:http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/8552410.stmTHE 90s …Internet growth as a crucialprecursor to FOSS4G development
    13. 13. ©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SADo you remember:30 slackware disks downloaded,but unfortunately in FTP ASCIImode (7 bit, not 8)??THE 90s ...First Web Applications come up, finally!1993 – Xerox PARC Map Viewer1994 – GNU/Linux 1.0 released1995 – First GRASS 4.1.5 port to Linux(Andreas Holz, Greifswald, Germany)1995 – UMN MapServer project startedhttp://wiki.osgeo.org/wiki/Open_Source_GIS_History1995 –Well, and also the first spam email in theGRASS mailing list
    14. 14. ©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SATHE 90s ...An interactive GIS via WWW, perhaps the first “Web Processing“service...1994-1998 – Susan M. Huses GRASSLinks (PhD thesis at Berkeley)
    15. 15. ©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SATHE 90s ...GRASSLinks
    16. 16. ©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SATHE 90s ...Internet, its tools and geeks spreading!1996 – GeoTools project started1998 – deegree (originally JaGo) development startedwith an OGC Simple Features implementation1998 – GDAL/OGR development started1998 – First European GRASS GIS server at ILN, Uni Hannover, Germany1999 – GRASS GIS source code moved from manual management to CVS,precisely on 29 Dec. 1999 :-)
    17. 17. ©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SASince 2000...May the FOSS be with you
    18. 18. ©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SA2001 – OSSIM initial revision in CVSPostGIS startedGeoNetwork opensource startedGeoServer started2002 – Quantum GIS initial revision in CVSGEOS initial revision in CVS2003 – Community MapBuilder started. End of life in 2008Release of Mapbender under the GNU GPL licensegvSIG was started2004 – uDig was started2005 – MapGuide Open Source2006 – Mapbender gets first bits in CVSOpenLayers Started2007 – GeoMoose was open sourced (started 2005)2009 – rasdaman was open sourced (started 1995)Since 2000... growing communitiesThanks to CVS,SVN and git2006: OSGeo!http://wiki.osgeo.org/wiki/Open_Source_GIS_History
    19. 19. ©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SASince 2000...growing communitiesChulalongkorn University,Bangkok 2004:FOSS4G is born!Jim WesterveltSpecial thanks toVenkatesh Raghavan,Osaca City University
    20. 20. ©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SASince 2000...growing communitiesQGIS Hackfest Pisa 2010Mapbendercode sprint 2007FOSS4G Conferences:Lausanne, Denver,Victoria, Cape Town, Sydney,Barcelona, Denver, ...
    21. 21. ©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SACommunity sprints, even more...
    22. 22. ©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SACommunicationFlow of bug reporting and solution:2. Developerdetects bug 60%20%20%(Percentages are estimated)OtherdevelopersNewrelease3. NewfeatureSVN codeRepositoryReleasecycle1. User sendsbug reportBugtrackerMailing list20%80%
    23. 23. ©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SAOrganization of distributed source codemanagement: “Code habitats”Two main types of developers may be identified:● generalist● specialist (the majority)It appears that many developer assign themselves to“code habitats”, i.e. their area of expertise (e.g., in GRASS GISa selection of libraries or topics which they maintain)These “code habitats” remain often stable over yearsThere are also partially abandoned code areas (~ 10% of the code?)which are functional but arent really getting improvedA few “garbage collectors” (generalists) fix lots of odds n ends
    24. 24. ©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SAOrganization of distributed source codemanagement: “Code habitats”http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=suyDqmGXoWkGRASS GIS 6.4 development visualization from 1999 to 2011 with
    25. 25. ©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SACode vettingLegal aspectsLicense compliance (e.g., GPL)No code copying from books like “Numerical Receipes in C”Ensure that 3rdparty contributions are cleanEmployers must agree that work time is spentFull transparency and peer review help to minimize the risk.Apache or OSGeo FoundationIncubation phaseGraduationhttp://incubator.apache.org/http://www.osgeo.org/incubator
    26. 26. ©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SASince 2010...Source: Blog of Arnulf Christl
    27. 27. ©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SAEmergency supportHaiti, January 2010:7.0 magnitude earthquakeAvailable Geodata:almost absentSee also:http://hot.openstreetmap.org/projects/haiti-2Haiti Dec 2009Open Data: OpenStreetMap.org
    28. 28. ©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SAA few days later ..:international crowd mappingSee also:http://hot.openstreetmap.org/projects/haiti-2Haiti Jan 2010Open Data: OpenStreetMap.org
    29. 29. ©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SANew: Crowdfunding of development
    30. 30. ©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SANew cool stuff: plotting GIS dataFromRadartovoxelsto3D plots
    31. 31. ©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SANew cool stuff:massive data processing● Since 2005 GRASS GIS is running natively on 64bit CPUs● GRASS GIS 7 also offers Large File Support on 32bit Windows● Installed on Grids and TOP500 supercomputers (AKKA Umeå,ENEA Frascati, Aurel Bratislava, …)● Runs on Linux, AIX, Solaris, freeBSD, netBSD, ...● Various ways of parallelization
    32. 32. ©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SAMassive data processing:also for youhttps://plus.google.com/u/0/communities/111147786674687562495“Since the home computeronly has 8 GB of RAM...““8.5 billion points...“
    33. 33. ©MarkusNeteler2013,CC-BY-SAMarkus NetelerFondazione E. Mach (FEM)Centro Ricerca e InnovazioneGIS and Remote Sensing Unit38010 S. Michele allAdige (Trento), Italyhttp://gis.cri.fmach.ithttp://www.osgeo.orgmarkus.neteler@fmach.itneteler@osgeo.orgConcluding remark:THANKS TO ALL CONTRIBUTORS!And more to come...PostGISomics
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