GRASS GIS and OSGeo:  A framework for archeology
http://www.foss4g2006.org/contributionDisplay.py?contribId=214&sessionId=54&confId=1 http://grass.osgeo.org/devel/grasshis...
GRASS6 spatial data types 2D raster maps and imagery 2D/3D topological vector maps 3D raster (voxels) volumes
GRASS6 functionality I  <ul><li>fully integrated 400+ modules
add-ons managed on Wiki + SVN </li></ul><ul><li>raster:   2D/3D map algebra, DEM analysis, flowtracing, buffers, neighbour...
GRASS6 functionality II  <ul><li>Vector :  buffers, overlays, conversions, networks, linear referencing system, digitizing...
WFS  support with v.in.wfs
KML/KMZ  - Google Earth through   v.out.ogr and r.out.gmap (in add-ons) </li></ul>
Connecting the OSGeo stack Spatial Analysis Modeling Portability, interoperability GRASS View  Interact Teach Geostatistic...
GRASS GIS and QGIS QGIS Geodata Viewer with GRASS Toolbox, GPS Support and plugins... http://qgis.org
GRASS GIS: new graphical user interface Written in Python/wxWidgets <ul><li>Intuitive usage
Powerful Future:
Cartography tool </li></ul>Location Wizard Digitizer Attribute management
New Windows Installers: OSGeo4W  and winGRASS stand-alone
Solar radiation: potential settlements Example for solar radiation model applied to modern GIS data Application in archeol...
Available Methods <ul><li>Cell based statistics
Binning
Spatial approximation </li></ul>- Smoothing Use cases: - Topographic analysis - Feature extraction (S eparation  DEM/DSM) ...
Buildings imported from 2D SHAPE file Type based color  classification Visualization: GRASS Extrusion to 3D: Using height ...
Visualization: GRASS export to Paraview and Povray Povray  rendering ( www.povray.org ): adding clouds and haze Additional...
KMZ output </li></ul></ul>Stereo rendering in Paraview  ( www.paraview.org )
Data Prof. Tozzi (mapping 1985) Alignments OpenStreetMap roads „ Centuriazione“ - Arco: Lidar Data Centuriazione: Denis Fr...
Data Prof. Tozzi  (mapping 1985) Alignments OpenStreetMap roads „ Centuriazione“ - Arco: Lidar Data Centuriazione: Denis F...
Remote sensing with GRASS NDVI: used to show old Adige river sinuosity (Landsat7 based)
Remote sensing with GRASS False color image: used to show old Adige river sinuosity (Landsat7 based)
Viewshed analysis with GRASS New, extremely fast viewshed algorithm (yet in GRASS-Addons):  r.viewshed Viewshed from Dos T...
v.vol.rst  wcolumn=sigma_v  From D. Francisci (2009): Fabric Analysis in Archaeology 2D Interpolation Contour lines 2D and...
Geostatistics with GRASS and R R run inside a GRASS session reads and writes data from/to GRASS directly
A comparison of hiking paths in Val di Fassa, Italy Rot : existing path Blau : calculated with r.walk r.walk improved agai...
Founded 4 th  February  2006, Chicago http://www.osgeo.org OSGeo Foundation: Founding projects GRASS GIS
Open Source Geospatial Foundation –  OSGeo www.osgeo.org Mission:  To support the development of open source geospatial so...
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GRASS and OSGeo: a framework for archeology

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Use of GIS and geospatial data in archeology. Contribution to:

Quarto Workshop Italiano "Open Source, Free Software e Open Format nei processi di ricerca archeologica", Roma, 27 e 28 aprile 2009. Sede centrale del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR)

http://www.archeo-foss.org/

Abstract:
With the widespread availability of desktop GIS, archaeologists have gained the tools to comprehensively analyze the important spatial component of their data. Initial archaeological use of GIS was (and still is in many instances) for making maps of archaeological sites. Rather quickly GIS became used for predictive modeling of site locations. More recently, viewshed analysis has seen increasing use, in efforts to understand prehistoric perceptions of the landscape.

In the last years, Open Source GIS software evolved to a powerful set of software products which support both scientific as well as common GIS users. In particular, the integration of GIS with image processing capabilities, geospatial data analysis, database management system and Web mapping software enables archaeologists to perform their tasks in a completely free environment. Since 2006, the Open Source Geospatial Foundation (OSGeo) operates as umbrella foundation for Web Mapping, Desktop GIS Applications, Geospatial Libraries, Metadata Catalog as well as the Public Geospatial Data project and the Education and Curriculum project.

In our presentation, we focus on GRASS GIS (http://grass.osgeo.org/) for spatial data analysis and visualization. GRASS is the largest Open Source GIS program currently available. The new version GRASS 6.4.0 is interoperable as it supports all common vector and raster GIS formats. Its capabilities cover raster and volume spatial analysis and modeling, time-series and landscape analysis, image processing, and visualization of 2D and 3D (voxel) raster data. Vector data can be digitized, extracted, extruded to 3D, and vector networks analyzed. Vector data are handled topologically. Vector attributes are stored in internal or externally connected databases. All general GIS tasks like map reprojection, georeferencing, and transformations are available for raster and vector data. The data storage concept of GRASS permits for single as well as multi-user access set up via network file system.

GRASS 6.4.0, the new stable release after more than one year of development and testing, brings a number of exciting enhancements to the GIS. Besides the hundreds of new module features, supported data formats, and language translations. The 6.4.0 release also runs in MS-Windows, a new installer is provided. A new graphical user interface with integrated location wizard and new vector digitizer is also included.

The presentation concludes with a series of applications relevant to archaeology including image processing, Lidar data analysis, fast viewshed analysis and more.

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GRASS and OSGeo: a framework for archeology

  1. 1. GRASS GIS and OSGeo: A framework for archeology
  2. 2. http://www.foss4g2006.org/contributionDisplay.py?contribId=214&sessionId=54&confId=1 http://grass.osgeo.org/devel/grasshist.html GRASS: command line and graphical user interfaces 1982.. .. 1995 2007.. … today
  3. 3. GRASS6 spatial data types 2D raster maps and imagery 2D/3D topological vector maps 3D raster (voxels) volumes
  4. 4. GRASS6 functionality I <ul><li>fully integrated 400+ modules
  5. 5. add-ons managed on Wiki + SVN </li></ul><ul><li>raster: 2D/3D map algebra, DEM analysis, flowtracing, buffers, neighbourhood analysis, solar, cost surfaces, covariance, </li></ul><ul><li>image : rectification, multispectral, radiometric correction, principal and canonical component analysis, reclassification </li></ul><ul><li>visualization : 2D display, 3D interactive visualization </li></ul>
  6. 6. GRASS6 functionality II <ul><li>Vector : buffers, overlays, conversions, networks, linear referencing system, digitizing, topology, triangulation, voronoi polygons </li></ul><ul><li>DBMS : attribute management with SQL </li></ul><ul><li>Transformations : projections, raster-vector conversions, interpolation/approximation </li></ul>Web Services <ul><li>WMS support with r.in.wms
  7. 7. WFS support with v.in.wfs
  8. 8. KML/KMZ - Google Earth through v.out.ogr and r.out.gmap (in add-ons) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Connecting the OSGeo stack Spatial Analysis Modeling Portability, interoperability GRASS View Interact Teach Geostatistics Predictive modeling Database engine: Tables, attributes DBF vector raster External data Visualize Web Processing Service
  10. 10. GRASS GIS and QGIS QGIS Geodata Viewer with GRASS Toolbox, GPS Support and plugins... http://qgis.org
  11. 11. GRASS GIS: new graphical user interface Written in Python/wxWidgets <ul><li>Intuitive usage
  12. 12. Powerful Future:
  13. 13. Cartography tool </li></ul>Location Wizard Digitizer Attribute management
  14. 14. New Windows Installers: OSGeo4W and winGRASS stand-alone
  15. 15. Solar radiation: potential settlements Example for solar radiation model applied to modern GIS data Application in archeology: identification of well insolated sites for predictive modelling Jaro Hofierka University of Presov Monthly insolation Weekly insolation January kWh/m 2
  16. 16. Available Methods <ul><li>Cell based statistics
  17. 17. Binning
  18. 18. Spatial approximation </li></ul>- Smoothing Use cases: - Topographic analysis - Feature extraction (S eparation DEM/DSM) Multi-return Lidar H. Mitasova, NCSU M. Brovelli, PdM, Como Lidar data analysis in GRASS
  19. 19. Buildings imported from 2D SHAPE file Type based color classification Visualization: GRASS Extrusion to 3D: Using height attribute
  20. 20. Visualization: GRASS export to Paraview and Povray Povray rendering ( www.povray.org ): adding clouds and haze Additionally: <ul><ul><li>KML
  21. 21. KMZ output </li></ul></ul>Stereo rendering in Paraview ( www.paraview.org )
  22. 22. Data Prof. Tozzi (mapping 1985) Alignments OpenStreetMap roads „ Centuriazione“ - Arco: Lidar Data Centuriazione: Denis Francisci Lidar based DEM: Aut. Prov di Trento
  23. 23. Data Prof. Tozzi (mapping 1985) Alignments OpenStreetMap roads „ Centuriazione“ - Arco: Lidar Data Centuriazione: Denis Francisci Lidar based DEM: Aut. Prov di Trento GRASS: v.parallel, shaded relief, ...
  24. 24. Remote sensing with GRASS NDVI: used to show old Adige river sinuosity (Landsat7 based)
  25. 25. Remote sensing with GRASS False color image: used to show old Adige river sinuosity (Landsat7 based)
  26. 26. Viewshed analysis with GRASS New, extremely fast viewshed algorithm (yet in GRASS-Addons): r.viewshed Viewshed from Dos Trento Comparison on a 5m Lidar based DEM (left map) – calculation time: - r.los: 4.5h - r.viewshed: 18 sec (still small precision issue to be fixed)
  27. 27. v.vol.rst wcolumn=sigma_v From D. Francisci (2009): Fabric Analysis in Archaeology 2D Interpolation Contour lines 2D and 3D interpolation in GRASS 3D Interpolation (voxel) a b v
  28. 28. Geostatistics with GRASS and R R run inside a GRASS session reads and writes data from/to GRASS directly
  29. 29. A comparison of hiking paths in Val di Fassa, Italy Rot : existing path Blau : calculated with r.walk r.walk improved again in GRASS 6.5+ Arrival Start Autor: M. Franchi, “Young researchers wanted” award (PBZ, 2006) r.walk: Walking connectivity
  30. 30. Founded 4 th February 2006, Chicago http://www.osgeo.org OSGeo Foundation: Founding projects GRASS GIS
  31. 31. Open Source Geospatial Foundation – OSGeo www.osgeo.org Mission: To support the development of open source geospatial software and promote its widespread use. Founding projects (constituted in February 2006): GDAL/OGR, GeoTools, GRASS GIS, Mapbender, MapBuilder, MapGuide Open Source (Autodesk), MapServer, OSSIM Since Feb 2008: GRASS (and others) are official members Motivation: More that 200 GFOSS projects worldwide... … need for selection and organization: User oriented! Italian OSGeo Chapter: www.gfoss.it
  32. 32. www.osgeo.org
  33. 33. OSGeo: Open Source Geospatial Foundation
  34. 34. The OSGeo Landscape
  35. 35. OSGeo software development: Source Code Control Legal Aspects <ul><ul><ul><li>License compatibility (e.g., GRASS: GPL)
  36. 36. Don't use code from books like “ Numerical Receipes in C ”!
  37. 37. Verify that 3 rd party contributions are clean
  38. 38. The employer has to agree if work time shall be used for
  39. 39. Free Software coding </li></ul></ul></ul>Transparency and „peer review“ help to minimise any legal risk. Apache - OSGeo Foundation <ul><ul><ul><li>Incubator phase
  40. 40. Graduation </li></ul></ul></ul>http://incubator.apache.org/ http://www.osgeo.org/incubator
  41. 41. For a more detailed comparison, see e.g., http://www.spatialserver.net/osgis/ FOSS4G comparison table
  42. 42. www.mappinghacks.com http://wiki.osgeo.org/wiki/Library FOSS4G bookshelf www.spatialguru.com www.grassbooks.org 2005 2008 2009
  43. 43. http://grass.osgeo.org <ul><ul><li>Almost unlimited possibilities with GFOSS software
  44. 44. User levels : from newcomers to power users
  45. 45. Interoperability with other software packages, also in heterogeneous environments
  46. 46. GFOSS Quality : peer reviewed code, often with academic background
  47. 47. Support : Community – Mailing Lists, companies, freelancer, ... </li></ul></ul>Conclusions Markus Neteler Fondazione E. Mach (FEM) Centro Ricerca e Innovazione GIS and Remote Sensing Unit Sede Viote del Monte Bondone 38100 Trento, Italy http://gis.fem-environment.eu http://www.osgeo.org
  48. 48. License of this document This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/deed.en © 2009 Markus Neteler, Italy http://gis.fem-environment.eu [ OpenDocument file available upon request: neteler at cealp it ] License details: Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 You are free: - to copy, distribute, display, and perform the work, - to make derivative works, - to make commercial use of the work, under the following conditions: Attribution. You must give the original author credit. Share Alike. If you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you may distribute the resulting work only under a license identical to this one. For any reuse or distribution, you must make clear to others the license terms of this work. Any of these conditions can be waived if you get permission from the copyright holder. Your fair use and other rights are in no way affected by the above.

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