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  • 1. Gather Data through formal processes Tips for ensuring survey sampling is correct
  • 2. Sampling When determining requirements, it is likely that you will have to collect information from a number of people. If the organisation is small, you may choose to collect information from all people - this is called a census. Alternatively, you may choose to collect information from only nominated specialists. This is known as judgement sampling or convenience sampling. Speed is an advantage of a sample survey.
  • 3. Tips for ensuring survey sampling is correct  The key to a successful survey is ensuring that your questions are concise, easy-to understand and give you valid and reliable information.  Determining your sample size will help you decide which type of survey to use.  Once you have determined the size of your sample, you can select the sampling technique that best fits your needs.  There are two basic methods to conducting a survey: self-administered and interviewer-administered. Self- administered surveys include mail and other written surveys. Interviewer-administered surveys include telephone and in-person surveys.
  • 4. Tips for ensuring survey sampling is correct  Keep the questions short Try to keep each question under 25 words so they remain short and easy-to-understand.  Don’t lead with responses  Avoid loaded questions Slight wording changes can produce great differences in results. Could, Should, Might all sound almost the same, but may produce a 20% difference in agreement to a question  Avoid double-barreled questions Should two questions be asked instead of one.
  • 5. Tips for ensuring survey sampling is correct  Limit open-ended questions  Misplaced questions. Questions placed out of order or out of context should be avoided.  Mutually non-exclusive response categories. Multiple choice response categories should be mutually exclusive so that clear choices can be made.  Nonspecific questions. Be specific in what you want to know about.
  • 6. Tips for ensuring survey sampling is correct  Confusing or unfamiliar words. Make sure your audience understands your language level, terminology and above all, what you are asking.  Forcing answers. Respondents may not want, or may not be able to provide the information requested.  Non-exhaustive listings. Do you have all of the options covered?  Unbalanced listings. Unbalanced scales may be appropriate for some situations and biased in others.
  • 7. Questionnaires Tips for Creating Questionnaires
  • 8. Questionnaires  Questionnaires are sometimes called surveys. A questionnaire involves questions written onto a form. The respondent provides their response in the form.  Two common formats for questionnaires are free- format and fixed-format. A single questionnaire often includes both formats.  Free-format questionnaires offer the respondent greater latitude in their answer. A question is asked, and the respondent records the answer in the space provided after the question.  Fixed-format questionnaires contain questions that require the selection of predefined responses from individuals.
  • 9. Questionnaires  A typical questionnaire may request the name and/or job role of the respondent; however, it has been found that anonymous responses often provide better information.  There are many software programs and techniques that can be used to create questionnaires.  Using Microsoft Office Suite and an email system you can implement a survey and analyse the respondents’ data without re– keying the respondents’ responses.
  • 10. Tips for creating questionnaires  Don’t forget to give instructions.  Long questions. Multiple choice questions are the longest and most complex. Free text answers are the shortest and easiest to answer. When you increase the length of questions and surveys, you decrease the chance of receiving a completed response.  Make sure you create an aesthetically pleasing document that is easy to understand and follow.
  • 11. Tips for creating questionnaires Clearly identify survey objectives. Identify your target audience. Use funnel method: Start with broad questions, then get detailed. Survey should flow and have a logical progression. Keep style and grammar consistent and clear. Ask for email addresses if you need to identify respondents by name. Use quot;ratingquot; or quot;scalequot; questions to clarify responses.
  • 12. Tips for creating questionnaires  Determine the type of question that is best suited to answer the question and provide enough robustness to meet analysis requirements.  Sequence the questions so that they are unbiased.  Pretest the survey to 20 or more people. Obtain their feedback... in detail.  Revise your questionnaire and pre-test again or begin data collection.
  • 13. Interviews Tips for Interviewing Groups
  • 14. Interviews 1. Determining the people to interview You need to determine the people that can best satisfy the answers to your questions. Organisational charts and job specifications can help to identify appropriate people to interview. 2. Establishing objectives for the interview You need to be clear about what your objectives are for the interview. To do this, you should determine the general areas to be discussed, then list the facts that you want to gather. 3. Developing the interview questions Creating a list of questions helps you keep on track during the interview. It is appropriate to include open and closed questions during the body of the interview. 4. Preparing for the interview Preparation is the key to a successful interview.
  • 15. Interviews 5. Conducting the interview An interview can be characterised as having three phases: the opening, the body and the conclusion. 6. Documenting the interview It is important that you transcribe your notes into a format that allows you to understand the information gained at the interview. 7. Evaluating the interview It is important to review your notes and transcript to identify any areas of problem, bias or errors. The review may prompt further questions that need to be answered.
  • 16. Interviews Participants  A good size group will have six to ten people. This is a small enough for everyone to have an opportunity to share insights, but large enough to have a diversity of experience and opinions. Questions  Keep the number of questions to five to six.  Ask open-ended questions; avoid simple yes or no questions.  Ask the questions in a logical order, moving from the general to the specific.
  • 17. Conducting the Group Interview •Welcome the group and give an overview of the interview, including its purpose and process. •Ask participants to speak one at a time and note that it’s fine for people to disagree. •Tell participants how the information from the interview will be used and whether they could be identifiable in any products. •Let them know that individual comments will be confidential. •Discuss tape recording and taking notes. •Encourage participants to share their points of view even when they’re different. •Tell the group there are no right or wrong answers. •Be clear about which questions are ones you want answered by everyone and which ones can be answered by anyone wants to speak.
  • 18. Data bias How easy it is to manipulate data analysis to suit a particular goal.- including ways to control bias when gathering data through formal processes
  • 19. Data bias  Data from experiments, survey questionnaires and interviews can be influenced by either the context of the study, the respondents themselves, or the researcher. The term quot;biasquot; is often used in this context, but the term is ambiguous. Technically meaning quot;leaningquot; in one direction, it is often used to refer to respondents or researchers having pre- conceived ideas or an ideological disposition. What we mean here by bias is anything that can quot;contaminatequot; the picture you are trying to get of either subjects' behavior or their attitudes and beliefs.
  • 20. Data Bias Checklist  Is misinformation (unintended) given?  Has there been any evasion of the question?  Is there any evidence of direct lying or deception?  Is the informant trying to present a false front or impression?  What may the informant take for granted and thus not reveal?  How far is the informant seeking to please the interviewer?  How much has been forgotten or overlooked?
  • 21. Data bias - shaping the outcome  Attitudes of researcher; age, gender, class, race, and so on  Presentation of researcher; dress, speech, body language  Personality of researcher: anxiety, need for approval, hostility, warmth, and so on  Attitudes of researcher: religion, politics, tolerance, general assumptions  Scientific role of researcher: theory held, and so on (researcher expectations)
  • 22. Data bias  It's important to understand that bias is inevitable and normal. The problem is not the presence of biasing factors, but that the writer seems unaware of them, and interprets interview or questionnaire data as a quot;true accountquot; of reality. This can lead to exaggerated claims based on the data.
  • 23. Question Writing Tips for Writing Questions
  • 24. Tips for writing questions  Research your subject thoroughly ensuring questions are relevant  Short questions are better  Structure your questions in a logical sequence, moving from general to specific  Avoid double-barreled questions  Avoid using larger, difficult words  Limit open-ended questions  Don’t lead with responses
  • 25. Open and Closed Questions The use of Open/Closed Formats
  • 26. The use of open/closed formats Open and Closed Questions There is some debate over what defines an open or closed question. Generally a closed question is one in which there are a limited number of answers, most of which will usually be categorised by the analyst. In addition, the answers to closed questions are usually one word or a short phrase. In its simplest form the answer to a closed question may be limited to “yes” or “no”. An example of a closed question might be the following: “Do you put a job number on the work request form” An interviewer who uses this method of questioning will only get their own opinion confirmed and may not get any new or relevant information at all. Such a style of questioning may also be very frustrating for the interviewee, who may never get the chance to elaborate on what they think is important.
  • 27. The use of open/closed formats An open question is one to which there are many answers, most of which will not be anticipated by the analyst. An example of an open question might be the following: “Tell me what happens when the work request form comes in?” or even better “Tell me what you do about work requests.” It could well be that the work request form described might represent only a fraction of the processing done or might be completely out of date, superseded by new procedures devised by the workers to tackle problems. It is always advisable, at some point - often near the end of an interview - to simply ask the ultimate open question: “Now, have we missed anything?” or “Is there anything else you would like to say?”
  • 28. The use of open/closed formats There are also some disadvantages to open questions, which could include the following:  trying to summarise the data into a concise form may be difficult  it takes a lot longer to collect information  ambiguities need to be recognised and expanded upon  open questions require more psychological effort on behalf of the respondent, and the respondent may answer in a haphazard manner.
  • 29. References  SPSS Survey Tips http://inter.heao.han.nl/opleidingen/rstnet/rstextra/survey%20series/Survey%20Tips.pdf  Microsoft Word Document http://www.aelweb.vcu.edu/publications/research/meetings/meeting2/session9/Handout.Tips%20fo  Academic Grammar http://ec.hku.hk/acadgrammar/report/repProc/sections/methods/bias.htm  Class Notes