NANOTECHNOLOGYMiss.M.S.Patil                                                     Mr.V.R.PatilLecturer IT Deptt.           ...
progress and researchers to expand their         which enables us to implant dopant atomsexpertise into new application fi...
single ion implantation (SII). Trimming          beam sources can be used down to veryof the conductance of a fine resisto...
semiconductor and isolater surface      modification for direct wafer             7. Nano revolution.      bonding in vacu...
Use these new Nanoscale systems as a       strand linked gold Nanoparticle stool-kit to develop new applications in       ...
miracles. Imagine a nano-robot that is         [2] Carol Crane, Michael Wilson, Kamaliprogrammed to travel through your   ...
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Nanotechnology by manish myst ssgbcoet

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by - Manish Myst
B.E E&C 2011 batch
shri sant gadge baba college of engg & tech, bhusawal SSGBCOET

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Nanotechnology by manish myst ssgbcoet

  1. 1. NANOTECHNOLOGYMiss.M.S.Patil Mr.V.R.PatilLecturer IT Deptt. Lecturer E&TC Deptt.RCPIT,Shirpur RCPIT,ShirpurMb.-9373145351 Mb.-9373235207Patilmanisha2003@yahoo.co.in patilvinod555@indiatimes.com Abstract In response to the rapidly changing face of technology and demand for physically smallerwith greater efficiency in every requirement the only solution is Nanotechnology. This papergives introduction to nanotechnology its use in various industries.An analysis of key trends inseveral major industries points to a growing market for several specific types of "nanoproducts." This analysis suggests that in some areas it is unlikely that anything less than ananotech based solution will do. In the case of todays mobile communications and byextension, future pervasive computing environments radical new nano material technologiesare necessary to support the next evolution in computing. The paper also goes on to discusshow and why nanotechnology is uniquely positioned to provide soltions to real worldproblems. There is even the prospect of self–building objects. In other words, the nano-products could be programmed to manipulate the molecules and atoms after they have beenmade.1. Introduction To Nano-technology It would help if you have seen movie benefits of Nanotechnology are both“Inner Space”, imagine a small doctor pervasive and revolutionary.traveling inside your body fixing up Nanotechnology, which deals with matterwhatever is wrong or envisage yourself at atomic levels, is not just restricted to thestuck in a traffic jam & being guided by the field of medicine. Nanotechnology puts thecomputers in your shirt’s threads to a clear power of creation into human hands butroad or alternatively think of chameleon contrary to popular perception, thelike soldiers being in perfectly with their immediate goals of Nanotechnology are notsurroundings & sensing all oncoming to further life & conquer death. It is moreattacks All these are not mere of a quest for discovering Nanostructuresimaginations, they would be realities in the that may have excellent electrical,brave new world of Nanotechnology, a chemical, mechanical, or optical properties.technology that would be used in this & so Nanotechnology is truly multidisciplinary.many more things we have not even Materials scientists, mechanical anddreamed of. All this is going to happen electronic engineers, and medicalsooner than we expect.The prefix ‘Nano’ researchers are teaming up with biologists,expresses extreme smallness. physicists and chemists. Research at theNanotechnology refers to nanometer-scale scale-scale frontier is unified by the need toscience and technology. One nanometer share knowledge, tools and techniques, and(nm) is one billionth of a meter, i.e. around expertise on atomic and molecular80,000 times smaller than the width of a interactions. Powerful new concepts andhuman hair.Nanotechnology is the study capabilities, such as atomic-scale imagingand manipulation of tiny objects at the and manipulation, self-assembly,dimension of molecules and atoms. It knowledge of biological structure-functioninvolves the control of materials at the relationships, together with increasinglyNanoscale, achieving miniaturization powerful computing tools, are rapidlythrough atomic and molecular converging from different research fields.manufacturing techniques. The potential These will enable Nanotechnology to
  2. 2. progress and researchers to expand their which enables us to implant dopant atomsexpertise into new application fields. one-by-one into a fine semiconductor region until the necessary number is2. History of Nano-technology. reached. So far, the aiming precision in the SII was only 200-300 nm due to a chopping The term ‘Nanotechnology’ was for extracting single ion from a stream ofpopularized by K.Eric Drexler in 1986 ions.A focused ion beam (FIB) optics forwhen he came out with a book called the SII has been modified in order to“Engines of Creation”, in which he implant single ion into Nano-scaledescribed what is possible with scale semiconductor region.technology. By extending a distance between theHowever, one of the first practical chopping electrode and objective lens (OL)nanotechnological advances could be traced electrode and reducing a working distance,back to 1968, when Bell Labs developed the scale of OL (1/6) was designed to bemolecular epitaxy, a technique to deposit 1/19.single atomic layer on a surface. One of In addition, we newly added electrodesthe practical to effectively use between the chopping electrode and OLNanotechnology happened in 1981, when electrode for the precise beam alignment.Gerd Bining deployed the scanning The beam diameter reaches less thantunneling microscope to image individual 20 nm, as shown in Fig. 1.atoms. This was followed by the creation ofbuckyballs in 1985. Buckyballs measureabout a nano meter in diameter & are usedwidely for Nanotechnology applications. Samiol Lijima of NEC discoveredcarbon Nano tubes, yet another majornanotechnological advancement, in 1991 &in 1998 the 1st transistor was made from ananotube by Cess Dekker.The fact thatsingle molecules can act as molecularswitches was demonstrated in 1998according to research held at RiceUniversity. The start of 2000 saw a greatboost to Nanotechnology in the form of theNational Nanotechnology Institute (NNI) inthe U.S. NNI aims to provide more funding& greater public participation in the field ofNanotechnology.3. Application of Nano- Figure-1technology. Establishment of pinpoint doping The deviation of single iontechnology to a Nano-scale semiconductor incident site was reduced to less than 100region by single ion implantation. In a nm by 200-300 nm before remodeling.semiconductor device smaller than 0.1 This modification of FIB opticsmicron, a statistical fluctuation due to enables us to implant dopant ions into aPoisson distribution of dopant atom number Nano-scale semiconductor region withbecome a major problem, since it cannot be pinpoint accuracy. An investigation ofeliminated by simply improving the the correlation between the position ofconventional doping techniques such as ion doping atoms in fine semiconductor regionsimplantation and diffusion. A deviation and electrical properties is in progress now.of electrical properties due to the Control of an electrical characteristicfluctuation prevents further reduction of of sub-micron semiconductor devices bychannel length, higher packaging density, single ion implantation. The inherenthigher device performance and so on. In fluctuation of electrical properties in a fineorder to reduce the fluctuation in electrical semiconductor region has been successfullycharacteristics, we have successfully reduced for the first time by implanting adeveloped single ion implantation (SII), small number of doping atoms by means of
  3. 3. single ion implantation (SII). Trimming beam sources can be used down to veryof the conductance of a fine resistor which low ion energies (from 20 eV to 1000 eV),corresponds to an active region in which opens new fields of applications insemiconductor devices has been tried by the monolayer- and nanometer-layerusing the SII. Firstly the conductance thickness range like:increase per one dopant atom in a sub- Low energy ion beams without anymicron scale Si resistor was measured to be sputtering can be generated for surface18 nS/atom. modification. Mass separated soft ion implantation in the nm-range. Defined mass selected organic or inorganic ions, radicals or functional groups can be used for monolayer surface modification. 4. Future Nano Applications. 4.1. Mass selected Etching/Depositon i. Mass separated reactive ion beam etching with minimal ion damage at semiconductors by controlled, depth dependent mass selection. ii. Direct ion beam polymerization at low ion energies of nm-polymer layers by controlled, thickness dependent mass selection. 4.2. Nano-ion implantation. i. Doping of organic semiconductors by low energy ion implantation with selected functional groups for polymer LED´s for displays or organic photovoltaic elements. ii. Low energy ion implantation of shallow junctions in sub micrometer structure technology (0.2 - 10 keV for 0.07µm-technology in silicon).Secondly very fine test resistors with a sizeof sub-micron were made by conventional iii. Stoechiometric ion implantation fordevice fabrication technology and the nano-tribology (surface hardening ofstatistical distribution of conductance in the micro machine tools).test devices was obtained. Then thenumber of single ions necessary to trim the iv. Low energy hydrogen ionconductance value to a certain value in the implantation for semiconductorhigher side of the initial distribution was passivation (AIIIBV, SiC...)implanted to each test resistor. The initialconductance fluctuation of 6% has been 4.3. Monolayer surfacereduced to only 13%. Through this study, modification.it turned out that the control of not only thenumber of impurity atoms but also its i. Monolayer surface modification ofposition was essential. Future applications inorganic substrates (like silicon...)of mass separated broad ion beams in the with functional groups for dockingfield of Nano-technology The conventional of selected macromoleculesion implantation in the keV- or MeV- (biotechnology),polymer surfaceenergy range is an ion technique for thin modification by selected functionallayer technology in the 0.1 - 5 µm thickness groups like NH, NH2, CO, OH,...range. Our mass separated broad ion
  4. 4. semiconductor and isolater surface modification for direct wafer 7. Nano revolution. bonding in vacuum. There is a revolution. So far most5. Economic Potential. people dont know very much about it. Its mostly a few scientists, engineers and Nanotechnology has the potential to technologists like the ones at the Pacificsignificantly impact on materials sciences Northwest National Laboratory who areand on manufacturing processes, on Nano- excited. We are in awe about theelectronics and computer technology, on possibilities of creating things that dontmedicine and health by allowing for new presently exist.diagnostic systems and monitoring systems There are almost an infinite number offor bodily functions.Nanotechnology can ways to assemble atoms and molecules, theplay an important role in space exploration, basic building blocks of matter. Not longmonitoring of the environment and the use ago we thought about these things but nowof energy resources. the capability to control the movement of It can offer new ways for biotechnology atoms exists. All of this happens in theand agriculture.Nanotechnology has an world of the very small with dimensions ofenormous variety of applications. Several one billionth of a meter, a nanometer.fields of Nanotechnology can be The Nanorevolution is happening.distinguished, such as: Nano-materials, There is no doubt that it will take its placeNano-electronics and Nano-biotechnology, in history along side of the discovery andwhich enable researchers to operate at the use of fire, the introduction of agriculturelevel of molecules an Commercial and the industrial revolution. TheseNanotechnology products are already revolutions happened over considerableavailable and include for instance new lengths of time, even centuries.semi-conductor lasers and computer hard In some parts of the world they are still indisk drives based on giant magneto- progress. In contrast, the Nanorevolutionresistance. can be expected to blossom in the next few Novel materials are being marketed, decades. Things are already happening verysuch as for spectacles with scratch-resistant fast. We can expect to see dramatic changesNano-coatings or sunburn lotions right before our eyes.containing ultraviolet-absorbing Nano- "Imagine a technology so powerfulparticles. The bio-chip arrays currently that it will allow such achievement asbeing produced are revolutionizing the desktop manufacturing, cellular repair,design and output of gene analysis in the artificial intelligence, inexpensive spacefields of biotechnology and biomedicine. travel, clean and abundant energy, and environmental restoration; a technology so portable that everyone can reap its benefits;6. Ethics in Nano-technology. a technology so fundamental that it will radically change our economic and political Nanotechnology deals with the most systems; a technology so imminent thatbasic assembly of matter.This is like most of us will see its impact within ourdelivering the power of creation into lifetimes. Such is the promise ofhuman hands.Consider the concept of self Nanotechnology."replicating robots that traverse the humanbody providing all sorts of cures. The only 8. Nanotechnology Research.self replicating mechanism we know of arethe reproductive mechanism of living cells. Nanotechnology research at NMRC Chances of a deliberate misuse of this encompasses the design, synthesis,technology are even higher .One only has fabrication and characterization ofto think of the immense destructive Nanostructures and Nanosystems. Thepotential that biotechnology has brought research approach is to performabout through weapons of biological fundamental scientific research and towarfare. Some experts have called for establish core research and technologybanning Nanotechnology but this will be platforms in order to: Develop a newlike killing one of the greatest development understanding of Nanoscale phenomenain technology even before its happened. and construct new Nanoscale structures, This is where ethics takes the center devices and systems.stage
  5. 5. Use these new Nanoscale systems as a strand linked gold Nanoparticle stool-kit to develop new applications in monitored as a function of inter-particlescience and engineering. NMRC aims to distance.provide a complete Nanotechnology 8.2. Design and Simulation Tools fordevelopment loop to enable innovative Molecular Electronicsexploitation of Nanosystems specificallywithin emerging Information andCommunication Technology (ICT)application areas, e.g., Nanoscaleelectronics and at the interface betweenICT and other disciplines, e.g., withphotonics (Nano photonics) and with lifesciences (Nanobiotechnology). Highlightsof the Nanotechnology research activities atNMRC during 2000 are outlined below: -8.1. Molecular Electronics. FSelf-assembly of Nanocrystals as igureNanoscale electronic devices offers -4possible alternatives toknown.Nanofabricationchallengese.g.,Nanolithography, while opening the way to new figure above shows Simulating prototypegenerations of electronic devices that molecular electronic devices: Results onoperate on fundamentally different physical the calculation of the binding configurationprinciples. Nanoparticle-based electronic of a methanethiol group to the (111) face ofdevices may be assembled using an Au13 cluster). Development of abiologically- inspired assembly approaches. molecular electronic transport description is We have successfully employed DNA being pursued as part of a generalas a tool for assembly of metallic nanoelectronics technology computer aidedNanoparticles. Short oligonucleotides design (NANOTCAD) tool. Formulationsattached to nanoparticle surfaces are used of electronic transport are being devised forto link the nanoparticles together by self- a full quantum mechanical description ofassembly of complimentary oligonucleotide devices at the atomic and single electronstrands. This "Nanoparticle zipping" scales.process can be monitored optically as a For example, to understand aspects of thefunction of solution temperature (below interaction between a molecule attached toleft). Also, within the Nanostructure a metal surface in a molecular electroniccharacterization facility, we are currently device, calculations have been performedstudying the electrical transport properties on the binding of, e.g., methanethiol ontoof prototype Nanodevices based on self- the faces of a Au13 clusterassembled arrays of metallic Nanoparticle s Such work is beginning to yield basic(see below right). insights into the structure and energy level arrangements of molecular electronic devices. 10. Advantages of Nano-technology. Imagine consumer goods that replace themselves in the future. It seems like so much science fiction, but some scientists suggest that this technology is very near reality. Other things that could be achieved with this technology include the creation of computer chips that would be much faster Figure -3 due to the smaller components that can beFigure shows temperature dependent made. Of course it is in the medical fieldzipping and unzipping of oligonucleotide that Nanotechnology can really produce
  6. 6. miracles. Imagine a nano-robot that is [2] Carol Crane, Michael Wilson, Kamaliprogrammed to travel through your Kannangara “Nanotechnology”bloodstream and is capable of cleaning outany fatty deposits, so reducing the [3] Bhushan,Bharat “Handbook onlikelihood of heart diseases. There are a Nanotechnology”number of amazing possibilities in thiscontext. It has also been suggested thatusing Nanotechnology, medical diagnosiswill be transformed and that the use ofnano-robots within the body could providea defense against invading viruses. This hasparticular application when considering theimmune system as this technology could beused to combat immune deficiency diseaseslike HIV/AIDS. Another possibly is the development orcreation of food. As food is also acombination of atoms, there is notheoretical reason that once perfected, thistechnology could not actually be used toproduce rather than grow food. Thepossibilities are endless. There is evenspeculation that the earth could beecologically reshaped or "terraformed".This could also mean the reintroduction ofalready extinguished species of animals. Ofcourse this all lies in the future. However,one only has to think of other technologies,including the home computer, which, onlya few years ago, were the stuff ofimaginative science fiction.11. Flaws of Nano-technology.There is always a downside.One of the aspects of this new technologythat has to be carefully considered is, whowould control a technology as powerful asthis promises to be?This is always a possibility that those whodo control this technology would not use itto the advantage of everyone. Lastly,change in itself can bring about problems. Change that is too rapid could upseteconomies and create disruption instead ofconstruction.12. Conclusion.Nanotechnology itself may never become ahuge industry in the classical sense but itcould very well have an impact on thecommercial world. Nanotechnologypromises a new, fast world to the futuregeneration. We can hope for the earth to beecologically reshaped giving rise to thealready extinguished species.13. References[1] Eric K. Drexler “Engines of Creation:The Coming Era of Nanotechnology”

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