0
Sysadmins’
Rosetta Stone

  Mackenzie
   Morgan


Introduction

Package
Management
                Sysadmins’ Rosetta Ston...
Outline

 Sysadmins’
Rosetta Stone

  Mackenzie
   Morgan


Introduction    1   Introduction
Package
Management

Files    ...
Me

 Sysadmins’
Rosetta Stone

  Mackenzie
   Morgan


Introduction

Package
                     Mackenzie Morgan
Managem...
This Talk

 Sysadmins’
Rosetta Stone

  Mackenzie
   Morgan


Introduction

Package
Management          You: “Red Hat, Red...
Outline

 Sysadmins’
Rosetta Stone

  Mackenzie
   Morgan


Introduction    1   Introduction
Package
Management

Files    ...
Why Package Management First?

 Sysadmins’
Rosetta Stone

  Mackenzie
   Morgan


Introduction

Package
Management

Files
...
Apt and Yum and Bears, Oh my!

 Sysadmins’
Rosetta Stone

  Mackenzie
   Morgan
                Common Debian tools:
Intro...
Package Naming Conventions: Red Hat

 Sysadmins’
Rosetta Stone

  Mackenzie
   Morgan


Introduction

Package
            ...
Package Naming Conventions: Debian

 Sysadmins’
Rosetta Stone

  Mackenzie
   Morgan       python2.6 2.6.2-3 amd64.deb
Int...
Installing and Removing a Local Package

 Sysadmins’
Rosetta Stone

  Mackenzie
   Morgan


Introduction
                I...
Installing and Removing Packages with Repositories

 Sysadmins’
Rosetta Stone

  Mackenzie
   Morgan
                Insta...
Wait. . . Apt-get? Aptitude?

 Sysadmins’
Rosetta Stone

  Mackenzie
                Aptitude:
   Morgan
                 ...
How do I find a package?

 Sysadmins’
Rosetta Stone

  Mackenzie
   Morgan


Introduction
                Debian:
Package
M...
What if I want lots of packages?

 Sysadmins’
Rosetta Stone

  Mackenzie
   Morgan


Introduction

Package
Management     ...
Metapackages

 Sysadmins’
Rosetta Stone

  Mackenzie
   Morgan


Introduction

Package
Management
                Dummy pa...
Tasksel

 Sysadmins’
Rosetta Stone

  Mackenzie
   Morgan


Introduction

Package
Management

Files
                TUI to...
Groupinstall

 Sysadmins’
Rosetta Stone

  Mackenzie
   Morgan


Introduction

Package
Management
                Feature ...
Speaking of Development Packages. . .

 Sysadmins’
Rosetta Stone

  Mackenzie
   Morgan


Introduction

Package
Management...
Staying up to date

 Sysadmins’
Rosetta Stone

  Mackenzie
   Morgan
                Get updated list of available package...
What if I only want to update one package?

 Sysadmins’
Rosetta Stone

  Mackenzie
   Morgan


Introduction

Package
Manag...
When I remove a package, what happens to config
                files?
 Sysadmins’
Rosetta Stone

  Mackenzie
   Morgan


In...
Which package is this file in?

 Sysadmins’
Rosetta Stone

  Mackenzie
   Morgan


Introduction

Package         Debian:
Ma...
What version of a package is installed?

 Sysadmins’
Rosetta Stone

  Mackenzie
   Morgan


Introduction

Package         ...
Outline

 Sysadmins’
Rosetta Stone

  Mackenzie
   Morgan


Introduction    1   Introduction
Package
Management

Files    ...
Speaking of Packages. . .

 Sysadmins’
Rosetta Stone

  Mackenzie
   Morgan


Introduction
                Where are repos...
Interface configuration files

 Sysadmins’
Rosetta Stone

  Mackenzie
   Morgan


Introduction

Package
Management

Files
  ...
Timezones

 Sysadmins’
Rosetta Stone

  Mackenzie
   Morgan


Introduction

Package
Management

Files              Debian:...
Modules to load

 Sysadmins’
Rosetta Stone

  Mackenzie
   Morgan


Introduction

Package
Management

Files               ...
For the OpenAFS users. . .

 Sysadmins’
Rosetta Stone

  Mackenzie
   Morgan


Introduction

Package         krb5-config ha...
Webserver

 Sysadmins’
Rosetta Stone

  Mackenzie
   Morgan


Introduction

Package
Management

Files               Debian...
Firewall configuration

 Sysadmins’
Rosetta Stone

  Mackenzie
   Morgan


Introduction

Package
Management

Files         ...
IDs

 Sysadmins’
Rosetta Stone

  Mackenzie
   Morgan


Introduction          UIDs and GIDs vary
Package
Management       ...
Outline

 Sysadmins’
Rosetta Stone

  Mackenzie
   Morgan


Introduction    1   Introduction
Package
Management

Files    ...
What’s a Runlevel?

 Sysadmins’
Rosetta Stone

  Mackenzie
   Morgan


Introduction

Package
Management

Files
           ...
What does each runlevel do?

 Sysadmins’
Rosetta Stone

  Mackenzie
   Morgan


Introduction

Package         That depends...
Runlevels By Distro

 Sysadmins’
Rosetta Stone    Distro/Runlevel   2   3   4   5
  Mackenzie
   Morgan        By the book...
How do I change runlevels’ services?

 Sysadmins’
Rosetta Stone

  Mackenzie
   Morgan


Introduction
                Old ...
How do I start/stop/restart a service?

 Sysadmins’
Rosetta Stone

  Mackenzie
   Morgan


Introduction

Package
         ...
References

 Sysadmins’
Rosetta Stone

  Mackenzie
   Morgan


Introduction

Package
Management

Files

Services
         ...
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Sysadmins' Rosetta Stone

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A description of the differences between Red Hat's way of doing things and Debian's way of doing things.

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Transcript of "Sysadmins' Rosetta Stone"

  1. 1. Sysadmins’ Rosetta Stone Mackenzie Morgan Introduction Package Management Sysadmins’ Rosetta Stone Files Services Mackenzie Morgan Ohio LinuxFest 2009 26 September 2009
  2. 2. Outline Sysadmins’ Rosetta Stone Mackenzie Morgan Introduction 1 Introduction Package Management Files 2 Package Management Services 3 Files 4 Services
  3. 3. Me Sysadmins’ Rosetta Stone Mackenzie Morgan Introduction Package Mackenzie Morgan Management Computer Science student Files Services *buntu contributor At home: Kubuntu At work: Red Hat (. . . and SUSE. . . and Solaris. . . and AIX. . . )
  4. 4. This Talk Sysadmins’ Rosetta Stone Mackenzie Morgan Introduction Package Management You: “Red Hat, Red Hat, Red Hat, I sure love Red Hat!” Files Pointy-Haired Boss: We’re switching to Debian Services You: But they don’t even use RPM! (Swap “Debian” for “Red Hat” and vice-versa as necessary)
  5. 5. Outline Sysadmins’ Rosetta Stone Mackenzie Morgan Introduction 1 Introduction Package Management Files 2 Package Management Services 3 Files 4 Services
  6. 6. Why Package Management First? Sysadmins’ Rosetta Stone Mackenzie Morgan Introduction Package Management Files Lots of commands Services Use it the most
  7. 7. Apt and Yum and Bears, Oh my! Sysadmins’ Rosetta Stone Mackenzie Morgan Common Debian tools: Introduction apt-cache Package Management apt-get Files aptitude Services dpkg tasksel Common Red Hat & Fedora tools: rpm yum
  8. 8. Package Naming Conventions: Red Hat Sysadmins’ Rosetta Stone Mackenzie Morgan Introduction Package python 2.6-1.i386.rpm Management Parts: Files Software name Services Software version Package version Architecture
  9. 9. Package Naming Conventions: Debian Sysadmins’ Rosetta Stone Mackenzie Morgan python2.6 2.6.2-3 amd64.deb Introduction python2.6 2.6.2-3ubuntu1 amd64.deb Package Parts: Management Files Software name Services Library version (optional) Software version Debian package version Ubuntu package version (only if Ubuntu modifications exist) Architecture
  10. 10. Installing and Removing a Local Package Sysadmins’ Rosetta Stone Mackenzie Morgan Introduction Install: Package Management dpkg -i python2.6 2.6.2-3 amd64.deb Files rpm -Uvh python 2.6-1.i386.rpm Services Remove: dpkg -r python2.6 rpm -e python
  11. 11. Installing and Removing Packages with Repositories Sysadmins’ Rosetta Stone Mackenzie Morgan Install: Introduction apt-get install python2.6 Package Management aptitude install python2.6 Files yum install python Services Remove: apt-get remove python2.6 aptitude remove python2.6 yum remove python Great! Not much to learn there!
  12. 12. Wait. . . Apt-get? Aptitude? Sysadmins’ Rosetta Stone Mackenzie Aptitude: Morgan Always installs “Recommends:” packages Introduction Tracks “manual” versus “automatically” installed packages Package Management Removes “orphaned” packages Files Apt-get: Services Can be configured to automatically install “Recommends:” packages or not (current default: install them) Will prompt about orphaned packages apt-get autoremove will remove orphaned packages Convergence! Aptitude’s main use? Avoiding remembering apt-get and apt-cache
  13. 13. How do I find a package? Sysadmins’ Rosetta Stone Mackenzie Morgan Introduction Debian: Package Management apt-cache search text editor Files Services aptitude search text editor Diff? Aptitude alphabetizes and lists install status Red Hat: yum search text editor
  14. 14. What if I want lots of packages? Sysadmins’ Rosetta Stone Mackenzie Morgan Introduction Package Management List them all! Or. . . Files Metapackages Services Tasksel Groupinstall
  15. 15. Metapackages Sysadmins’ Rosetta Stone Mackenzie Morgan Introduction Package Management Dummy package, depends on lots of other packages Files Ex: Services apt-get install build-essential installs development tools (gcc, kernel headers, etc.)
  16. 16. Tasksel Sysadmins’ Rosetta Stone Mackenzie Morgan Introduction Package Management Files TUI to select and install a certain task, ex: LAMP server Services Just run tasksel
  17. 17. Groupinstall Sysadmins’ Rosetta Stone Mackenzie Morgan Introduction Package Management Feature of Yum Files Ex: Services yum groupinstall ‘‘Development Tools’’ is roughly equivalent to the earlier “build-essential” example
  18. 18. Speaking of Development Packages. . . Sysadmins’ Rosetta Stone Mackenzie Morgan Introduction Package Management Files Debian: -dev packages for headers Services Red Hat: -devel packages for headers
  19. 19. Staying up to date Sysadmins’ Rosetta Stone Mackenzie Morgan Get updated list of available packages: Introduction apt-get update or aptitude update Package Management yum check-update Files Install software updates Services apt-get upgrade or aptitude safe-upgrade yum update (does the above and installs in tandem) Install all software updates and remove obsolete packages apt-get dist-upgrade or aptitude full-upgrade yum upgrade
  20. 20. What if I only want to update one package? Sysadmins’ Rosetta Stone Mackenzie Morgan Introduction Package Management Files apt-get install python2.6 Services yum update python
  21. 21. When I remove a package, what happens to config files? Sysadmins’ Rosetta Stone Mackenzie Morgan Introduction Package Management Files Debian: They’re retained. . . unless apt-get purge Services python2.6 Red Hat: They’re removed
  22. 22. Which package is this file in? Sysadmins’ Rosetta Stone Mackenzie Morgan Introduction Package Debian: Management Files If file exists dpkg -S $FILENAME Services If not apt-file search $FILENAME Red Hat: rpm -qf $FILENAME
  23. 23. What version of a package is installed? Sysadmins’ Rosetta Stone Mackenzie Morgan Introduction Package Debian: Management Files dpkg -l $PACKAGE Services apt-cache policy $PACKAGE Red Hat: rpm -qi $PACKAGE | awk ‘/Version/{ print $3 }’
  24. 24. Outline Sysadmins’ Rosetta Stone Mackenzie Morgan Introduction 1 Introduction Package Management Files 2 Package Management Services 3 Files 4 Services
  25. 25. Speaking of Packages. . . Sysadmins’ Rosetta Stone Mackenzie Morgan Introduction Where are repositories configured? Package Management Debian: /etc/apt/sources.list Files Red Hat: /etc/yum.repos.d/*.repo Services Where do downloaded packages go? Debian: /var/cache/apt/archives/ Red Hat: /var/cache/yum/
  26. 26. Interface configuration files Sysadmins’ Rosetta Stone Mackenzie Morgan Introduction Package Management Files Debian: /etc/network/interfaces Services Red Hat: /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-* (ex: ifcfg-eth0)
  27. 27. Timezones Sysadmins’ Rosetta Stone Mackenzie Morgan Introduction Package Management Files Debian: /etc/timezone Services Red Hat: /etc/sysconfig/clock
  28. 28. Modules to load Sysadmins’ Rosetta Stone Mackenzie Morgan Introduction Package Management Files Debian: /etc/modules Services Red Hat: /etc/sysconfig/udev-stw
  29. 29. For the OpenAFS users. . . Sysadmins’ Rosetta Stone Mackenzie Morgan Introduction Package krb5-config has no standard place Management Files Debian: /usr/bin/krb5-config Services Red Hat: /usr/kerberos/bin/krb5-config SUSE: /usr/mit/bin/krb5-config Solaris: /opt/csw/bin/krb5-config
  30. 30. Webserver Sysadmins’ Rosetta Stone Mackenzie Morgan Introduction Package Management Files Debian: /etc/apache2/ Services Red Hat: /etc/httpd/
  31. 31. Firewall configuration Sysadmins’ Rosetta Stone Mackenzie Morgan Introduction Package Management Files Debian: /var/lib/iptables Services Red Hat: /etc/sysconfig/iptables
  32. 32. IDs Sysadmins’ Rosetta Stone Mackenzie Morgan Introduction UIDs and GIDs vary Package Management Debian starts at 1000 Files Red Hat starts at 500 Services Filesystem permissions become sad Change here: Debian: /etc/adduser.conf Red Hat: /etc/login.defs
  33. 33. Outline Sysadmins’ Rosetta Stone Mackenzie Morgan Introduction 1 Introduction Package Management Files 2 Package Management Services 3 Files 4 Services
  34. 34. What’s a Runlevel? Sysadmins’ Rosetta Stone Mackenzie Morgan Introduction Package Management Files Pre-defined sets of scripts and programs to start in a specific Services state
  35. 35. What does each runlevel do? Sysadmins’ Rosetta Stone Mackenzie Morgan Introduction Package That depends. Are you asking: Management Files 1 Someone who read a book on “Linux” once Services 2 Someone who’s poked at their system’s runlevels 3 Someone who’s used many distros 4 Wikipedia
  36. 36. Runlevels By Distro Sysadmins’ Rosetta Stone Distro/Runlevel 2 3 4 5 Mackenzie Morgan By the book ♠ ♣ ♦ Debian Introduction Gentoo ♠ ♦ Package Management Red Hat ♣ ♦ Files SUSE ♠ ♣ ♦ Services Key: ♦ = Undefined = Multi-user with display manager ♣ = Multi-user without display manager ♠ = Multi-user without networking or display manager = Multi-user with networking but without most network services
  37. 37. How do I change runlevels’ services? Sysadmins’ Rosetta Stone Mackenzie Morgan Introduction Old Answer: Package Management Debian: manually create/rm symlinks (or Files update-rc.d. . . if you’re a script) Services Red Hat: use chkconfig New Answer: Use chkconfig Yay! Convergence!
  38. 38. How do I start/stop/restart a service? Sysadmins’ Rosetta Stone Mackenzie Morgan Introduction Package Old Answer: Management Debian: /etc/init.d/$SERVICE start Files Services Red Hat: service $SERVICE start or that New Answer: service $SERVICE start Yay! Convergence!
  39. 39. References Sysadmins’ Rosetta Stone Mackenzie Morgan Introduction Package Management Files Services http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Runlevel
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