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Creating Persuasive Technologies:  An Eight-Step Design Process  + A Behavior Model for Persuasive Design
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Creating Persuasive Technologies: An Eight-Step Design Process + A Behavior Model for Persuasive Design


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  • 1. Creating Persuasive Technologies: An Eight-Step Design Process /A Behavior Model for Persuasive Design + Persuasive 09 -BJ Fogg /임하진 x 2013 Autumn
  • 3. BJ Fogg Stanford Persuasive Technology Lab. "Persuasive Technology 컴퓨터를 사용해서 우리가 생각하는 방식, 행동하 는 방식을 변화 시키는 것 " (Using Computers to Change What We Think and Do) the foundation for captology. the founder and director of Stanford's annual Mobile Health conference. created a new model of human behavior change. In 2011, the World Economic Forum's Wellness Workplace Alliance selected the Fogg Behavior Model as their framework for health behavior change.
  • 4. Background Persuasive technologies are ubiquitous 웹 서비스 (from commerce sites to social networking) 비디오 게임 (e.g., Wii Fit and Dance Dance Revolution) 모바일 (e.g., health applications for iPhone and commercial texting services) specialized consumer electronic device, from “talking” pedometers to bathroom scales that track body mass. Challenges “완전히 새로운 persuasive technology 서비스를 개발하고 싶다.” Motivation 많은 사람들이 범용적으로 사용할 수 있는 잘 정리된 persuasive technology 디자인 프로세스의 부재 The lack of a well-defined process for designing persuasive technology leads people to adapt methods from other fields,
  • 5. Design Guideline from “Best Practice”
  • 6. technology has been succes audience. Until then, I ad audience. For example, if th persuade users to adopt bette audience who has demonstrat team wants to persuade peop designers will increase their people who already exercise Design teams have so many t new persuasive technology th In fact, choosing the wrong the design project, especially in later steps, once a design that is working, they will be and bring in users who are les 8 Steps in Early stage persuasive design The next consideration in ch people are with technology. I other adventurous souls as mistake to target an audience beginning to use the techno building a persuasive techno or interactive TV. The best a those who enjoy using techno In some cases, the first two completed in reverse ord determine the target behavior a project to motivate teens different behavior (e.g., gett project to persuade older ad amount to ensure a secure ret a team to back up to Ste combination of behavior a foundation for the subsequen The goal of the Steps 1 through 7 of the design process is to create a digital product that reliably persuades someone—not everyone— to adopt the target behavior. Step 3: Find what pr Once a design team has se audience to target, it’s time t team must determine what performing the target behav grade aren’t brushing their t As another example, if alumn why not? The answers to such question of the following three categor Figure 1: Eight steps in early-stage persuasive design • lack of motivation
  • 7. Step 1. Choose simple behavior to target 가장 작고, 심플한 행동을 타겟하라 작은 목적을 이루는 것으로 부터 시작하라 Achieving the small goal may have bigger effects than expected; persuasion professionals have long understood that getting people to do small things naturally leads to their adopting more ambitious behaviors, even without a bigger intervention. 스트레스를 줄이자 좀 더 건강해지자 Too Big and Vague Eco-friendly 경제적인 생활을 하자
  • 8. Step 2. Choose a receptive audience 가장 쉬워 보이는 타겟을 골라라 올바른 식단 습관 -> 식단 습관을 개선할 욕구를 보이는 사람 올바른 운동 -> 한두번이라도 건강을 위해 운동을 해 보았던 경험을 가진 사람 technology channel과 친숙한 타겟을 골라라 early adopters 군 새로운 기술과 서비스를 시도해 보는 것을 좋아하는 집단 helping compulsive gamblers to stop Too tough
  • 9. Step 3: Find what prevents the target behavior audience 들이 타깃 행동을 하지 못하는 이유를 규명하라 아이들이 이 닦기 싫어하는 이유 ? alumni들의 기부금액이 적은 이유? why? lack of motivation lack of ability lack of a well-timed trigger to perform the behavior 하나의 이유를 해결하는 데 집중하라 Motivation과 Ability가 모두 부족한 경우 -> 다시 step 1, 2로 돌아가야한다 Motivation과 Ability를 동시에 변화시키는 것은 거의 불가능
  • 10. Step 4: Choose a familiar technology channel Best Channel <- target behavior / the audience / what is preventing the audience from adopting the behavior 선택 가능한 옵션 Motivation이 부족할 때 : online video, social networks, and video games, Ability가 부족할 때 : installed software and specialized devices, excel at making a behavior simpler (which is functionally the same as increasing ability). Trigger가 제대로 역할을 하지 못할 때 : Text Msg, E mail 정치 정당에서 기부금액을 높이고자 할 때 -> Web (결재) 친구와 메시지를 주고 받을 수 있도록 할 때 -> Email/ 비디오 / SNS 새로운 Channel을 학습하는 것을 기대하는 것 (X) 새로운 Channel에 적응하는 것 자체 -> behavior change.
  • 11. Re-ordering the First Four Steps technology has audience. Until audience. For ex persuade users to audience who ha team wants to p designers will in people who alrea Design teams ha new persuasive t In fact, choosing the design projec in later steps, on that is working, and bring in user The next consid people are with other adventuro mistake to target beginning to us building a persu or interactive TV those who enjoy In some cases, t
  • 12. Step 5. Find relevant examples of persuasive technology 관련 있는 성공 사례들을 수집 적어도 열가지 비슷한 behavior 비슷한 audience 같은 communication channel
  • 13. Step 6. Imitate successful examples Step 8에 이르러 unique함을 추구할 수 있음 The opportunity for real innovation comes after laying a solid foundation. “secret sauce” – the special ingredient that makes the example effective.
  • 14. Step 7: Test and iterate quickly test various persuasive experiences quickly and repeatedly. not scientific experiments Designing for persuasion is harder than designing for usability. set low expectations for their trials knowing how to prototype, test, and evaluate results quickly is the most valuable skill for designers of persuasive technology. many crummy trials beats deep thinking
  • 15. Step 8: Expand on success 프로젝트의 규모를 키우는 단계 target behavior 더 어렵게 / 다층적으로 만드는 것 새로운 Audience 군에게 적용 새로운 Channel의 활용 the starting point for a controlled and scientific experiment -> Measure up
  • 16. EVERYTHING BIG STARTED SMALL successful consumer Internet services : Each service started in a small, focused way Google offered a simple search box. Yahoo was merely a list of links. Facebook was a directory created for friends. As the small offerings succeeded, they expanded. That approach to innovation works.
  • 18. Fogg Behavior Model (FBM) behavior is a product of three factors: motivation, ability, and triggers 사람이 Target Behavior을 이루기 위해서는 충분한 동기 행동을 수행할 수 있는 ability 행동을 수행할 수 있도록 Trigger가 제공되어야 함 이 모든 세가지가 동시에 충족되었을 때만 Target Behavior가 성취될 수 있음
  • 19. The visualization in Figure 1 is not the only way to represent the core concepts in the FBM. However, this form seems the most natural and practical. users the star would be located in the lower right part of the framework. This placement means that ability is high and motivation is low. Other users, however, might really want the free newsletter from the web site, so their motivation level would Figure 1: The Fogg Behavior Model has three factors: motivation, ability, and triggers.
  • 20. Motivation & Ability Can Trade Off 두 축의 어느 것도 0에 수렴해 있으면 불가능 Increasing Motivation Increasing Ability = Making behavior Simple
  • 21. Triggers & Timing Triggers & Timing 적절한 시간에 적절한 형태의 Trigger가 주어지지 않으면 Motivation과 Ability가 갖춰져 있더라도 행동은 일어나 지 않음 형태 : 알람, 문자메시지, 안내문, 꼬르륵 거리는 배 “Hey, right now is a great time to play the ukulele!” Good Trigger Trigger의 인지 가능 정도 / Target Behavior과의 연결성 Motivation이 낮은 경우 -> 짜증 Ability가 낮은 경우 -> 실망감을 줄 수 있음
  • 22. Prevention Is there a way to reduce motivation? To take away ability? Is there a way to remove triggers? 어떤 행동을 하지 못하게 하는 것은 일반적으로 하게 하는 것보다 더 어렵다
  • 23. Elements of Motivation Motivator #1: Pleasure / Pain 즉각적이고 본능적인 보상과 고통 -> 생각의 여지가 없음 hunger, sex, and other activities related to self-preservation and propagation of our genes. Motivator #2: Hope / Fear 결과에 대한 기대 Hope : 좋은 일이 생길 것 같은 기대감 / Fear : 나쁜 일이 생길 것 같은 걱정 dating web site / virus software Motivator #3: Social Acceptance / Rejection 사회적인 인정과 기각
  • 24. Elements of Simplicity (Ability) 무조건 쉽고 간단하게 만들어라 (persuasive design relies heavily on the power of simplicity) 1-click shopping at Amazon. Because it’s easy to buy things, people buy more. Simplicity changes behaviors. increasing ability != about teaching people to do new things or training them for improvement. People are generally resistant to teaching and training because it requires effort.
  • 25. Elements of Simplicity (Ability) Time Money Physical effort Brain Cycle Social Deviance None routine
  • 26. Three Types of Triggers Spark as Trigger : Motivation When a person lacks motivation to perform a target behavior, a trigger should be designed in tandem with a motivational element. Facilitator as Trigger This type of trigger is appropriate for users that have high motivation but lack ability. Like sparks, a facilitator can be embodied in text, video, graphics, and more. Signal as Trigger This trigger type works best when people have both the ability and the motivation to perform the target behavior.
  • 27. Figure 2: All three factors in the Fogg Behavior Model have subcomponents.
  • 28. 사용하고 있는 / 효과가 있었다고 느꼈던 Persuasive Design은? 말은 쉬운데.... 막상 생각해보면.... Discussion Persuasive Design의 범위는? 올해가 가기 전에 이루고 싶은 행동 변화는?