Creating Persuasive Technologies: An Eight-Step Design Process + A Behavior Model for Persuasive Design
An Eight-Step Design
Process /A Behavior Model
for Persuasive Design
+ Persuasive 09
x 2013 Autumn
CREATING PERSUASIVE TECHNOLOGIES:
AN EIGHT-STEP DESIGN PROCESS (PERSUASIVE’09)
Stanford Persuasive Technology Lab.
컴퓨터를 사용해서 우리가 생각하는 방식, 행동하
는 방식을 변화 시키는 것
(Using Computers to Change What We Think and Do)
the foundation for captology.
the founder and director of Stanford's
annual Mobile Health conference.
created a new model of human
In 2011, the World Economic Forum's Wellness
Workplace Alliance selected the Fogg Behavior
Model as their framework for health behavior
Persuasive technologies are ubiquitous
웹 서비스 (from commerce sites to social networking)
비디오 게임 (e.g., Wii Fit and Dance Dance Revolution)
모바일 (e.g., health applications for iPhone and commercial texting services)
specialized consumer electronic device, from “talking” pedometers to bathroom scales that
track body mass.
“완전히 새로운 persuasive technology 서비스를 개발하고 싶다.”
많은 사람들이 범용적으로 사용할 수 있는 잘 정리된 persuasive technology 디자인 프로세스의 부재
The lack of a well-deﬁned process for designing persuasive technology leads people to adapt
methods from other ﬁelds,
technology has been succes
audience. Until then, I ad
audience. For example, if th
persuade users to adopt bette
audience who has demonstrat
team wants to persuade peop
designers will increase their
people who already exercise
Design teams have so many t
new persuasive technology th
In fact, choosing the wrong
the design project, especially
in later steps, once a design
that is working, they will be
and bring in users who are les
8 Steps in
Early stage persuasive design
The next consideration in ch
people are with technology. I
other adventurous souls as
mistake to target an audience
beginning to use the techno
building a persuasive techno
or interactive TV. The best a
those who enjoy using techno
In some cases, the first two
completed in reverse ord
determine the target behavior
a project to motivate teens
different behavior (e.g., gett
project to persuade older ad
amount to ensure a secure ret
a team to back up to Ste
combination of behavior a
foundation for the subsequen
The goal of the Steps 1 through 7 of the design
process is to create a digital product that reliably
persuades someone—not everyone— to adopt
the target behavior.
Step 3: Find what pr
Once a design team has se
audience to target, it’s time t
team must determine what
performing the target behav
grade aren’t brushing their t
As another example, if alumn
The answers to such question
of the following three categor
Figure 1: Eight steps in early-stage persuasive design
lack of motivation
Step 1. Choose simple behavior to target
가장 작고, 심플한 행동을 타겟하라
작은 목적을 이루는 것으로 부터 시작하라
Achieving the small goal may have bigger effects than expected;
persuasion professionals have long understood that getting people to
do small things naturally leads to their adopting more ambitious
behaviors, even without a bigger intervention.
좀 더 건강해지자
Too Big and Vague
경제적인 생활을 하자
Step 2. Choose a receptive audience
가장 쉬워 보이는 타겟을 골라라
올바른 식단 습관 -> 식단 습관을 개선할 욕구를 보이는 사람
올바른 운동 -> 한두번이라도 건강을 위해 운동을 해 보았던 경험을 가진 사람
technology channel과 친숙한 타겟을 골라라
early adopters 군
새로운 기술과 서비스를 시도해 보는 것을 좋아하는 집단
helping compulsive gamblers to stop
Step 3: Find what prevents the target behavior
audience 들이 타깃 행동을 하지 못하는 이유를 규명하라
아이들이 이 닦기 싫어하는 이유 ?
alumni들의 기부금액이 적은 이유?
lack of motivation
lack of ability
lack of a well-timed trigger to perform the behavior
하나의 이유를 해결하는 데 집중하라
Motivation과 Ability가 모두 부족한 경우 -> 다시 step 1, 2로 돌아가야한다
Motivation과 Ability를 동시에 변화시키는 것은 거의 불가능
Step 4: Choose a familiar technology channel
Best Channel <- target behavior / the audience / what is preventing the
audience from adopting the behavior
선택 가능한 옵션
Motivation이 부족할 때 : online video, social networks, and video games,
Ability가 부족할 때 : installed software and specialized devices, excel at making a behavior simpler (which is
functionally the same as increasing ability).
Trigger가 제대로 역할을 하지 못할 때 : Text Msg, E mail
정치 정당에서 기부금액을 높이고자 할 때 -> Web (결재)
친구와 메시지를 주고 받을 수 있도록 할 때 -> Email/ 비디오 / SNS
새로운 Channel을 학습하는 것을 기대하는 것 (X)
새로운 Channel에 적응하는 것 자체 -> behavior change.
Re-ordering the First Four Steps
audience. For ex
persuade users to
audience who ha
team wants to p
designers will in
people who alrea
Design teams ha
new persuasive t
In fact, choosing
the design projec
in later steps, on
that is working,
and bring in user
The next consid
people are with
mistake to target
beginning to us
building a persu
or interactive TV
those who enjoy
In some cases, t
Step 5. Find relevant examples of persuasive technology
관련 있는 성공 사례들을 수집
같은 communication channel
Step 6. Imitate successful examples
Step 8에 이르러 unique함을 추구할 수 있음
The opportunity for real innovation comes after laying a solid foundation.
“secret sauce” – the special ingredient that makes the example
Step 7: Test and iterate quickly
test various persuasive experiences quickly and repeatedly.
not scientiﬁc experiments
Designing for persuasion is harder than designing for usability.
set low expectations for their trials
knowing how to prototype, test, and evaluate results quickly is the most
valuable skill for designers of persuasive technology.
many crummy trials beats
Step 8: Expand on success
프로젝트의 규모를 키우는 단계
target behavior 더 어렵게 / 다층적으로 만드는 것
새로운 Audience 군에게 적용
새로운 Channel의 활용
the starting point for a controlled and scientiﬁc experiment
-> Measure up
EVERYTHING BIG STARTED SMALL
successful consumer Internet services : Each service started in a small, focused
Google offered a simple search box.
Yahoo was merely a list of links.
Facebook was a directory created for friends.
As the small offerings succeeded, they expanded.
That approach to innovation works.
A BEHAVIOR MODEL FOR PERSUASIVE DESIGN
Fogg Behavior Model (FBM)
behavior is a product of three factors: motivation,
ability, and triggers
사람이 Target Behavior을 이루기 위해서는
행동을 수행할 수 있는 ability
행동을 수행할 수 있도록 Trigger가 제공되어야 함
이 모든 세가지가 동시에 충족되었을 때만 Target Behavior가 성취될 수 있음
The visualization in Figure 1 is not the only way to represent the
core concepts in the FBM. However, this form seems the most
natural and practical.
users the star would be located in the lower right part of the
framework. This placement means that ability is high and
motivation is low. Other users, however, might really want the
free newsletter from the web site, so their motivation level would
Figure 1: The Fogg Behavior Model has three factors: motivation, ability, and triggers.
Motivation & Ability Can Trade Off
두 축의 어느 것도 0에 수렴해 있으면 불가능
Increasing Ability = Making behavior Simple
Triggers & Timing
Triggers & Timing
적절한 시간에 적절한 형태의 Trigger가 주어지지 않으면 Motivation과 Ability가 갖춰져 있더라도 행동은 일어나
형태 : 알람, 문자메시지, 안내문, 꼬르륵 거리는 배
“Hey, right now is a great time to play the ukulele!”
Trigger의 인지 가능 정도 / Target Behavior과의 연결성
Motivation이 낮은 경우 -> 짜증
Ability가 낮은 경우 -> 실망감을 줄 수 있음
Is there a way to reduce motivation?
To take away ability?
Is there a way to remove triggers?
어떤 행동을 하지 못하게 하는 것은 일반적으로 하게 하는 것보다 더 어렵다
Elements of Motivation
Motivator #1: Pleasure / Pain
즉각적이고 본능적인 보상과 고통 -> 생각의 여지가 없음
hunger, sex, and other activities related to self-preservation and propagation of our genes.
Motivator #2: Hope / Fear
결과에 대한 기대
Hope : 좋은 일이 생길 것 같은 기대감 / Fear : 나쁜 일이 생길 것 같은 걱정
dating web site / virus software
Motivator #3: Social Acceptance / Rejection
사회적인 인정과 기각
Elements of Simplicity (Ability)
무조건 쉽고 간단하게 만들어라 (persuasive design relies heavily on the power of simplicity)
1-click shopping at Amazon. Because it’s easy to buy things, people buy more. Simplicity changes behaviors.
increasing ability != about teaching people to do new
things or training them for improvement.
People are generally resistant to teaching and training
because it requires effort.
Elements of Simplicity (Ability)
Three Types of Triggers
Spark as Trigger : Motivation
When a person lacks motivation to perform a target behavior, a trigger should be
designed in tandem with a motivational element.
Facilitator as Trigger
This type of trigger is appropriate for users that have high motivation but lack ability.
Like sparks, a facilitator can be embodied in text, video, graphics, and more.
Signal as Trigger
This trigger type works best when people have both the ability and
the motivation to perform the target behavior.
Figure 2: All three factors in the Fogg Behavior Model have subcomponents.
사용하고 있는 / 효과가 있었다고 느꼈던 Persuasive Design은?
말은 쉬운데.... 막상 생각해보면....
Persuasive Design의 범위는?
올해가 가기 전에 이루고 싶은 행동 변화는?