International Management

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Presentation of Principle of Management by Happy Kurnia Wijaya

Presentation of Principle of Management by Happy Kurnia Wijaya

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  • 1. CHAPTER 5 International Management
  • 2. GLOBALISASI KBBI : glo·ba·li·sa·si n proses masuknya ke ruang lingkup dunia
  • 3. Keywords :  Global economy  Global management  Global manager  Global business
  • 4. Global Business  Market entry strategies : Strategi masuk pasar global namun dengan biaya investasi murah Contoh Market level strategies :  Global sourcing  Exporting  Importing  Licensing agreement  Franchising
  • 5.  Direct Investment Strategies : Mahal, tapi aman. Jadi bisa memiliki hak kepemilikan dan kontrol langsung. Tipe & Keywords  JointVenture : Kerjasama  StrategicAlliances : Berbagi modal dan skill  Foreign Subsidiaries : Dimiliki
  • 6. Global Business Environment Things to watch :  Legal and political systems  Trade agreements and trade barriers  Regional economic alliances
  • 7. Global Business Tipe :  Global corporation Multinasional, operasi ekstensif di lebih dari 1 negara  Transnational corporation Multinasional, operasi internasional tanpa batas Bisa menguntungkan untuk perusahaan dan host country.Tapi bisa merugikan juga.
  • 8. Tiap daerah berbeda dan sangat memengaruhi Ekonomi Global dan Manajemennya. Untuk itu, demi menembus pasar global sebelumnya perlu belajar soal budaya daerah tersebut (yang bersangkutan), politik , peraturan, geografis, dan hal-hal esensial lainnya supaya bisnis berjalan lancar.
  • 9. Chapter 6 Entrepreneurship and Small Business Management
  • 10. Entrepeneurship : Tindakan risk-taking yang bisa membuka suatu kesempatan baru. Dalam hal ini usaha/bisnis. Ciri khas entrepeneurship : Internal locus of control High energy level High need for achievement Tolerance for ambiguity Selfconfidence Passion and action orientation
  • 11.  Belakangan ada necessity-based entrepreneurship : Dilakukan karena tidak ada/kehabisan lapangan pekerjaan, makanya membuat sendiri.  Social entrepeneurship : Entrepeneurship untuk mengatasi isu-isu sosial.
  • 12. Small Business Macam-macam cara mulai :  Start up  Franchise  Lean Start-Up  Ada juga yang langsung dimulai dari sebuah usaha keluarga
  • 13.  Ada yang namanya Small-Business Incubators/Start Up Incubators : Membantu sar- pras/merancangkan sistem/etc yang berguna untuk start-up sebuah usaha.  Untuk memulai, biasanya diperlukan Business Plan yang baik dan representatif. Untuk apa? Untuk meyakinkan investor dan atau bank untuk menyumbangkan modal.
  • 14. Ownership  Sole ownership /Tunggal  Partnership -> General dan Limited  Corporation  LLC (Limited Liability Company) : Gabungan semua diatas untuk mengurangi kerugian.
  • 15. Financing  Debt  Equity  Venture Capitalists  Angel Investor  Initial Public Offering
  • 16. Chapter 11 Organizational Change and Development
  • 17.  Organizational culture The system of shared beliefs and values that develops within an organization and guides the behavior of its members.  Socialization How new members learn the culture of the Organization.
  • 18.  Strong Culture  ObservableCulture  Core Culture : Underlying assumptions and beliefs that influence behavior and contribute to the observable culture. Important cultural values include:  Performance excellence  Innovation  Social responsibility  Integrity  Worker involvement  Customer service  Teamwork
  • 19.  Value-based management: Describes managers who actively help to develop, communicate, and enact shared values.  Symbolic Leader : Leader yang simbolik. Banyak menggunakan metafor, simbol, rites, dkk.
  • 20. Multiculural Organization  Plural, diverse.  Lingkungan multikultural saling meghormati dan meminimalisir masalah diversitas.  Sering ada masalah dengan minoritas dan wanita. Ada juga etnosentrisme.
  • 21. Diversity leadership approaches:  Managing diversity commits to building an organizational culture that allows all members to reach their full potential  Affirmative action commits the organization to hiring and advancing minorities and women  Valuing diversity commits the organization to education and training programs
  • 22. Change Leader  Membawa perubahan. Change leadership  Forward-looking  Proactive  Embraces new ideas Top Down Change, Bottom Up change, Integrated change. Perubahan ada Incremental danTransformational.
  • 23. Planned Change  Step : Unfreezing -> Change -> Refreezing Improvisational Change :Terus menerus dan menyesuaikan kondisi. Strategy of Change :  Force Coercion  Rational Persuation  Shared Powers
  • 24. Changes Why people resist change:  Fear of the unknown  Disrupted habits  Loss of confidence  Loss of control  Poor timing  Work overload  Loss of face  Lack of purpose
  • 25. Methods for dealing with resistance to change:  Education and communication  Participation and involvement  Facilitation and support  Facilitation and agreement  Manipulation and co-optation  Explicit and implicit coercion
  • 26. Chapter 3 Ethical Behavior and Social Responsibility
  • 27. Ethics  Code of moral principles.  Set standards of “good” or “bad” or “right” or “wrong” in one’s conduct. Ethical behavior  What is accepted as good and right in the context of the governing moral code.
  • 28.  Legal behavior tidak selalu ethical behavior.  Values :Yang satu orang anut dan mempengaruhi tingkah laku. TerminalValues & InstrumentalValues : Terminal : Fokus ke akhir. Instrumental : Bagaimana sampai ke akhir. Alternative ethical views :  Utilitarian Delivers the greatest good to the most people  Individualism Advances long-term self-interests  Moral rights Maintains fundamental rights of all human beings
  • 29.  Cultural Issues : Relativism, Universalism, Ethical Imperialism  Ethical Dilemma : Dimana hal yang dilakukan dan beneficial (untuk diri sendiri/organisasi) dianggap tidak etis.  Ethical Framework : Ada guidelines untuk decision making yang etis
  • 30.  Codes of Ethical Conduct : Kode etis yang dinyatakan secara formal dalam satu organisasi mengenai tindakan dan keputusan apa yang akan diambil.  Manajers : Immoral, Amoral, Moral  Whistleblowers : Membongkar tindakan yang “salah”
  • 31.  Social Entrepeneurship : Berusaha menyelesaikan dan mengatasi isu – isu sosial.  CSR : Corporate Social Responsibilty Tindakan yang dilakukan untuk kesejahteraan bersama. Korporat tidak hanya memperhitungkan keuntungan pribadi saja.