International Management

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Presentation of Principle of Management by Happy Kurnia Wijaya

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International Management

  1. 1. CHAPTER 5 International Management
  2. 2. GLOBALISASI KBBI : glo·ba·li·sa·si n proses masuknya ke ruang lingkup dunia
  3. 3. Keywords :  Global economy  Global management  Global manager  Global business
  4. 4. Global Business  Market entry strategies : Strategi masuk pasar global namun dengan biaya investasi murah Contoh Market level strategies :  Global sourcing  Exporting  Importing  Licensing agreement  Franchising
  5. 5.  Direct Investment Strategies : Mahal, tapi aman. Jadi bisa memiliki hak kepemilikan dan kontrol langsung. Tipe & Keywords  JointVenture : Kerjasama  StrategicAlliances : Berbagi modal dan skill  Foreign Subsidiaries : Dimiliki
  6. 6. Global Business Environment Things to watch :  Legal and political systems  Trade agreements and trade barriers  Regional economic alliances
  7. 7. Global Business Tipe :  Global corporation Multinasional, operasi ekstensif di lebih dari 1 negara  Transnational corporation Multinasional, operasi internasional tanpa batas Bisa menguntungkan untuk perusahaan dan host country.Tapi bisa merugikan juga.
  8. 8. Tiap daerah berbeda dan sangat memengaruhi Ekonomi Global dan Manajemennya. Untuk itu, demi menembus pasar global sebelumnya perlu belajar soal budaya daerah tersebut (yang bersangkutan), politik , peraturan, geografis, dan hal-hal esensial lainnya supaya bisnis berjalan lancar.
  9. 9. Chapter 6 Entrepreneurship and Small Business Management
  10. 10. Entrepeneurship : Tindakan risk-taking yang bisa membuka suatu kesempatan baru. Dalam hal ini usaha/bisnis. Ciri khas entrepeneurship : Internal locus of control High energy level High need for achievement Tolerance for ambiguity Selfconfidence Passion and action orientation
  11. 11.  Belakangan ada necessity-based entrepreneurship : Dilakukan karena tidak ada/kehabisan lapangan pekerjaan, makanya membuat sendiri.  Social entrepeneurship : Entrepeneurship untuk mengatasi isu-isu sosial.
  12. 12. Small Business Macam-macam cara mulai :  Start up  Franchise  Lean Start-Up  Ada juga yang langsung dimulai dari sebuah usaha keluarga
  13. 13.  Ada yang namanya Small-Business Incubators/Start Up Incubators : Membantu sar- pras/merancangkan sistem/etc yang berguna untuk start-up sebuah usaha.  Untuk memulai, biasanya diperlukan Business Plan yang baik dan representatif. Untuk apa? Untuk meyakinkan investor dan atau bank untuk menyumbangkan modal.
  14. 14. Ownership  Sole ownership /Tunggal  Partnership -> General dan Limited  Corporation  LLC (Limited Liability Company) : Gabungan semua diatas untuk mengurangi kerugian.
  15. 15. Financing  Debt  Equity  Venture Capitalists  Angel Investor  Initial Public Offering
  16. 16. Chapter 11 Organizational Change and Development
  17. 17.  Organizational culture The system of shared beliefs and values that develops within an organization and guides the behavior of its members.  Socialization How new members learn the culture of the Organization.
  18. 18.  Strong Culture  ObservableCulture  Core Culture : Underlying assumptions and beliefs that influence behavior and contribute to the observable culture. Important cultural values include:  Performance excellence  Innovation  Social responsibility  Integrity  Worker involvement  Customer service  Teamwork
  19. 19.  Value-based management: Describes managers who actively help to develop, communicate, and enact shared values.  Symbolic Leader : Leader yang simbolik. Banyak menggunakan metafor, simbol, rites, dkk.
  20. 20. Multiculural Organization  Plural, diverse.  Lingkungan multikultural saling meghormati dan meminimalisir masalah diversitas.  Sering ada masalah dengan minoritas dan wanita. Ada juga etnosentrisme.
  21. 21. Diversity leadership approaches:  Managing diversity commits to building an organizational culture that allows all members to reach their full potential  Affirmative action commits the organization to hiring and advancing minorities and women  Valuing diversity commits the organization to education and training programs
  22. 22. Change Leader  Membawa perubahan. Change leadership  Forward-looking  Proactive  Embraces new ideas Top Down Change, Bottom Up change, Integrated change. Perubahan ada Incremental danTransformational.
  23. 23. Planned Change  Step : Unfreezing -> Change -> Refreezing Improvisational Change :Terus menerus dan menyesuaikan kondisi. Strategy of Change :  Force Coercion  Rational Persuation  Shared Powers
  24. 24. Changes Why people resist change:  Fear of the unknown  Disrupted habits  Loss of confidence  Loss of control  Poor timing  Work overload  Loss of face  Lack of purpose
  25. 25. Methods for dealing with resistance to change:  Education and communication  Participation and involvement  Facilitation and support  Facilitation and agreement  Manipulation and co-optation  Explicit and implicit coercion
  26. 26. Chapter 3 Ethical Behavior and Social Responsibility
  27. 27. Ethics  Code of moral principles.  Set standards of “good” or “bad” or “right” or “wrong” in one’s conduct. Ethical behavior  What is accepted as good and right in the context of the governing moral code.
  28. 28.  Legal behavior tidak selalu ethical behavior.  Values :Yang satu orang anut dan mempengaruhi tingkah laku. TerminalValues & InstrumentalValues : Terminal : Fokus ke akhir. Instrumental : Bagaimana sampai ke akhir. Alternative ethical views :  Utilitarian Delivers the greatest good to the most people  Individualism Advances long-term self-interests  Moral rights Maintains fundamental rights of all human beings
  29. 29.  Cultural Issues : Relativism, Universalism, Ethical Imperialism  Ethical Dilemma : Dimana hal yang dilakukan dan beneficial (untuk diri sendiri/organisasi) dianggap tidak etis.  Ethical Framework : Ada guidelines untuk decision making yang etis
  30. 30.  Codes of Ethical Conduct : Kode etis yang dinyatakan secara formal dalam satu organisasi mengenai tindakan dan keputusan apa yang akan diambil.  Manajers : Immoral, Amoral, Moral  Whistleblowers : Membongkar tindakan yang “salah”
  31. 31.  Social Entrepeneurship : Berusaha menyelesaikan dan mengatasi isu – isu sosial.  CSR : Corporate Social Responsibilty Tindakan yang dilakukan untuk kesejahteraan bersama. Korporat tidak hanya memperhitungkan keuntungan pribadi saja.

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