Research indicates that academic achievementand students’ behaviors are influenced by the quality of the teacher-student relationship.
KleinfieldKleinfield analyzed teachers’ relationships withEskimo and Native American students who had bothmoved to a more urban setting.Findings He found that the more effective teachers showed apersonal interest in the students and alsodemanded solid academic achievement.
Center for Research on the Context of SecondarySchool Teaching at Stanford UniversityResearchers investigated students’ perceptions offactors that influence academic achievement.Findings Many student comments emphasized that theywere able to achievement better in classes whenthey felt that the teachers cared.
Wehlage, Rutter, Smith, Lesko, and Fernandez(1989)These researchers reported the following roadblocks to apositive teacher-student relationship:1. Adjustment: Schools do not provide a personal and supportive environment.2. Difficulty: The type of instructional strategies utilized (i.e., lecture) and the fact that there was not enough time proved difficult for students.3. Incongruence: There was a lack of personal-social alignment between the students and the school.4. Isolation: Students had no personal relationship with adults.
Wehlage, Rutter, Smith, Lesko, and Fernandez (1989)These researchers reported the following roadblocks to apositive teacher-student relationship:1. Adjustment: Schools do not provide a personal and supportive environment2. Difficulty: The type of instructional strategies utilized (i.e., lecture) and the fact that there was not enough time proved difficult for students.Findings Many student comments emphasized that they were able toachievement better in classes when they felt that the teacherscared.
Wehlage, Rutter, Smith, Lesko, and Fernandez(1989) - continuedTeaching beliefs that constitute a “positive teacherculture”:1. Teachers accept personal responsibility for student success.2. Teachers practice an extended teacher role.3. Teachers are persistent with students.4. Teachers express a sense of optimism that all students can learn.
Interviews conducted with 400 inner-city middleand high school students in Philly shows thatstudents value teachers who:1. Made sure that students did their work2. Controlled the classroom3. Were willing to help students whenever and however4. Explained assignments and content clearly5. Varied the classroom routine6. Took time to get to know the students and their situations
Children seek models (e.g., sports, entertainment) as theydevelop an identity.Children tend to emulate the behavior of adults who play alarge role in their lives.1. What does this say about parents who allow their children to listen to certain songs/view particular videos on an ongoing basis?2. What does this say about parents who allow their children to constantly play sports videos?“Im not a role model... Just because I dunk a basketballdoesnt mean I should raise your kids.” Charles Barkley
“Teachers must be aware that the manner inwhich they interact with a student may havea significant impact on how other studentsview the teacher and their relationship with ateacher.”
The relationship between teacher and student isgood when it has:1. Openness or transparency – directness/honesty with the other2. Caring – each valued by the other3. Interdependence – able to depend on the other4. Separateness – each allowed to grow and develop uniqueness5. Mutual Needs Meeting – neither need is more important than the other Thomas Gordon (1974) Teacher Effectiveness Training
Education based on caring has fourcomponents:1. Modeling – how educators treat others2. Dialogue – open-ended discussion in which there is no dominance3. Practice – providing children with an opportunity to be involved in caring relationships4. Confirmation – student’s growth is validated Noddings (1984) Teacher Effectiveness Training
Teacher-student relationship and openness:1. Virtually complete openness– personal concerns and values are shares with students (based on what is best for them)2. Openness in relation to the school environment– Dialogue is school-related with little relative to personal issues (out-of-school)3. Role-bound relationship – both the teacher and student assume their roles• So, just how much should teachers share with students?• What about new teachers? Read pages 64- 69 of your book.
1. Getting to Know Students2. Maintaining a High Ratio of Positive to Negative Statements3. Communicating High Expectations4. Giving Specific, Descriptive Feedback5. Listening to Students6. Sharing Responsibility with Students7. Using Culturally Sensitive Communication8. Responding to Inappropriate Behavior
Peregoy and Boyle (1993) suggest that teachers become familiar withstudents’ cultural backgrounds by asking questions about students:1. Family Structure: Who lives in the home?2. Life Cycle: How are transitions in life defined?3. Roles and Interpersonal Relationships: What are some significant roles and how might they relate to academic achievement?4. Discipline: How are children disciplined?5. Time and Space: How important is time/speed?6. Religion: What are some topics that should not be discussed in school?7. Food: What is eaten and how often?8. Health and Hygiene: How are illnesses treated?9. History, Traditions, Holidays: What are some events that are celebrated?
Suggested methodology:1. Individual conferences2. Attending activities in which they are involved3. Eating lunch with students4. Allow students to interview5. Use a suggestion box6. Get involved in activities outside of the classroom (i.e., school, community)7. Join in playground games Be mindful of sexual harassment issues. Know your boundaries. Know “what” physical contact you may have with students.
Children are sensitive to both praise and criticism given by adults.Teachers tend to respond more rapidly to disruptive behavior than toon-task behavior.Research shows that critical remarks do not improve student behavior.In a study done in a school district in Oregon, it was determined that“positive feelings about school changed dramatically within the firstfifteen weeks of school” when students were confronted with a “low rateof positive teacher verbalizations.”See page 76Read the section in your book on inviting/disinviting teacher behaviors.
To those who teach:Do some of your students receive more attention,praise and opportunities to respond than others?Results from classroom interaction studies indicatethat teachers generally respond more favorably tostudents they perceive as high achievers.
A Cooper and Good (1983) study found that teachers tend torespond to students differently in the following ways:1. Seating low-expectation students farther away2. Paying less attention to lows in academic situations3. Calling on lows less often4. Waiting less time for lows to answer questions5. Not “staying with” lows in failure situations6. Criticizing lows more frequently than highs for incorrect responses7. Praising lows less frequently following successful classroom responses8. Praising lows more frequently than highs for marginal responses9. Providing lows with less accurate and less detail feedback10. Failing to provide lows with feedback as often as highs11. Demanding less work and effort from lows than from highs12. Interrupting performance of lows more frequently than highs
So, what can we as teachers do to improve our expectations of low-achieving students?See Figure 3.2 – Page 82What should teachers do when students fail to respond or provide an incorrect answer to a question?1. Provide adequate wait time2. Rephrase the question3. Ask if another student would assist the student4. Allow the student to request assistance from another student5. Ask students to turn to a peer and discuss the question6. Offer hints or cues7. Break the question into small manageable parts8. Provide some or all of the answer9. Allow the student to pass
Studies indicate that many teachers do not provide effective studentfeedback. Cited are:• Low rates of specific positive feedback• High rates of general acceptance (e.g., yes, OK, uh-huh)• Seldom is there an indication that a student’s response is incorrectO’Leary and O’Leary (1977) found that effective feedback must havethree components:1. Contingency: Praise must immediately follow positive behavior2. Specificity: Praise should describe the specific behavior being reinforced3. Credibility: Praise should be appropriate for the situation and the individualJohnny comes from a lower SES environment, and has made excusesfor two days for not bringing a textbook to class. On the third dayJohnny brings in a textbook. How might you respond?
Listening skills create relationships that allow students to:• feel respected• significant• accepted• have the ability to take responsibilityWhen a student shares personal problems, expresses confusionacademically or expresses strong emotion; effective listening skillsmust utilized.Empathic, Nonevaluative Listening provides a platform foracceptance:• Students learn that their feeling are acceptable• Students are less likely to express their feelings in unproductiveways• Students are provided an opportunity to examine their feelings
Two approaches to nonevaluative listening:• Acknowledge the speaker by looking at him/herand making oral responses (e.g., m-hm, yes, uh-uh, Isee, I understand)• Paraphrasing
Students’ self-esteem, sense of efficacy, motivation,achievement, and school-appropriate behavior areenhanced by actively involving students in takingresponsibility for creating a positive classroom andschool climate and making decisions regardinginstructional activities.
Olsen and Jaramilo (1999) list three types of knowledge teachers needin this area:• Self-knowledge about their own background and its connection totheir work with other cultures• Knowledge about other cultures in general• Knowledge about their particular students
The quality of the student-teacher relationship is enhanced by studentfeedback.Forms may be utilized (See examples on pages 91-93).