Managing the classroom


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How to manage our classroom effectively.

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Managing the classroom

  1. 1. Six characteristics that reflect classroom’s complexity and potentially: Classrooms are multidimensional. - The setting for many activities such as reading, writing, playing games etc. Activities occur simultaneously - A student might be writing at the desk, another might be discussing with the teacher, one student might talking about what they are going to do after school and so on. WHY CLASSROOMS NEED TO BE MANAGED EFFECTIVELY. THE OLDER VIEW •emphasized creating and applying rules to control students' behavior. •orients students toward passivity and compliance with rigid rules •undermine students' engagement in active learning, HOT and social construction of knowledge. •teacher as a director THE NEWER VIEW • focuses more on students' needs for nurturing relationships and oppurtunities for self regulation. • guiding students toward self-discipline • less on externally controlling the students • teacher is a guide, coordinator and facilitator ELEMENTARY SCHOOL •challenge of managing 20 - 25 children for entire day. •spend more time with same students. •confinement, boredom and interaction with the same people all day can create problems. SIMILAR ISSUES •Good managers design classrooms for optimal learning •create positive environment for learning •establish and maintain rules •get students to cooperate •effectively deal with problems •good communication strategies. SECONDARY SCHOOL •challenge of managing 5 or 6 different groups of 20-25 students for 50 minutes a day. •spend less time seeing the students •classroom lesson moving quickly •discipline problems are frequently more severe •demand more elaborate and logical explanation •hallway socializing MANAGEMENT ISSUES IN ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOL CLASSROOMS THE CROWDED, COMPLEX AND POTENTIALLY CHAOTIC CLASSROOM
  2. 2. Things happen quickly - Events often occur rapidly in classrooms and frequently require immediate response. Events are often unpredictable - Some events will occur unexpectedly. For example a fire alarm goes off, a student gets sick, a computer won’t work and so on. Lack of privacy - Classrooms are public places. Students observe teacher handles discipline problems, unexpected events and frustrating circumstances. Classrooms have histories - Students have memories in their classrooms. They remember how the teacher handled the classroom. Kounin (1970) found that good classroom managers effectively manage the group activities. Teacher who competently guide and structure classroom activities are more effective than teachers who emphasize their disciplinary role (Brophy, 1996). Managing the complexity of the classroom •make careful use of the 1st few days of school. •to engaged in advanced planning before the school begins. At the beginning of school •communicate your rules and procedures to the classroom. •get students to engage effectively in learning activities. GETTING OFF TO THE RIGHT START EMPHASIZING INSTRUCTION AND A POSITIVE CLASSROOM CLIMATE
  3. 3. Effective classroom management has two main goals: Create + environment praising children speaking with calm voice setting clear rules monitor seating arrangements EFFECTIVELY MANAGED CLASSROOM "Well- oiled machine" focus on dicipline "Beehive of activity" active learning & busy engaged in tasks Help students spend more time on learning and less time on non- goal-directed activity maintain activity flow and minimize transition times hold students accountable Prevent students from developing problems keep students busy with challenging task have motivated and absorbed activities to learn MANAGEMENT GOALS AND STRATEGIES
  4. 4. Before we will organize the classroom’s physical space, teachers should know what type of instructional activity students will be engaged in. Reduce congestion in high traffic areas • separate areas (desks, groupwork,bookshelves etc) • easily accessible make sure you can see all students • must have clear line of sight between desks, instructional locations and work areas make sure that students can easily observe • students should not have to move their chairs or stratch their necks in the whole class presentation make often- used teaching materials • minimize preparation and clean up time The traditional teaching model DESIGNING THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE CLASSROOM PRINCIPLES OF CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT ARRANGEMENT STYLES
  5. 5. Auditorium style. •sit facing the teacher •used when making a presentation Face to face style •sit facing each other •distraction from other students is higher Offset style •small number of students. (3-4) •cooperative learning activity Seminar style •larger number of students. (>10) •when want to talk to each other. Cluster style •small number of students (4-8) •collaborative learning activity •refer to the seat in the front and center of the row •students in these seats like to interact with teacher. "Action Zone" •move around the room •establish eye contact and direct comment with students outside the "action zone" •change seats periodically What teacher should do? ROW ARRANGEMENT Post students’ photographs, artwork, written projects, charts that list birthday. Positive expressions of students’ identities. A bulletin board. - “Student of the week” - “Students’ best work of the week” PERSONALIZING THE CLASSROOM
  6. 6. •encourage students to be independent thinkers. Involve considareble verbale give and take with student, a caring attitude toward students and limits on student behavior when necessary Authoritative style •Restrictive and punitive, with the focus mainly on keeping order in the classroom rather than instruction or learning. Students tend to be passive learners. Authoritarian style •Allows students considerable autonomy but provides them with little support for developing learning skills or managing their behavior . Permissive style Reasonable and necessary Clear and comprehensible Consistent with instructional and learning goal Consistent with school rules Classroom library. CREATING A POSITIVE ENVIRONMENT FOR LEARNING GENERAL STRATEGIES CREATING, TEACHING AND MAINTAINING RULES AND PROCEDURES CLASSROOM RULES Classroom rules should be: GETTING STUDENTS TO COOPERATE
  7. 7. The increasing diversity of students make managing the classroom more complex. Too often teachers are not knowledgeable about the cultural background of their students and as a consequence miscommunicate with them. Cultural mismatches may especially occur in school in which the teachers overwhelmingly non-Latino White the students are mainly from ethic minority groups. Engaging in culturally responsive teaching and demonstrating sensitivity to cultural can help teachers reduce discipline problems in the classroom. There are three key aspect of communication : Developing a positive relationship with students Getting them to share and assume responsibility. •Involve student in the planning and implementation of school and classroom initiatives •encourage them to judge their own behavior, don’t accept excuses, and give the self-responsibility strategy time to work. Rewarding appropriate behavior •choose effective reinforcers, •use prompts and shaping effectively •use rewards to provide information about mastery CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT AND DIVERSITY BEING A GOOD COMMUNICATOR SPEAKING SKILLS
  8. 8. These are some strategy for speaking with class : Clearly communicate information and clarity Strategy for speaking clearly (Florez, 1999): Selecting vocabulary that understandable and appropriate for the student Speaking at an appropriate pace. Being precise and avoiding vagueness Using good planning and logical thinking skills Knowing some good strategies for giving a speech can significantly reduce teacher anxiety and help on deliver an effective speech. Criticizing •harsh, (-) evaluations •eg: "It's your own fault you flunked the test." Name calling & labeling •putting down other person •eg: "You are a loser." Advising •talking down to others while giving a solution. •eg: "That's so easy to solve. I can't understand why.." Ordering •commanding other person •eg: "Clean up this space, right now!" Threatening •intended to control other person •eg: "If you don't listen to me, I'm going..." Moralizing •preaching to the students about what they should do •eg: "You should turned your homework on time; you ought to feel ashamed." connect with the audiance state your purpose effectively deliver the speech use media effectively Talk directly to the audience. Don’t read or refer to script Keep focus throughout the talkUse eye contact, supportive gesture and voice control Help the audience grasp key ideas and vary the pace of the talk SPEAKING WITH THE CLASS AND STUDENTS BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE VERBAL COMMUNICATION GIVING AN EFFECTIVE SPEECH LISTENING SKILLS
  9. 9. Listening is a critical skill for making and keeping relationships. Good listeners actively listen. Active listening means giving full attention to the speaker, focusing on both the intellectual and the emotional content of the message. Some good active listening strategies are as follow: Many communication experts stress that most interpersonal communication is nonverbal. It’s hard to mask non-verbal communication, so a good strategy is recognize the type of non-verbal communication. By examining facial expression, personal space and silence we would know what really matter to them. A smile, a frown, a puzzled look all communicate. We often act as if there is something wrong with anyone who remains silent for more than a second or two after something is said to them. We indicate that after asking a question, many teachers rarely remain silent long enough for students to think reflectively. By being silent, a good listener can observe the speaker’ eye, facial expression, posture and gesture for communication, think about the other person is communicating and consider what the most appropriate response is. Pay attentionto the person who is talking Paraphrase Synthesize themes and patterns Feedback in a competent manner NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION
  10. 10. The Scope Aggression and School Violence A recent national study of U.S. schools revealed that aggression and school violence are serious higher in middle schools than in elementary schools or high schools. Fighting In elementary school teacher usually stop a fight. If for some reason teacher can not intervene, immediately get help from other teachers or administration. Let the fighters have a cooling-off period to calm down. Later, have a conference with them. Bullying one of every three students said they had experienced as a victim in bullying. Anxious, socially withdrawn and aggresive children are often the victims of bullying. Defiance or Hostility Towards the Teacher Try to defuse the event by keeping it private and handling the student individually, if possible. In extreme cases, student will be completely uncooperative, teacher should send another student to the office for help. DEALING WITH PROBLEM BEHAVIORS DEALING WITH AGGRESSION MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES
  11. 11. Using Others as Resources Peer mediation Can be trained to help students resolve quarrels and change undesirable behaviors. Parent-Teacher Conference Describe the problem and say that you would appreciate any support that they can give you. Enlist the Help of the Principal or Counselar If teacher have tried unsuccessfully to deal with the behavior, consider asking the school’s administration or counselor. Find a Mentor A mentor can provide such student with the guidance they need to reduce problem behaviors Management strategies Management experts distinguish between minor and moderate interventions for problem behaviors Minor intervention Example : Student leaves their seats without permission Engage in sosial talk when it is not allowed Eat candy in class Moderate intervention Example : Students abuse privilages Disturpt an activity Goof off Effective strategies Use nonverbal cues- Make eyes contact and signal such as finger to lips, a head shake or a hand signal to issue the desist. Keep the activities moving- start the next activity in more timely fashion Move closer to students- moving near the student Redirect the behavior- let them know what they are supposed to be doing Provide needed instruction-involves carefully monitoring students’ work and providing guidance when needed Directly and assertively tell student to stop- let them know what they are supposed to be doing Gives the student a choice Withhold a privilege Isolate or remove student Impose a penalty Effective strategies
  12. 12. appendix