Approach: It is a term to refer to theories about the nature
of language and language learning. It describes how
language is used and how people acquire their
knowledge of the language.
Method: the practical realisation of an approach.
Procedure: is an ordered sequence of techniques.
Technique: is a single activity
Students were given explanations of individual
points of grammar and the given sentences
that exemplified these points. These
sentences had to be translated from the target
language (L2) back to the student’s first
language (L1) and viceversa.
Language was treated at the level of teh
No or little consideration of spoken language.
Accuracy was consireded to be a necessity.
As a result of the reactions against the
restrictions of grammar-translation.
Translation was abandoned in favour of the
teacher and students speaking together.
Sentences were still the main object of
interest accuracy was important.
Only target language should be used in the
Using the stimulus-response-reinforcement
It relied heavily on drills to form habits in
It stayed at the sentence level.
Banish mistakes completely.
The purpose was habit formation through
constant repetition of correct
utterances, encouraged and supported by
Presentation, Practice and
A variation on audiolingualism.
The aim is to place teh language in claer
In this procedure the teacher introduces a
situation which contextualises the language to
The language is presented, then students
practice it through accurate reproduction
techniques such as: choral
repetition, individual repetition or cue-
Engage, Study and Activate
E: arousal and affect are important. Students
have to be emotionally engaged with what’s
going on, so that their learning becomes
S: Teaching and learning focus on how
something is contructed. It may be part of a
“focus on forms” syllabus.
A: Students are encouraged to use the
language they knwo. Communicative tasks
are designed to activate the student’s
ESA allows three basic
Straight arrows: a: the teacher engages students by
presenting a picture or a situation, or by drawing them
in by some other means. B: At the study stage, teh
meaning and forms of the language are explained.
The student repeat and practice it. C: they activate
the new language by using it in sentences of their
Boomerang procedure: (EAS) the teacher gets the
students engaged before asking them to do
something like a written task, a communicative game
or a role-play. After the activity has finished, students
will study some aspects of language which they
lacked or which they used incorrectly.
Patchwork lessons: It may follow a variety of
sequences. E.g. engaged students are
encouraged to activate their knowledge before
studying some language element and then
returning to more activating tasks, after which
the teacher re-enganges them before doing
some more study, etc.
Community Language Learning
A “knower” stands outside a circle of students and
helps the student what they want to say by
translating, suggesting or amending the student’s
utterances. These utterances may be recorded
and heard and corrected another day.
It’s concerned about the physical
Traumatic topics are avoided.
The teacher reads a dialogue with music
(preferably baroque) during this phase there
are also “several minutes of solemn silence”
and the students leave the room silently.
Students need to be comfortable and relaxed
so that their affective filter is lowerd.
Total Physical Response (TPR)
The teacher tells students commands. E.g.:
walk quickly to the door and hit it.
When students can all respond to commands
correctly, one of them can then start giving
instructions to other classmates.
The Silent Way
The teacher says as little as possible because
Galeb Gattegno believed that learning is best
facilitated if the learner discovers and creates
language rather than just remembering and
repeating what was been taught.
It’s up to the students to solve problems and
learn the language.