Methodology
Approach: It is a term to refer to theories about the nature
of language and language learning. It describes how
language ...
Grammar-Translation
 Students were given explanations of individual
points of grammar and the given sentences
that exempl...
Direct Method
 As a result of the reactions against the
restrictions of grammar-translation.
Translation was abandoned in...
Audiolingual Method
 Using the stimulus-response-reinforcement
model (Behaviorism)
 It relied heavily on drills to form ...
Presentation, Practice and
Production (PPP)
 A variation on audiolingualism.
 The aim is to place teh language in claer
...
Engage, Study and Activate
(ESA)
 E: arousal and affect are important. Students
have to be emotionally engaged with what’...
ESA allows three basic
procedures:
 Straight arrows: a: the teacher engages students by
presenting a picture or a situati...
 Patchwork lessons: It may follow a variety of
sequences. E.g. engaged students are
encouraged to activate their knowledg...
Community Language Learning
 A “knower” stands outside a circle of students and
helps the student what they want to say b...
Suggestopaedia
 It’s concerned about the physical
environment.
 Traumatic topics are avoided.
 The teacher reads a dial...
Total Physical Response (TPR)
 The teacher tells students commands. E.g.:
walk quickly to the door and hit it.
 When stu...
The Silent Way
 The teacher says as little as possible because
Galeb Gattegno believed that learning is best
facilitated ...
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Methodology

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Methodology

  1. 1. Methodology
  2. 2. Approach: It is a term to refer to theories about the nature of language and language learning. It describes how language is used and how people acquire their knowledge of the language. Method: the practical realisation of an approach. Procedure: is an ordered sequence of techniques. Technique: is a single activity
  3. 3. Grammar-Translation  Students were given explanations of individual points of grammar and the given sentences that exemplified these points. These sentences had to be translated from the target language (L2) back to the student’s first language (L1) and viceversa.  Language was treated at the level of teh sentence only.  No or little consideration of spoken language.  Accuracy was consireded to be a necessity.
  4. 4. Direct Method  As a result of the reactions against the restrictions of grammar-translation. Translation was abandoned in favour of the teacher and students speaking together.  Sentences were still the main object of interest accuracy was important.  Only target language should be used in the classroom.
  5. 5. Audiolingual Method  Using the stimulus-response-reinforcement model (Behaviorism)  It relied heavily on drills to form habits in language learners.  It stayed at the sentence level.  Banish mistakes completely.  The purpose was habit formation through constant repetition of correct utterances, encouraged and supported by positive reinforment.
  6. 6. Presentation, Practice and Production (PPP)  A variation on audiolingualism.  The aim is to place teh language in claer situational contexts.  In this procedure the teacher introduces a situation which contextualises the language to be tought.  The language is presented, then students practice it through accurate reproduction techniques such as: choral repetition, individual repetition or cue- response drills.
  7. 7. Engage, Study and Activate (ESA)  E: arousal and affect are important. Students have to be emotionally engaged with what’s going on, so that their learning becomes effective.  S: Teaching and learning focus on how something is contructed. It may be part of a “focus on forms” syllabus.  A: Students are encouraged to use the language they knwo. Communicative tasks are designed to activate the student’s language knowledge.
  8. 8. ESA allows three basic procedures:  Straight arrows: a: the teacher engages students by presenting a picture or a situation, or by drawing them in by some other means. B: At the study stage, teh meaning and forms of the language are explained. The student repeat and practice it. C: they activate the new language by using it in sentences of their own.  Boomerang procedure: (EAS) the teacher gets the students engaged before asking them to do something like a written task, a communicative game or a role-play. After the activity has finished, students will study some aspects of language which they lacked or which they used incorrectly.
  9. 9.  Patchwork lessons: It may follow a variety of sequences. E.g. engaged students are encouraged to activate their knowledge before studying some language element and then returning to more activating tasks, after which the teacher re-enganges them before doing some more study, etc.
  10. 10. Community Language Learning  A “knower” stands outside a circle of students and helps the student what they want to say by translating, suggesting or amending the student’s utterances. These utterances may be recorded and heard and corrected another day.
  11. 11. Suggestopaedia  It’s concerned about the physical environment.  Traumatic topics are avoided.  The teacher reads a dialogue with music (preferably baroque) during this phase there are also “several minutes of solemn silence” and the students leave the room silently.  Students need to be comfortable and relaxed so that their affective filter is lowerd.
  12. 12. Total Physical Response (TPR)  The teacher tells students commands. E.g.: walk quickly to the door and hit it.  When students can all respond to commands correctly, one of them can then start giving instructions to other classmates.
  13. 13. The Silent Way  The teacher says as little as possible because Galeb Gattegno believed that learning is best facilitated if the learner discovers and creates language rather than just remembering and repeating what was been taught.  It’s up to the students to solve problems and learn the language.

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