General approach to foreign language. It gives importance to listening comprehension. Language learning should come first with understanding and later proceed to production. Similar as how students acquire their native language.
• Natural Approach by Krashen and Terrel: creates a “low affective filter”• Comprehension Approach by Winitz and Reed: students listen to tape recorder.• Lexical Approach by Michael Lewis: students receive abundant comprehensible input.• Total Physical Response by Asher: students follow directions uttered by the instructor.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= bkMQXFOqyQA&feature=related Teacher gives several commands to students. Even though they have not done the actions before , the students are able to perform according to the teacher’s commands. Soon the teacher alters the order of the commands, but children are still able to perform them. Teacher writes commands on the board and then acts them out. Students may copy the commands on their notebooks. They are not actually saying anything but the comprehend anyway.
Observations PrinciplesTeacher gives commands in the target Meaning is conveyed through actions.language and performs it with students Memory is activated through learners response.Students say nothing Student’s understanding of the language should be developed before speaking.Teacher gives command quickly Students learn one part of the language rapidly by moving their bodies.Teacher gives commands to students The imperative is a powerful linguistic deviseTeacher directs students other than the Students learn through observing actionsvolunteers. as well as by performing them themselves.Teacher introduces new commands after Children feel successful.the children have mastered the firs ones.Teacher changes order of commands Children should not memorize fixed routines.If students make an error the teacher Correction is carried out in an unobtrusivewould repeat the command while acting it manner.out.
Observations PrinciplesTeacher gives commands student’s have Students develop flexibility innot heard before understanding novel combinations of target language chunks.Teacher writes new commands on the Spoken language should not beboard emphasized over written language.Later on, students will give the Students will speak when they are ready.commands.
TPR was developed to reduce stress. The teacher is initially the director of students behaviour. Student are imitators of his/her nonverbal model. First children model. Then they show they understand the commands by performing them alone. Commands are generally humorous. After learning to respond to commands students learn to read and write them. When they are ready to speak, they are the ones who give the commands.
The teacher interacts with the whole group of students and with individual students. Culture is the lifestyle of people who speak the language natively. The use of imperatives is frequent when learning the native language. Meaning is made clear through body movements. The teacher would know immediately if the students understand by observing their actions. Teachers should be tolerant with errors.
Using commands to direct behaviour: The use of commands is the major technique of TPR. It is given to get students to perform an action. The action makes the meaning of the command clearer. Role reversal: Students will give the command when they are ready. Action sequence: As students learn more and more of the target language, a longer series of commands can be given.