Pharmacy and Health Care
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Pharmacy and Health Care

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Medicine through the ages

Medicine through the ages

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    Pharmacy and Health Care Pharmacy and Health Care Presentation Transcript

    • The Pharmacy Technician: Chapter 1 History
    • Five Historical Periods
      • Ancient Era: The beginning of time to 1600 AD
      • Empiric Era: 1600 to 1940
      • Industrialization Era: 1940 to 1970
      • Patient Care Era: 1970 to present
      • Biotechnology and genetic engineering: The new horizon
    • The Ancient Era
      • Leaves, mud, and cool water were used to stop bleeding and heal wounds
      • Early man learned from watching injured animals’ behaviors
    • Ancient Era
      • Knowledge of materials with healing properties was passed down through the tribes
      • Medical information was documented on clay tablets around 2600 BC
    • The Beginnings of Pharmacy
      • The Ebers Papyrus, written around 1500 BC, contained formulas for more than 800 remedies
      • Each tribe had a designated person who was the equivalent of a priest, pharmacist, and physician all in one
    • The Beginnings of Pharmacy
      • The earliest known record of the practice of pharmacy occurred in Mesopotamia around 2600 BC.
      • Herbs were the predominant form of curatives
    • The Greeks
      • Hippocrates, the “father of medicine,” liberated medicine from the belief that disease was caused by spiritual reasons
      • Theophrastus, the “father of botany,” classified plants by their various parts
    • The Greeks
      • Mithridates studied the adverse effects of plants and later became known as the “father of toxicology”
    • The Romans
      • The Romans organized medical and pharmaceutical knowledge and converted theories into scientific rules
      • The Romans, as well as the Greeks, were responsible for preparing their own prescriptions
    • The Romans
      • The Romans initiated the first job titles of various pharmacy-related personnel
    • Other Pioneers
      • Dioscorides began the transition of the Greek system of knowledge into the Roman system of science; he is known as the “father of pharmacology”
    • Other Pioneers
      • Galen, a Greek physician, wrote “On the Art of Healing,” and was very critical of physicians who did not prepare their own remedies
      • Cosmos and Damien, the patron saints of pharmacy and medicine, practiced both disciplines around 300 AD
    • Roman Pharmacy Titles
      • Pharmacopeia — makers of remedies
      • Pharmacotritae — drug grinders
      • Unguentarii — makers of ointments
      • Pigmentarii –— makers of cosmetics
      • Pharmacopolae — sellers of drugs
      • Aromatarii — dealers in spices
    • The Arabian Influence
      • Formularies — continuation of documentation of drug information
      • Dosage forms — syrups, conserves, confections, and juleps
    • The Arabian Influence
      • Pharmacy shops — first appeared in Baghdad around 762 AD, and were privately owned
      • Hospital pharmacies followed in Marrakech around 1190 AD
    • The Italian Influence
      • Europe’s first university was established in Salerno, and was responsible for major contributions to pharmacy and medicine
      • The Magna Carta of Pharmacy, separating pharmacy from medicine, was issued by Emperor Frederick II
      • Guilds of pharmacists were established
    • New Ideas
      • A Swiss physician, Paracelsus, contradicted the Galenic theories of botanical orientation to medicine with his own theories based on chemicals
    • New Ideas
      • Monasteries became host to their own pharmacies
      • Germany became the first to governmentally regulate its pharmacies
    • The Influence of Royalty
      • Pharmacists who worked for royal families provided specialized services, and were known as apothecaries
      • New medicinal herbal substances, plants, trees, and seeds began to be used
      • Better documentation of this new knowledge began to occur
    • The Renaissance
      • Pharmacy became separated from medicine
      • Pharmacy regulation began
      • University education of pharmacists was now required
    • The Renaissance
      • Larger quantities of known and new drugs were imported from the New World and the Orient
      • New chemical medicines were introduced
    • The Empiric Era
      • Pharmacopeias became the regulatory tools of government, with standardized medicines listed
      • Existing medications were questioned and tested as to their actual effectiveness
    • The Empiric Era
      • In the 18th century, pharmacy began to develop in the colonies of the New World
      • In 1751, Benjamin Franklin started the first hospital in America
    • The Empiric Era
      • The first hospital pharmacist was Jonathan Roberts
      • William Proctor introduced control into the practice of pharmacy in the New World
    • Drugs Discovered in the 19th Century
      • Quinine
      • Caffeine
      • Morphine
      • Codeine
      • Niacin
      • Adrenalin
      • Penicillin
      • Phenobarbital
      • Testosterone
    • The Industrialization Era
      • Firms other than the pharmacies themselves began centralized manufacturing of medicinal preparations
    • The Industrialization Era
      • The periods of development of manufacturing pharmacy began as follows:
        • Formative (1867)
        • Botanical (1875)
        • Standardization (1882)
        • Organic Chemicals (1883)
    • The Industrialization Era
        • Biological (1895)
        • Hormones (1901)
        • Vitamins (1909)
        • Antibiotics (1940)
    • The Growth of Industrialization
      • Large amounts of war-related injuries required industrial manufacturing in order to meet the need for pharmaceutical products
      • Many retail pharmacists protested the industrialization of manufacturing
    • The Growth of Industrialization
      • Industrialization brought about biologically prepared products, complex chemical synthesis, increased use of parenteral medications, and standardized manufacturing
    • Retail Pharmacy
      • The pharmaceutical industry created new needs, to the advantage of retail pharmacy
      • Retail pharmacy has proved to be indispensable and irreplaceable as the fitting and distributing agency of medicinal products
    • Retail Pharmacy
      • Manufacturing and retail pharmacy are two branches of the same tree
    • The Patient Care Era
      • Increased concentration on rational, targeted research through the use of computers
      • Increased number of available medicines
    • The Patient Care Era
      • Well-coordinated teams of scientists with other professions such as statisticians and financial managers
      • Multiple drug therapy, however, led to adverse reactions, interactions, and therapeutic outcomes that were greater or less than desired
    • Patient-Focused Drug Therapy
      • Also thought of as drug control or drug monitoring
      • C.D. Hepler established the concept of pharmaceutical care around 1988
      • A pharmacist’s education must now focus on human behavior as it relates to providing practiced, patient-focused care
    • The New Horizon
      • Research into gene therapy and genetic defects has greatly increased
      • Recombinant DNA technology is producing new medications based on the patient’s genetic make-up
    • The New Horizon
      • Some medications that come from natural sources, such as insulin, are prone to producing allergies
      • Genetic research is involved in the pursuit of cures for major diseases, such as cancer