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Introduction to Pharmacy ( HistoPhar )


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Introduction to Pharmacy ( HistoPhar )

  2. 2. Overview of the course of Pharmacy Pharmacy - derived from Greek word “Pharmakon” Means medicine or drug.  art of dispensing and preparing of medicines or drugs  establishment and place where drugs or medicines are solved.
  3. 3. Pharmacist also known as druggists or chemists, are healthcare professionals who practice in pharmacy, the field of health sciences focusing on safe and effective medication use.
  5. 5. BOWL OF HYGEIA The bowl with a snake coiled around it is called the bowl of Hygeia with the serpent of Epidaurus, and is a variant on the above. Hygeia was Aesculapius’s daughter and a Greek Goddess of health. Her symbol was a serpent drinking from a bowl. The vessel is usually depicted with a long stem and a shallow, wide bowl as seen here. It also is considered suitable for pharmacy. The bowl of Hygeia with serpent of Epidaurus shown here is the symbol for Hungarian pharmacists.
  6. 6. CADUCEUS The symbol of two snakes on a staff is called the Caduceus. The staff, depicted with wings, is that of Mercury (Roman) or Hermes (Greek), messenger of the Gods and also God of commerce. (The Greek root of the Word Caduceus means “herald’s wand”)
  7. 7. MORTAR AND PESTLE The mortar and pestle has long been used as a pharmaceutical symbol in Britain and on the European mainland, and is still widely employed as a pharmacy shop sign in Scotland. The mortar and pestle are tools of traditional pharmacy, hence their use as an easily recognizable visual motif.
  8. 8. RECIPE The recipe sign appears at the start of prescriptions. Although universally accepted as an abbreviation of “recipe” (Latin for ‘take thou’), it has also been suggested that it is the astronomical sign of the planet Jupiter.
  9. 9. Chemical symbol meaning to compound
  10. 10. Helmet – Denoting wisdom and surety of action Unicorn – Horn of which has medical effect Secundum Artem – according to art. Pharmacy is both science and art.
  11. 11. 1. Evolution of Pharmacy  Man have several characteristics on how to treat ailments, physical and mental with medicines.  Base on archeological evidence man always search for other tools to treat his conditions
  12. 12.  Pharmacy is and has been the art and later science of fashioning one of our most important tools--MEDICINE
  13. 13. Prehistoric Pharmacy  Since the dawn of humanity, pharmacy has been part of everyday life.  By trial and error , folk knowledge of the healing properties of certain natural substances
  14. 14. Shamans  Faith Healers Concept of outside force in the form of remedies Drugs influencing bodily functions may considered one of humanity’s greatest advances
  15. 15. Pharmacy in antiquity  Changes occurred gradually influence concepts of disease and healing.
  16. 16. asu asipu Babylonians medical practitioners
  17. 17. Greek Physicians:  prepared their own medicines and left prescription behind for family members to compound and administer Father of Pharmacy Father of Botany
  18. 18. Dioscorides Wrote and compiled materia medica the standard Encyclopedia of drugs used for hundred of years
  19. 19. Pharmacy in the middle ages, 400AD to 1453 ( Fall of Rome to fall Constantinople)
  20. 20. Pagan temples closed and replace by Church’s teaching.  diseases and sin have an intimate relationship
  21. 21. Ancient monasteries became the centers for healing bot spiritual and corporal  Monks they have their classical medical text (epitomes herbal garden , no longer available after the collapse of trade and commerce
  22. 22. Mohamedanism – new civilization arose  Greek writings about medicine were translated to Arabic.  Works of Galen and Dioscorides was accepted by Arabs.
  23. 23. Rhazes (860-932) Avicenna (980-1063)  They added to the writings of Greek .  Rejected the old idea that foul tasting worked best in medicine  they developed and exert effort in their dosage forms elegant and palatable through silvering of pills and use of syrups .
  24. 24. In mid 13th century (1240) Frederick II codified the separa practice of pharmacy from medicine.
  25. 25. Public pharmacies became relatively common in Southe Europe  Practitioners of Pharmacy joined together within guilds.  Writings of Greek translated to Arabic were further translated to Latin for the use of European schools.
  26. 26. Universities emerged in Europe and England in Middle ages: Paris (1111) Oxford ( 1201 )
  27. 27. Padua (1222) Cambridge (1223)
  28. 28. The Renaissance: The beginning of the Modern Period 1453 Constantinople fell to the conquering turks and the remnants of Greek scholarly community fled to the west.
  29. 29. Developed the first printing press and started information revolutio
  30. 30. Discovered the world
  31. 31.  Vasco de Gama found a new route to India  Commerce based on money and banking was established
  32. 32.  An important advocate of chemically prepared drugs from crude plant and mineral substance  Paracelsus is referred to as the father of toxicology for his claim that, “All things are poison, and nothing is without poison.  Sparked the growth of modern Pharmaceutical Sciences  Process of distillation and extraction was introduce in the
  33. 33. Quinine drug was discovered to treat malarial fevers.  advocate of chemical medicines displaced the therapeutic agreement of Galenism which had lasted for nearly 1,500 years
  34. 34. Pharmacy Developments Summary Pharmacy practitioners joined together to form guilds Cooperation between pharmaceutical guilds and government bodies led to standardization of medicines ( Pharmacopeias) “Dispensatorium of Valerus Cordus” first pharmacopeia adopted by the govt of Nuremberg, Germany in 1546 Discovery of chemicals use in preparing medicines, Pharmacist force to learn new methods drug preparations Many pharmacist worked as Chemist Pharmacist investigation of botanical drugs during 1700s and 1800s. Isolation of pure, crystalline chemicals in lab research Isolation of crude opium by Serturner (19th century) , Isolation of quinine and several alkaloids by Pelletier & After 1850, scientific disciplines in pharmacy began to become more professionalized in colleges and manufacturing, Drug research develop 19th century Pharmacy became almost similar to physicians by professions
  35. 35. Transition to Modern Profession 1870 to 1920:  Transitional for both pharmacy and Pharmacy education.  5% of pharmacy practitioners had finished formal schooling in Pharmacy of night courses to supplement apprenticeship  1870 state laws were passed requiring the examination and registration of pharmacist.
  36. 36.  Prestige attached to the diploma attracted students  Schools affiliated with local pharmaceutical organizations provided students with excellent practical education combining formal education with apprenticeship.
  37. 37. Corner drugstores became features in American society  Pharmacist rely on Rx compounding for his professional identity  National Association of Retail Druggist in 1898
  38. 38. American Pharmaceutical Association welcomed and cooperated with retail druggist first but later on they split.
  39. 39. Existing developments in Medicine occurred the period: 1. Germ theory of disease by Pasteur and Koch ( 1880-1890)
  40. 40. 2. Pasteur’s rabies vaccine and Emil Von Behring diphtheria antitoxin can arise from the Laboratory
  41. 41. 3. Paul Ehrlich’s Salvarsan in 1910---first discovered chemotherapeutic agents.
  42. 42. 4. Industrial research in drugs produced analgesics and antipyretics in laboratory, sedative as chloral hydrate. 5. Passage of Pure Foods and Drug Act in 1906 mainly In response to poor food production methods expanded to problems in the drug trade
  43. 43. Pharmacist abandoned their in-shop manufacturing of the ingredients in the prescriptions. Pharmaceutical Industry progressed
  44. 44. The Era and count and Pour  20th century dramatic change for medical care including Pharmacy. (1928 )
  45. 45.  cortisones, tranquilizers, antihypertensives, radioisotopes and oral contraceptives was also discovered  High technology was applied to the production of medicines after WWII ( 1941-1942 )  pharmaceutical Industries became one of the most advanced industries in the world.
  46. 46. 1930s – 75% of Rx required compounding by a pharmacist 1950s – 25% of Rx required compounding by a pharmacist 1960s – only 4% (1 in 25 Rx) needed compounding 1970s – only 1% ( 1 in 100 Rx ) needed compounding skills
  47. 47. Pharmacist were not a loss for work as the number of prescriptions grew, or new effective drugs came into the market.  Chain drugstores displacing independent corner drugstores especially in urban areas.
  48. 48.  Laws regulating the production of drugs and pharmacy were modernized.  BS Pharmacy was extended to 5 years and curriculum continued to emphasize physical sciences which underlie the making of medicines.
  49. 49. Pharmacy Practice Today- Clinical Pharmacy  Pharmacy took over the an aspect of medical care partially abandoned by physicians  Drug utilization  survey polls that Pharmacist is one of the trusted in the field of medicines administration
  50. 50. Pharmacy Practice Today- Clinical Pharmacy  Pharmacy took over the an aspect of medical care partially abandoned by physicians  Drug utilization  survey polls that Pharmacist is one of the trusted in the field of medicines administration
  51. 51. ATDPS(Automatic Tablet Dispensing & Packaging System)
  52. 52. History Of Philippine Pharmacy Pre-historic Period: 1. Mythical period 2. Superstitious 3. Empiric
  53. 53. 1. Mythical Period:
  54. 54. a.In Tagalog “Bathala “– supreme –like La-on “visayans”
  55. 55. b. Captan – who shared with Bathala the creative power.
  56. 56. c. Bagobos - - “Daragao”, Tiruray - “Balbol and Saitan”
  57. 57. d. “ Patianak “
  58. 58. e. “Katalonan or Babaylan”
  59. 59. f. Early Filipinos believed in the incarnation of their ancestors
  60. 60. II. The Superstitious Period:
  61. 61. III. The Empiric Period Pre – Spanished era there were herbolarios – men skilled in the use of healing herbs
  62. 62. Pharmaceutical forms adopted by the early cuarenderos or quack doctors were confined to: 1. Macerations in cold and hot water 2. Infusions or decoctions in oil of the curative plant parts 3. Poultices and some powders 4. Resinous plasters and salves with a waxy base 5. inhalations and fumigations and a few empyreumatic products.
  63. 63. B. Philippine Pharmacy During The Spanished Period
  64. 64. C. The University of Santo Tomas and the Development of Pharmacy in the Philippines  The UST was the first great institution of learning established in the Philippines. Fr. Miguel de Benavides, a s
  65. 65. “Colegio de Nuestra Senora del Rosario de Santo Tomas” located in Intramuros.
  66. 66. Pre-pharmacy Period The work of the Catholic Missionaries
  67. 67. Fr. Fernando Santa Maria (1704-1774)  Dominican priest, native of madrid  “ Medicinas Caseras” 1st ed. 1786 – contained suggestions for treatment of certain diseases. 3 Topics of the book: 1. Medicinal barks and herbs 2. Various sickness 3. Various secrets and rareties worth knowing
  68. 68. Fr. Blanco , OSA and his botanical masterpiece “Flora de Filipinas”
  69. 69. Post- Pharmacy Period Once the was firmly established in July, 1871 its work and teaching mission started smoothly.  Professors had to be contracted from Spain.  1871 there were about 8 students enrolled and out of these 6 were graduated as Bachelors in 1875 and as Licenciates in 1876.  Doctor s degree were granted by the Govt , this was reserved only to Universidad Central de. Madrid.
  70. 70.  Foreign Pharmacist come to Philippines to do business or to practice their profession.  Rector should approve first before the Foreign Pharmacist to practice here in the Philippines.  Examination was given to them
  71. 71.  Foreign Pharmacist was a blessing for the Philippines
  72. 72. Admission of Spanish and Foreign Pharmacists to Practice in the Philippines:  Govt and University immediately took steps to solve first in connection with the admission of foreign pharmacists.
  73. 73. Establishment of the school of “ Practicantes de Medicina y Farmacia” The purpose is to protect the health of the Filipinos by producing well-trained practitioners to help the physicians and pharmacist.  there were lot of students flocked to the university to enroll in the new course.
  74. 74.  Superior Gobierno – approve and granted the official permit in December , 1879. Rules and Regulation was promulgated by the Rector and administration of the University among which were the following important points: 1. The course will be given in 4 semesters 2. Classes shall be daily 3. Students must be able: a. to read and write and possess a knowledge of the catholic doctrine b. 18 years old shown in baptismal certificate and an affidavit of nationality c. Must undergo and pass an entrance examination that will include arithmetic 4. Students must practice in any drug store or laboratory during the last 3 semester of the course 5. After completion of four semesters study, must pass both theoretical and a practical examination
  75. 75. The Hospitals and Drugstores in the Philippines During the Spanish Era  Many hospitals were already in operation in the islands during the Pharmacy Period and in this respect, the Spanish government deserved some credit.  The first hospital built by the Spaniards was the Military Hospital in Cebu, built by Legaspi in 1565.
  76. 76. 1. Hospital de San Juan de Dios – constructed in 1577 by the Franciscans
  77. 77. 2. San Lazaro – also built by the Franciscans in the same year
  78. 78. 3. Hospital de San Gabriel in Binondo – 1588- managed by Dominicans
  79. 79. 4. Hospital de Aguas Santas at Los Banos- 1596
  80. 80. 5. Hospital de Antipolo - 1602
  81. 81. 6. Hospital de San Jose at Cavite – 1641 7. The Foundling Hospital de San Jose – 1782 8. Hospital for Lepers in Cebu – 1850
  82. 82. The Boticas or Drugstore during Spanish period Started as a small apothecary shop at Escolta, Manila in 1830 by Spanish Pharmacist and physician, Don Lorenzo Negrao.
  83. 83.  Botica de Santa Cruz established in 1861, located at Plaza de Goiti  Original name Farmacia y Drogueria D. Pablo Schuster  It passed through several hands until 1902 it was purchase Dr. Carlos Jarhling, a German-Filipino Pharmacist and Mr. Luis Santos, A Philippine born Spaniard
  84. 84. Besides from the two drug establishment , there were smaller business concerns in the City of Manila and other big cities of the country 1. Botica Zobel, Botica Von Borrie and Botica de la Divisoria (1878) 2. Farmacia de Quiapo (1883 ) 3. Botica Nino in Cebu 4. Botica De Lalloc in Cagayan de Luzon 5. Botica de D. Mariano Kuhnell 6. Botica de D. Oscar Reyman in Binondo 7. Botica de Fernnadez
  85. 85. C. Pharmacy In the Philippines During The American Occupation Until Its Independence
  86. 86. Establishment of the Board of pharmaceutical Examiners  The military government by the American Army organized the Board of Pharmaceutical Examiners under a military order in 1903.  later converted into Act No. 597 of the Philippine Commission  Board of examiners composed of a chairman, and two chairman took charge of the registration of the pharmacists and supervision of their practice
  87. 87. 1904 – Started as a review class organized by Dr. Alejandro Albert through the request of some UST graduates to help them in board examinations  1915- converted into the Manila College of Pharmacy by Atty. Felimon Tanchoco  1929- Manila College of Pharmacy and Dentistry  1947 – Manila Central University ( MCU )
  88. 88. 1911 – Dr. Andrew Dumez was its first director upon the recommendation late Dr. Edwards Kremers of the University of Winconsin.  succeeded by Dr. Manuel del Rosario and was passed on to Dr. Partocinio Valenzuela  Dr. Alfredo Abcede, Dr. Jesusa Concha, Dr. Natividad de Castro, Dr Amorita Castillo, Dr. Magdalena Cantoria.