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75 76

  1. 1. 75SHODH, SAMIKSHA AUR MULYANKAN International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0974-2832, (Print), E- ISSN- 2320-5474, Aug-Oct, 2013 ( Combind ) VOL –V * ISSUE – 55-57 tkWu fMoh ds vuqlkj & ßf'k{kk&n'kZu ledkyhu lkekftd thou dh leL;kvksa ds fo"k; esa lgh ekufld vkSj uSfrd vfHko`fÙk;ksa ds fuekZ.k dh leL;kvksa ls lEcfU/kr gSA n'kZu dh lcls vf/kd O;kid ifjHkk"kk tks nh tk ldrh gS] ;g gS fd og vf/kdre lkekU; :i esa f'k{kk dk fl)kUr gSAÞ1 bl Ádkj f'k{kd f'k{kk&n'kZu ls f'k{k.k fl)kUr ÁkIr djrk gSA f'k{k.k Á.kkfy;ksa dk Hkh f'k{kd ds f'k{kk&n'kZu ls ?kfu"B lEcU/k gSaA Lisalj ds vuqlkj dsoy ,d lPpk nk'kZfud gh f'k{kk dks O;kogkfjd :i ns ldrk gSA og fo|kÆFk;ksa ls dSls O;ogkj djrk gS] mUgsa viuh ckr dSls le>krk gS] ;g bl ckr ij fuHkZj djrk gS fd f'k{kkFkÊ mlds fy, D;k gSaA fofHké nk'kZfud O;oLFkkvksa esa ekuo çÑfr dh fHké&fHké O;k[;k dh xbZ gSA vLrq] f'k{kd dk f'k{kk&n'kZu f'k{k.k ç.kkyh ds çfr mldh vfHko`fÙk fu/kkZfjr djrk gSA cVsaªy jly ds 'kCnksa esa & ßn'kZu'kkL= dk v/;;u ç'uksa ds lqfuf'pr mÙkj çkIr djus ds fy, ugha fd;k tkuk pkfg,] cfYd Lo;a ç'uksa ds fy, fd;k tkuk pkfg,( D;ksafd ;s ç'u laHkkoukvksa dh gekjh vo/kkj.kk dks O;kid cukrs gSa] gekjh ckSf)d dYiuk dks le`) djrs gSa vkSj gBoknh lqfuf'prrk dks de djrs gSa] D;ksafd fo'o dh egkurk ftl ij n'kZu fopkj djrk gS] efLr"d dks Hkh egku vkSj fo'o ls ,dhdj.k ds ;ksX; cuk nsrh gS tks mlds loksZPp 'kqHk dk fuekZ.k djrk gSAÞ2 f'k{kd ds fy, f'k{kk&n'kZu dk lcls cM+k ;ksxnku f'k{kk ds y{;ksa vkSj vkn'kks± dks ysdj gSA f'k{kk&n'kZu dks vkRelkr~ fd;s fcuk v/;kiu ds dk;Z esa f'k{kd dk dksbZ ç;kstu ugha gksxkA pkgs ge orZeku f'k{kk esa foKku ds ;ksxnku dh fdruh Hkh ç'kalk D;ksa u djsa] ;g dk;Z foKku ds }kjk laHko ugha gSA okLro esa orZeku foKku dsoy lk/ku nsrk gS] tcfd lk/; n'kZu 'kkL= ls feyrs gSaA tkWu fMoh ds 'kCnksa esa] ßn'kZu dk ljksdkj f'k{kk ds y{;ksa dk fu/kkZj.k gS] tcfd f'k{kk dk foKku bLrseky fd;s tkus okys lk/kuksa dks fu/kkZfjr djrk gSAÞ3 f'k{kk&n'kZu f'k{kk ds ikB~;Øe dks fu/kkZfjr djus esa f'k{kd dh lgk;rk djrk gSA nk'kZfud dh O;k[;k djrs gq, IysVks us dgk Fkk & ßog tks fd çR;sd çdkj ds Kku esa #fp j[krk gS vkSj tks fd lh[kus ds fy, ftKklq gSa vkSj dHkh Hkh larq"V ugha gS] mls gh nk'kZfud dguk U;k;ksfpr gSAÞ n'kZu'kkL= f'k{kk dh ifjfLFkfr dks lEiw.kZ :i esa ns[krk gSA mldk n`f"Vdks.k lok±x gSA ,ñ,eñ 'ysftaxj us Bhd gh dgk gS & ßgesa vfuok;Z :i ls ,d le`) HkkokRed thou dh vko';drk gS ftlesa O;fä vkSj leqnk; esa okLrfod lEcU/kksa dh çfrNk;k gksAÞ4 orZeku dky esa fo'o esa iwoZ vkSj if'pe ds nks fHké n`f"Vdks.k fn[kykbZ iM+rs gSaA ;s nks fHké lkaLÑfrd n`f"Vdks.k] nks fHké thou n'kZu mifLFkr djrs gSaA ekuo tkfr us fofHké ns'kdky esa ekuo ds fy, mi;qä thou dh [kkst esa vusd ç;ksx fd;s gSaA vk/kqfud euq"; dks pkfg, fd og fofHké laLÑfr;ksa dh cqf)eÙkkvksa dk leUo; djsA vkn'kZ f'k{kd dks iwoZ vkSj if'pe] n'kZu vkSj foKku dk leUo; djuk pkfg,A bl leUo;kRed n`f"Vdks.k dks Li"V djrs gq, lekt'kkL=h dsoy eksVokuh us dgk gS & ßvc Hkkjro"kZ esa vR;f/kd fHké fopkj/kkjkvksa vkSj ewY;ksa dks fy;s gq, nks çdkj dh laLÑfr;k¡ vkeus&lkeus vk;h gSa vkSj ?kkrd la?k"kZ esa yxh gSaA Hkkjr] mldh xzkeh.k] Ñf"k ç/kku] gLrdyk ç/kku] laLÑfr] thou ds çfr leUo;kRed n`f"Vdks.k] xq.kkRed ewY;ksa vkSj O;fä dh fof'k"Vrk] /keZ rFkk vkRekjksfir fu/kZurk ij tksj] lkekftd leUo;] ,d vkRexr O;kid jk"Vªh;rk] euq"; vkSj ljdkjh ;U= ij tksj] /kkfeZd vuqHko vkSj mldh vfHkO;fä ds thou esa 'kkfUr ds }kjk 'kfä çkIr djus ij tksj nsrs gq, ,d ,slh laLÑfr ds lkeus [kM+k gS tks fd ;U= vkSj foKku] 'kgjh vkSj vkS|ksfxd O;oLFkk] thou dk fo'ys"k.kRed n`f"Vdks.k] Luk;fod jksxksa vkSj vO;oLFkkvksa ij tksj] cM+s iSekus ij mRiknu] ek=kxr ewY;] vfLrRo ds fy, la?k"kZ vkSj ;ksX;re ds fy, fot; ds fy, lEifÙk dk ,dhdj.k vkSj vkfFkZd lkezkT;okn] vkØked vkSj vgadkjh jk"Vªokn] tura= vkSj rkuk'kkgh dks fy, gq, gSaA Hkkjr us VqdM+ksa dh ugha cfYd iw.kZ dh >kadh dh [kkst dh gSA og dsoy vkthfodk ds fy, thou esa #fp ugha j[krk gSA mlus nk'kZfud fopkj dk leUo; fd;k gS( og mi;ksfxrk ek= ds fy, ugha cfYd lkSUn;Z vkSj xkSjo ds fy, [kM+k jgk gSA fdUrq vktdy ;U= vkSj foKku dh laLÑfr Aug- Oct ,2013 lkjk'ka %& çLrqr ys[k esa f'k{kd ds f'k{kk&n'kZu ls ?kfu"B lEcU/k ij fopkj fd;k x;k gSA ,d f'k{kd ds fy, n'kZu 'kkL= dh vko';drk u dsoy vkn'kks±] y{;ksa vkSj ikB~;Øe dks fu/kkZfjr djus esa gS] cfYd f'k{kk ds O;ogkj ds fuR; çfr ds dk;ZØe esa gSaA
  2. 2. 76 International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0974-2832, (Print), E- ISSN- 2320-5474, Aug-Oct, 2013 ( Combind ) VOL –V * ISSUE – 55-57 us Hkkjr ij f'kdUtk dl fy;k gS vkSj og /khjs&/khjs mldh vkRek esa ços'k djrk tk jgk gSAÞ5 bl çdkj çks|ksfxdh ls HkkjkØkUr tfVy vk/kqfud lH;rk ls ekuo ds ccZjrk dh vksj ykSV tkus dk [krjk mRié gks x;k gSA vkt euq"; dks vk.kfod ;qx vkSj m|ksxokn ls mRié leL;kvksa dk lkeuk djuk iM+ jgk gSA lc dgha vO;oLFkk vkSj grk'kk fn[kykbZ iM+rh gSA lc vksj ls leL;kvksa ds lqy>ko mifLFkr fd;s tkrs gSaA foKku vkSj vUrjkZ"Vªh; dkuwu vlgk; fn[kykbZ iM+rs gSaA ,sls le; esa fopkj'khy O;fä] /keZ] uSfrdrk vkSj vk/;kfRedrk dh vksj ns[k jgs gSaA tSlk fd gkbuheSu us dgk gS & ßgekjs lkeus tks fodYi gS] og bl çdkj gS % ;k rks efLr"d dh 'kfä lekIr gks] ekuo dk iru gks] mldh ckSf)d vkSj vk/;kfRed fØ;k esa fxjkoV vk;s tks fd vf/kdkf/kd ;U=or gks jgh gSa vkSj vUr esa vR;f/kd dsUæhÑr fu;a=.k okys u;s rkuk'kkgh ç'kklu dh nklrk dh LFkkiuk gks( vFkok ,d vk/;kfRed ØkfUr gks( ekuo bl rF; dh vksj tkxs fd vUr esa og vlhe vk/;kfRed 'kfä;ksa okyk ,d vk/;kfRed çk.kh gS( vkSj viuh Lora=rk dh j{kk djus vkSj rFkkdfFkr foKku vkSj çkS|ksfxdh dh çxfr dks ,d tura=h; O;oLFkk esa uSfrd vkSj vk/;kfRed y{; ds v/khu djus dk dBksj fu.kZ; djsaAÞ6 vLrq] f'k{kd ds fy, lcls cM+h vko';drk mldk f'k{kk&n'kZu gSA lkaLÑfrd vFkok fdlh Hkh vU; çdkj dh ,dkafxrk dk ,d ek= mipkj nk'kZfud n`f"Vdks.k gSA ;g nk'kZfud n`f"Vdks.k mlds lok±x :i esa Jh vjfoUn ds bu 'kCnksa esa mifLFkr fd;k x;k gS ßân; vkSj efLr"d lkoZHkkSe nsork gSa vkSj u rks ân; ds fcuk efLr"d vkSj u efLr"d ds fcuk ân; ekuo vkn'kZ gks ldrk gSAÞ7 f'k{kk&n'kZu dh vogsyuk ds fo#) psrkouh nsrs gq, jLd us dgk gS & ßtks v/;kid ;g eku ysrs gSa fd os n'kZu dh vogsyuk dj ldrs gSa os viuh vogsyuk dk ewY; pqdkrs gSa] D;ksafd muds ç;klksa esa leUo;dkjh rÙo ds vHkko ds dkj.k os çHkkoghu gks tkrs gSaAÞ8 n'kZu 'kkL= dh vko';drk u dsoy vkn'kks±] y{;ksa vkSj ikB~;Øe dks fu/kkZfjr djus esa gS] cfYd f'k{kk ds O;ogkj ds fuR; çfr ds dk;ZØe esa gSaA ,Myj ds 'kCnksa esa & ßbl çdkj ge ;g ns[kuk 'kq# djrs gSa fd u dsoy f'k{kk&n'kZu dk fof'k"V {ks=] ç'uksa dk mÙkj nsrs gq, foKku }kjk vuqÙkjh; gS] cfYd f'k{kk&n'kZu dh vko';drk gS D;ksafd mlds fcuk ekSfyd ,oe~ O;ogkfjd fl)kUrksa dk fuf'pr fu.kZ; lEHko ugha gS] tks fd 'kSf{kd O;ogkj ds fuR; çfr dh uhfr;ksa ds vUrxZr gksrk gSA9 vUr esa f'k{kd dks u dsoy ,d Bksl f'k{kk&n'kZu pkfg,] cfYd mls f'k{kkfFkZ;ksa esa Hkh nk'kZfud n`f"Vdks.k dk foLrkj djuk pkfg,A dsñ,yñ Jhekyh ds 'kCnksa esa & ßbl çdkj u dsoy f'k{kd dks ,d f'k{kk&n'kZu j[kuk pkfg,] mls vius fo|kfFkZ;ksa esa ,d thou n'kZu fodflr djus ds fy, Hkh rS;kj gksuk pkfg,A10 f'k{kd f'k{kkfFkZ;ksa dks tkudkjh vkSj Kku çnku djrk gS fdUrq mldh O;fäxr Nki mlds thou n'kZu ds :i esa gh iM+rh gSA egku f'k{kdksa us lalkj dks tkudkjh ugha cfYd thou n'kZu çnku fd;s gSaA 1. Dewey John, Democracy and Education, p. 386. 2. Russell Bertrand, The Problem of Philosophy, p. 249-50 3. Dewey John, In Sources of Science of Education, p. 38. 4. Schlezinger A.M., The Politics of Freedom, 1950, p.237. 5. Motwani, Kewal, Sociology, University of Madras Journal, July, p. 189-190. 6. Heinemann F.H., Hibbert Journal, October, 1957, p. 46. 7. Sri Aurobindo, Views and Reviews, p. 3. 8. Rusk R.R., Philosophical Bases of Education, p.9 9. Adler-In Defence of the Philosophy of Education, 41st Year Book of the National Society for the Study of Education, p. 206. 10. Shrimali K.L. Better Teacher Education, Ministry of Education, Govt. of India, 1954, p. 2.

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