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  • 1. 69SHODH, SAMIKSHA AUR MULYANKAN International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0974-2832, (Print), E-ISSN- 2320-5474, July, 2013 VOL-V * ISSUE -54 July,2013 lkfgR; dks lekt dk vkbZuk ekuk tkrk gSA lkspus dh ckr ;g gS fd lkfgR; lekt ls tqM+k gS ;k lekt lkfgR; ls ;k fQj ;s nksuksa vkil esa lEcfU/kr gSa ge tc lkfgR; esa nfyr psruk dh ckr djrs gSa rks ml lkfgR; dks nfyr lkfgR; dgrs gS] ftlesa nfyrksa ds mRFkku dh ckr gksA HkfDrdky ls ysdj vkt rd fdlh u fdlh :i esa jpukdkj nfyr psruk dh ckr djrs vk;s gSaA eSusa vius bl i= esa nfyr lkfgR; dks rhu oxksZa esa foHkkftr fd;k gSA igys Hkkx esa ge HkfDrdkyhu larks vkSj dfo;ksa dh ckr djsaxs ftUgksusa vius fopkjksa rFkk ok.kh esa nfyr psruk dh ckr dh gS okLro esa bu larksa us /keZ ds ek/;e ls viuh ckr dks tulk/kkj.k rd igaqpk;k gSA nwljs oxZ esa ge vk/kqfud dfo;ksa dh ckr djsxs ftu ij izxfrokn vkSj ekDZlokn dk izHkko iM+kA bu dfo;ksa us jk"Vª ds lanHkZ esa nfyr psruk dh ckr dh gS vkSj rhljs oxZ esa ge mu dfo;ksa dh ckr djsaxs tks nfyr tkfr ls lEcfU/kr gSa rFkk mUgksaus nfyr psruk dh ckr dh gSA nfyr tkfr ls lEcfU/kr dfo;ksa us nfyr psruk dh ckr jk"Vª ds lanHkZ esa u djds viuh tkfr fo'ks"k ds lanHkZ esa dh gSA nfyr dkSu gS bl ij fopkj djsa rks tkfr ls tqM+s iz'u Lor% [kqyrs tk,axs vkSj laHkor% vxj gekjk bjknk Li"V vkSj nqjkpkjjfgr jgk] cgqr TkYn ge ,d eqdke rd igq¡p Hkh tk,axsA nfyr tkfr dk mn; dSls gqvkA bldk dksbZ izek.k rks gesa ugha feyrk] ysfdu rdZ ds vk/kkj ij ge ;g dg ldrs gSa fd cqf)thfo;ksa us fujhg yksxksa ij fgalkRed dkjokbZ dj mUgsa ,d ,slh lkekftd fLFkfr dk f'kdkj cuk;k ftlesa O;fDr dh vkfFkZd 'kfDr;k¡ xkS.k gks xbZ FkhA cqf)thfo;ksa ds ikl pwafd /kEkZ dk Hkh laj{k.k Fkk] /kkfeZd 'kfDr;ksa dk mi;ksx fujhg yksxksa ds fo:) dj mUgsa Hk;Hkhr fd;k tkrk jgkA ;g ckr vkt Hkh fdlh u fdlh :i esa nfyrksa ds f[kykQ ekStwn gSA tc ge nfyr lkfgR; dh ckr djrs gSa rks dqN vkykspd nfyr lkfgR; ds ckjs esa Hkze QSykrs jgrs gSa fd nfyr ys[kdksa }kjk fy[kk x;k lkfgR; gh nfyr lkfgR; ekuk tkrk gSA os yksx isze pUn] fujkyk] ukxktZqu] /keZohj Hkkjrh] nw/kukFk flag vkfn ys[kdksa dks nfyr ys[kd ughsa ekursA okLro esa nfyr ys[kd mlh dks ekuk tk ldrk gSA tks ys[kd oxZ ds chp tkdj mlds Åij gks jgs 'kks"k.k] mudh lkekftd] vkfFkZd leL;kvksa ds ckjs esa fy[krk gSA mlh ys[kd dks nfyr lkfgR; dk ys[kd ekuk tk ldrk gS ftls nfyrksa ds ilhus dh xa/ k dh igpku gksA blh rF; ij ge dg ldrs gSa fd dchj] jSnkl] rqylh] iszepUn] ukxktZqu] fujkyk vkfn jpukdkj nfyr lkfgR; ds jpf;rk gSaA nfyrksa esa psruk iSnk djus dk iz;kl bUgha jpukdkjksa us fd;k gSA HkfDrdkyhu lar& dfo;ksa dh ok.kh esa bfyr psruk dchj fy[krs gSa fd ^^pyrh pkdh ns[kdj fn;k dchjk jks;A nks ikVu ds chp esa lkcqr cpk dks;AA^^ bl nksgs esa dchj th ftu nks ikVksa dh ckr djrs gSa os gSa jktuhfrd iV rFkk lkekftd iV vkSj chp esa nys tkus okys yksx gSaA 'kksf"kr o oafpr yksx blhfy, nfyr gSaA ¼1½ iz.ko dqekj oa|ksik/;k; & nfyr izlax i`"B & 131 HkDr jSnkl dgrs gSa % ^^jSnkl lqdjeu djus ls] uhp Å¡p gks tk,A vFkkZr ;fn dksbZ uhph tkfr esa Hkh iSnk gqvk gS] og vius thou esa lR; deZ vFkok Å¡ps deZ djs rks og Hkh Å¡pk mB ldrk gSA blds vkxs jSnkl lekt esa 'kksf"kr oxZ dks psru djrs gq, dgrs gSa fd % ^^ijk/khurk iki gS tku ysÅ js ehr ijk/khu jSnkl lksa dkSu djs gS izhrAA bu iafDr;ksa esa jSnkl 'kksf"kr oxZ dks larksa dh Hkk"kk esa dg jgs gSa fd ijk/khurk iki gS& blfy, rqe yksxksa dks bl ijk/khurk dh csfM+;ksa dks rksM+dj QSaduk iM+sxk] jSnkl dgrs gSa fd Hkxoku us vki yksxksa dks Hkh mlh rjga vkt+kn iSnk fd;k gS ftl rjga Åaph tkfr ds yksxksa dks vkSj rqe yksxksa dks bl Å¡ph tkfr ds ykxksa us viuh pkykdh ls dHkh vkxs ugha c<+us fn;kA blfy, vki yksxksa dks bu eDdkj yksxksa dh uhfr dks le> dj buls vkxs c<+uk gksxkA bl rjg lar jfonkl us le;&le; ij viuh ok.kh esa nfyr psruk dh ckr dh gSA vk/kqfud dfork esa nfyr psruk fujkyk dks vk/kqfud dfork esa igyk dfo ekuk tkrk gS ftlus vius dkO; esa nfyr 'kCn dk iz;ksx dj nfyr dks
  • 2. 70 International Indexed & Refereed Research Journal, ISSN 0974-2832, (Print), E-ISSN- 2320-5474, July, 2013 VOL-V * ISSUE -54 lekt esa mHkkjus dk iz;kl fd;kA fujkyk viuh dforkvksa esa le;&le; ij 'kksf"kr oxZ ds izfr lgkuqHkwfr fn[kkrs gq, 'kks"kd oxZ dks yrkM+rs jgs gSaA fujkyk th dgrs gSa % ^tYn&tYn iSj c<+kvks] vkvks] vkvks vkt vehjksa dh gosyh fdlkuksa dh gksxh ikB'kkyk /kksch] iklh] pekj] rsyh] [kksysaxs va/ksjs dk rkyk ,d ikB i<+sxsa] VkV fcNkvksA ¼csyk] dfork la[;k 62½ dqdjeqÙkk dfork esa fujkyk us 'kks"kdksa }kjk vke tu ij <k;s tk jgs tqYeksa ij djkjk O;aX; fd;k gSA blh rjg lfPpnkuUn ghjkuUn okRL;k;u vKs; nfyr vFkok fuEu oxZ dh n'kk dks fpf=r djrs gq, dgrs gSa % ^^Hkjh gSa vk[ksa isV ugha Hkjs gSa cfu;s ds dkxt+ VsaV ughA bu iafDr;ksa ds ek/;e ls vKs; dg jgs gSa fd lekt esa tks fuEu e/;oxZ gS] oks viuk lkjk thou [kkyh isV vkSj Hkjh vka[kksa ls xqtkj nsrk gSA nfyr tkfr ds dfo;ksa dh dfork esa nfyr psruk % Jh ekrk izlkn ^jktuhfr dh v)ZlrlbZ* esa nfyr tkfr esa iSnk gksus dh viuh ihM+k dks bl nksgs ds ek/;e ls O;Dr dj jgs gSa % ^euq"; u iSnk gksr ;gk¡] tkfr isV ls vk;A daVd cfu og xf<+ jgh] ^fe=* d"V gSa ik;A ¼jktuhfr dh v)ZlRlbZ] i`-26½ Jh ykypUn jkgh dks nfyr lkfgR; esa lEeku ls ns[kk tkrk gSA mUgksusa vius thou esa nfyr gksus ds dkj.k vf/kd d"V Hkksxs] bUghsa d"Vksa dks mUgksusa viuh dforkvksa esa LFkku fn;kA mudh dforkvksa dk laxzg ^ewd esjh dfork,¡* rFkk ^ØkfUr 'ks"k gS** gesa fny ngyk nsus okys vuqHkoksa ls xqtkjrs gSa & os ,d txg fy[krs gSa % ^^esjh fLFkfr /kksch ds dqÙks ls de ugha FkhA esjk uke u Ldwy esa ntZ Fkk] u dkj[kkus esaA esjs HkkX; esa ew¡xQyh cspuk ;k di&clh /kksuk gh FkkA**eksgunkl usfe'kkjk; dks fgUnh txr esa i;kZIr lEeku feykA os dforkvksa ds ek/;e ls nfyr yksxksa dh n'kk dk fp=.k djrs gq, dgrs gSa fd vHkh rd rks bu nfyr tuksa dks tkfr ds vk/kkj ij xkao&nsgkr esa gh dVq 'kCn lquus iM+rs Fks] ysfdu vc rks bu nfyr tkuksa dh cnfdLerh us bruh rjDdh dh yh gS fd vc rks ;g cnfdLerh egkuxjksa esa Hkh budk ihNk djrh gqbZ vk igq¡ph gSA uSfe'kjk; th fy[krs gSa % ,d gh euq"; tkfr ds gksus ij Hkh tkfrxr lEcks/kuksa ds vk/kkj ij dlSys yxus okys Loj dy rd tks xk¡o vkSj dLcksa ds ifjos'k esa lqukbZ iM+rs Fks vkt mtkyksa ds izrhd egkuxjksa esa Hkh ogh tkfrxr lEcks/kuksa ds vk/kkj ij dlSys ls yxus okys Loj lqukbZ iM+us yxs gSaA ¼nnZ ds nLrkost] i`"B 89½ n;kuUn cgksgh ds nfyr dfork dh viuh igpku gS] mudk dkO; laxzg ^;kruk dh vk¡[ksa* lkekftd folaxfr;ksa dks vfHkO;Dr djrk gSA bl laxzg dh dfork & ^nzks.kkpk;Z lqus % mudh ijEijk,a lqus* esa cVksgh th us Ldwykas] dkWystksa esa nfyr tkfr ds Nk=ksa ds lkFk gks jgs Hksn&Hkko dh vksj / ;ku vkdf"kZr djus dk iz;kl fd;k gSA cVksgh th fy[krs gSa % ^^eSa flQZ! nzks.k rqEgkjs jkLrs ij pys xq: ls dgrk gw¡] vc nku esa vaxwBk ekaxus dk lkgl dksbZ ugha djrkA izSfDVdy esa Qsy djrk gS izFke vxj vkrk gw¡ rks NBk ;k lkrok¡ LFkku nsrk gS tkfrxa/k VkbfVy esa [kkstrk gSA ;g vkRek vkSj eu dks csesy djrk gSA ¼nnZ ds nLrkost] i`- 112½ var esa rhuksa oxksZa ds dfo;ksa ds lkfgR; ij /;ku nsus ij gesa irk pyrk gS fd bu rhuksa oxksZa ds dfo;ksa us vius&vius le; esa nfyr psruk ds mRFkku dh ckr dh] ysfdu rhuksa dk nfyr psruk dh ckr djus ds mís'; fHkUu&2 gSaA ;gk¡ HkfDrdkyhu dfo;ksa us fo'o ds lanHkZ esa nfyr psruk dh ckr dh gS] rks nfyr psruk dk ek/;e /keZ dks cuk;k gSA ;gh psruk ij vk/kqfud ;qx esa vkrs&vkrs ekdZlokn] Qk;M vkfn dk izHkko iM+k rks dfo;ksa us nfyr psruk dk mís'; ns'k dh v[k.Mrk rFkk izxfr ds lanHkZ esa fd;kA ogha tc nfyr tkfr ls lEcfU/kr dfo;ksa us nfyr psruk dh ckr dh rks mudh psruk mudh tkfr fo'ks"k ds lanHkZ esa gqbZA blds ihNs Hkh dkj.k Fkk fd bu dfo;ksa us nfyr gksus ds larki dks vius Åij >syk FkkA blfy, buds fy, ns'k dh izxfr ds ckjs esa lkspus ls igys vius gdksa dh ckr djuk t:jh FkkA 1& MkW- jktohj flag ^dey* & nfyr lekt&n'kk vkSj fn'kkA 2& iz.ko dqekj oa|kssi/;k;& nfyr izlax 3& ,e- ih- dey& nfyr&la?k"kZ ds egkuk;d 4& MkW- ghjk yky 'kekZ& lkekftd ifjorZu esa dFkk&lkfgR; dh Hkwfedk MkW- egsUnz 5& MkW- ;'k xqykVh & fgUnh ds Js"B dkO;ksa dk ewY;kadu