APPROACH, METHOD & TECHNIQUEApproach : A set of assumptions, beliefs and theories dealing with the nature of language learning and teaching.Method : An overall plan for systematic presentation of a language based upon a selected approach.Technique : Specific activities demonstrated in the classroom that are compatible with a method. As a method is consistent with an approach; the techniques used in the classroom are also in harmony with that approach. It is an umbrella term. It includes everything that teachers and learners do in the classroom.Task : It is a form of technique. It focuses on the authentic use of language for meaningful communicative purposes.Activity : It is a form of technique. It refers to everything students do in classroom. There is a particular objective and a time limit (role-plays, drills, games, gap-filling exercises, discussions).Drill : Technique that focuses on a minimal number of language forms through repetition.
CATEGORIZING TECHNIQUESManipulative to Communicative TechniquesManipulative :The technique is totally controlled by the teacherRequires a predicted response from the student(Choral repetition & cued substitution drills, dictation-listening/writing- , reading aloud)Communicative:The technique is less controlled by the teacherStudents’ responses are completely open-ended and therefore unpredictableStudents are free to be creative with their responses and interactions with other students(Story-telling, brain-storming, role-plays)Communication can take place from the very first day of language class. Communicative techniques forbeginners involve small chunks of language. On the very first day of class’ students can be taught to ask andrespond to questions such as “What is your name? Where do you live? How old are you?”Controlled to Free TechniquesControlled:Teacher centeredManipulativeStructured(Teacher controls the language that the students are expected to say “I would like …….”)Predicted student responsesPre-planned objectivesSet curriculumDance, songs, jokes, play, role-play, dialog presentation, reading aloud, drills, translation’ dictation, copying,identification, recognition, testing, meaningful drillsSemi-Controlled:Brain-storming, story-telling, cued narrative dialogue, information transfer, information exchangeFree :Student centeredCommunicativeOpen-ended(Students complete writings in a creative way or dialogs and debates)Unpredictable responsesNegotiated objectives (aims to empower the students)Cooperative curriculum (Content of the course is negotiated with the students)Composition, problem solving, drama, interview, discussion
THE DIRECT METHODThis method is born as a reaction to GTM as GTM could not prepare learners for real life situations in whichcommunication was essential. It is an oral based approach. It is based on the belief that L2 learning should bemore like L1 acquisition. It gets its meaning from the fact that meaning should be conveyed directly in thetarget language through demonstrations and visual aids. The learning process should include spontaneous useof language in a meaningful context, lots of oral interaction, no L1 use, no translation between the languagesand no analysis of grammatical rules. This method is also known as the Berlitz Method recognized widely byhis foreign language schools in all over the world.Weaknesses: This method did not take well in public education due to the budget limitations, classroom sizeand time. In addition, this method’s success highly relied on the skills and personality of the teacher.Goals of the T: T’s goal is to teach sts. how to think and to communicate in the target language.Role of the T & Sts: T directs the classroom activities but sts. are also active.Characteristics of the teaching/learning process: Sts. should associate meaning with the target language so Tconveys the meaning via demonstrations and visual aids using pictures, objects and pantomime. Translation isforbidden. Sts. communicate in the target language as much as possible. T creates real context for them tocommunicate. Units may include situations like “going shopping/at a bank/market/” or topics like “weather,money, geography). Grammar is taught inductively. Sts. figure out the rules from the examples given. Sts.practice vocabulary by using new words in sentences.The nature of student-teacher interaction: The interaction is between T-St., St.-T and St.-St.Language & Culture: Language is primarily spoken. Sts. study common, everyday speech in the targetlanguage. Sts. also study culture and learn how the speakers of that language live.Language skills emphasized: All of four skills occur from the start but oral communication is seen as basic.Thus, reading and writing exercises are based on what sts. practice orally. Vocabulary is emphasized overgrammar. Correct pronunciation is aimed right from the beginning.Error correction: Errors are corrected by various techniques such as guiding sts. to self-correct.The role of the sts’ native language: L1 is never used. Sample Lesson: Konu US cografyasi. Sinifta harita var. Sts. tek tek okuma parcasindan cumleler okuyor, T onlarokurken harita uzerinden isaret ediyor. 2 sts. anlamadiklari kelimeleri soruyorlar. T tahtaya cizerek vedemonstrate ederek anlatiyor. Sts. sorularini L2 ile soruyor. Sonra, T parca hk. Sorular soruyor, sts. fullcumleler icinde cevap veriyor. Sonra sts. birbirlerine soru soruyor. T telaffuz hatasini aninda duzeltiyor, sinifada tekrarlatiyor. Grammar hatasini ise st.’a soru sorarak kendisinin duzeltmesini sagliyor. Sonra prepositionskullanmalari icin cocuklara oturduklari yerler ve esyalari hk. Sorular soruyor. Sts. da birbirlerine soruyor. Sonra,prep. uzerine fill in the blanks alistirmasi yapiyorlar. Sonra, defterlerine yazi yazdiriyor. 3 defa (normal, yavas,phrase phrase) okuyor.Following lessons: US cografya tekrar, paragraph yazma, pronunciation calisma, bir proverb uzerinden sohpet.
THE DIRECT METHODPRINCIPLES OBSERVATIONS & TECHNIQUESLanguage is primarily speech but also reading skills Sts. start a lesson by reading a passage aloud. Eachshould develop through practice with speaking. reads a sentence in turns (Reading Aloud)Culture is not only fine arts (Sts also study geography The passage includes information on geography of US.and cultural attitudes). T is also using a map of US.Objects and pictures are used to help sts understand T points to the map while sts are reading the passage.the meaning.L1 is never used in the classroom. T asks if they have any question. Sts. Ask their questions in the target language.Meaning is conveyed through demonstrations and Sts ask questions about the meaning of some words.visual aids. T does not explain or translate. Sts are Ex: “between” T demonstrates by showing two sts.expected to make direct association between target “mountain range” T draws on the board.language and meaning.Sts. should learn to think in the target language as T asks questions and sts. answer in full sentences.soon as possible. Vocabulary is learnt better when (Question and answer exercise)learnt in full sentences. New words and grammaticalsentences are practiced better in this way.Sts. learn how to communicate in the target language. T invites sts. to ask questions about the map.Learning how to ask questions is also a part of the (Question and answer exercise)process.Pronunciation should be worked on right from the A st. makes a pronunciation mistake while asking abeginning of the instruction. question. T works with the st. and the whole class until he is satisfied.Error correction is through guiding student to self- A student makes a grammatical error and the teachercorrect. asks him to make a choice (Is it ….. or is it …..?) The st. corrects herself (Getting Sts. to Self-Correct)Grammar is taught indirectly in an inductive way. T asks questions to each student about themselvesAlso, sts. find opportunity to use language in real using prepositions (on/in/at/between) Sts. answercontext. Sts. should be encouraged to speak as much and then they make up questions and ask themas possible. (Conversational Practice)Grammar is taught inductively way. The grammar Sts. fill in the blanks with prepositions practiced in therules are never given explicitly. lesson (Fill in the Blanks Exercise)Writing is also another important skill that should be T asks sts. dictates a paragraph about geography ofdeveloped from the beginning of language learning US. He reads it three times with different speed. Also,process. Sts. label blank maps and direct T to complete a map. Also, they write a paragraph about geography of US. (Dictation & Paragraph Writing)Learning a language also involves how speakers of T uses a proverb to discuss how people in the USthat language live. view punctuality.
The Grammar Translation Method The Direct MethodTranslation is a must in both ways No translation is allowed.Teacher & sts. use L1 L1 is forbiddenReading & Writing are primary skills. No importance Although 4 skills are used from the beginning,or attention is given to speaking. Language is for language is seen as being primarily spoken notmental exercise and for appreciating literature. writtenGrammar is taught deductively Grammar is taught inductively.Vocabulary is taught through memorization Vocabulary is demonstrated through the use of authentic materials in complete sentences.Interaction is mainly form T-St. Interaction goes both ways.T makes use of contrastive analysis such as cognates Sts. should learn to think in the target language.No attention is given to pronunciation. Pronunciation receives attention right from the beginning.Errors are corrected immediately. Self-correction is encouraged.Learning a language is limited to its literature and Learning another language also involves to learn howfine-arts. speakers of that language live.
THE AUDIO-LINGUAL METHODThe Direct Method did not take hold in the US the way it did in Europe due to several problems such as lack ofnative speaking teachers of modern foreign languages, the belief of US institutions in promoting readingproficiency rather than oral skills. By that time, The World War II broke out and the need for Americans tobecome orally proficient in the languages of both their aliens and their enemies emerged. Ironically, theAudio-Lingual Method borrowed many aspects from the Direct Method and injected them to their ownteaching method. It was also influenced by Skinner’s Behavioristic Theory which advocates that language isacquired through a process of habit formation which involves too much repetition, imitation andreinforcement. According to Behaviorism, the way to acquire the sentence patterns of the language wasthrough conditioning-helping learners to respond correctly to stimuli through shaping and reinforcement.Rote practicing and overlearning were also important. In addition, according to Behaviorism, errors should beavoided at all costs.Weaknesses: It failed to teach long-term communicative proficiency and usually students were unable totransfer skills into real life communication. The Innatists Hypothesis introduced by Chomsky in rejection toBehaviorism proved that language acquisition cannot be explained by imitation and repetition. Language israther creative. Also, human brain is not a “tabula rasa”. We are prewired to acquire a language. We have aninborn capacity.Goals of the T: T’s goal is to teach sts. how to think and to communicate in the target language. In order to dothis, they believe sts. need to overlearn the target language. Sts. achieve this by forming new habits in thetarget language and overcoming the old habits of their L1.Role of the T & Sts: T is like an orchestra leader. T directs and controls the language behavior of sts.She is alsoresponsible for providing a good model so that sts. can imitate. Sts. are imitators. They have to respond asaccurate and as rapidly as possible.Characteristics of the teaching/learning process: New vocabulary and language patterns are presentedthrough dialogs. Dialogs are learnt through repetition and imitation. Various drills are used based upon thepatterns presented in the dialog. Sts. successful responses are positively reinforced. Grammar is introducedinductively. Sts. reading and writing works are based on what they practice only.The nature of student-teacher interaction: The interaction is between T-St., St.-T and St.-St. but it is throughdrills and chain drills and it is teacher directed.Language & Culture: Language is primarily spoken. Sts. study common, everyday speech in the targetlanguage. Sts. also study culture and learn how the speakers of that language live.Language skills emphasized: The natural order of language acquisition is followed. (listening-speaking-reading-writing). Language is seen as being primarily spoken not written Vocabulary is kept to a minimumwhile students are mastering the sound system and grammatical patterns. Sts. reading and writing works arebased on what they practice only. Correct pronunciation is aimed right from the beginning.Error correction: Errors are to be avoided at all costs. T does contrastive analysis to predict where sts. willmake errors and work on them.
The role of the sts’ native language: L1 is never used. Students should overcome the habits of their L1 as soonas possible. Sample Lesson: Konu; iki kisi arasinda (Bill & Sally) gecen bir konusma. T dialogu okuyor ve sts.ezberleyeceklerini bilerek dinliyorlar. L1 kullanilmiyor. T conveys meaning by demonstrations and visual aids.Instructions are in English. Sonra, 2 kere daha okuyor ve son okuyusunda bu defa anlamaya calismalariniistiyor. Sonra, her satiri okuyor ve sinifa tekrarlatiyor. Sinifin soyleyemedigi bolumde backward build-up drillyaptiriyor. Sonra kendisi Sally, sinif Bill oluyor ama sinif soylemeden o model olarak soyluyor onlarin okuyacagisatiri yani repetition drill yaptiriyor. They have to listen carefully and mimic the teacher’s model as accuratelyas possible. Sonra roller degistiriyor. Sts. yanlis okursa durdurup dogru modeli veriyor. Sonra, “Gunaydin(isim)-Gunaydin Teacher” “Nasilsin?-iyiyim” chain drill baslatiyor. Boylece tek tek sts. pronunciation uzerindecalisabiliyor. Herkes bitirdikten sonar iki sts. seciyor to perform the dialog for the rest of the class. Birkacornekten sonar dersin ana bolumune geciyor. Onlara bir cue vererek single-slot substitution drill (tek kelimedegisiyor) yaptiriyor (I am going to the post office –the bank-). Cocuklar ne yapacaklarini mecburen anlayipyapiyorlar. Ayni seyi bu defa “How are you?” ile yapiyorlar. (pronoun degistirerek). Sonra T multiple-slotsubstitution drill yaptiriyor. (I am going to the post office-she/ to the park). Sonra soru cevap olarak question-answer drill ve ayrica transformation drill yaptiriyor. Son kez daha sinifi ikiye bolerek dialogu tekrarlatiyor (cifttarafli) ve dersi bitiriyor.Following lessons: Dialog tekrari, birkac satir ekleyerek gelistirerek devam, drills, “a little/few” ile ilgili drilller,ve ancak birkac hafta sonra dialogu deftere yazma, bazi kelimeleri slime ve onlara tekrar yazdirma, alfabeoyunu, Amerikadaki supermarketler ile ilgili T sunumu ve Mali/Amerikan futbol karsilastirmasi.
THE AUDIO-LINGUAL METHODPRINCIPLES OBSERVATIONS & TECHNIQUESLanguage forms occur in content. T introduces a new dialog.L1 & L2 have separate linguistic systems. They should Meaning is conveyed through demonstrations andbe kept apart so that sts’ L1 should not interfere with visual aids. T does not explain or translate. Sts arethe target language expected to make direct association between target language and meaning.Language learning is a process of habit formation. Students repeat each line of the dialog several times.Learning takes place by repetition They know they are supposed to memorize it (Dialog memorization)Errors should be prevented at all costs. Errors lead to Sts. fail to repeat the line correctly. The teacher usesformation of bad habits. They should be corrected a (backward build-up drill).immediately.Positive reinforcement helps the sts. develop correct T says “very good” when the st. answers correctly.habits.Students should learn to respond to both verbal and T uses spoken cues and picture cues for the drills.non-verbal stimuli.Each language has a finite number of patterns. T conducts transformation and question answer drills.Pattern practice helps sts. to form habits whichenable them to use the patterns.Students should overlearn. They should learn to When sts. handle it, the teacher poses the questionsanswer automatically without stopping to think. to them rapidly.Major objective of T is to help get students acquire New vocabulary is introduced through lines of thethe structural patterns; sts. will learn vocabulary dialog. Vocabulary is limited.afterwards.Major challenge is to get students overcome the old T does a contrastive analysis of the target languagehabits of their native language. and the sts’ native language in order to predict where they will have difficulties.Language is seen as being primarily spoken not T writes a dialog on the board towards the end of thewritten. The natural order of acquisition is followed week. Sts. do some limited work with the dialog and(listening-speaking-reading-writing). the sentence drills.Culture and language cannot be separated. Learning Supermarket alphabet game and discussion aboutanother language also involves learning how speakers Mali and American football.of that language live.
The Audio-Lingual Method The Direct MethodNo translation is allowed. No translation is allowed.L1 is forbidden L1 is forbiddenThe natural order of language acquisition is followed. Although 4 skills are used from the beginning,(listening-speaking-reading-writing). Language is seen language is seen as being primarily spoken notas being primarily spoken not written writtenGrammar is taught inductively. L2 learning should be Grammar is taught inductively, through examples andlike L1 acquisition. T drills sts. in the use of exercises.grammatical patterns (Behaviorism – repetition)New vocabulary is introduced through lines of Vocabulary is demonstrated through the use ofdialogues. authentic materials in complete sentences.Interaction is mainly from T-Sts. Interaction goes both ways.Sts. should learn to think in the target language. Sts. Sts. should learn to think in the target language asshould overcome the habits of their L1 and form the soon as possible.new habits required by L2.Pronunciation receives attention right from the Pronunciation receives attention right from thebeginning. Sts. often work in labs on minimal pairs. beginning.Immediately corrected by the teacher. It is important Self-correction is encouraged.to prevent learners from making errors as errors leadto the formation of bad habits.Learning another language also involves learning how Learning another language also involves learning howspeakers of that language live. speakers of that language live.
DESUGGESTOPEDIAThis method is developed by a Russian psychologist. He argued that people use %5-10 of their mentalcapacity. In order to make better use of our mental reserves limitations needs to be desuggested.Psychological barriers should be removed. Some of the classroom methodology was not particularly unique.The primary difference laid in the decoration, furniture, baroque music, seating arrangements and theauthoritative behavior of the teacher. The most significant difference of this method form GTM, ALM and DMis that is highly influenced by an “affective-humanistic approach” an approach in which there’s respect forstudent’s feelings. Teachers should help students to eliminate the feelings that they cannot be successful.Weaknesses :The method depends on too much memorization. It is not an appropriate method because itdoes not help students to improve. Despite such claims, Desuggestopedia gave insights to language teachingprofessionals. It highlighted the strength of the human brain. In addition, it showed that reducing the traitanxiety through music and other relaxation techniques is beneficial for successful language learning.Goals of the T: T’s goal is to tap students’ mental powers to accelerate the process of language learning. Theparaconscious part of the mind should be activated by using techniques and their psychological barriersshould be desuggested.Role of the T & Sts: T is the authority. Sts. must trust and respect her. It is believed that sts. will retaininformation better if it comes from someone whom they trust. Once they trust the T they will feel moresecure and that will be less inhibited.Characteristics of the teaching/learning process: The classroom is bright and cheerful. Grammaticalinformation is displayed on several posters which are hung on the walls of the classroom so that sts. will learnin an indirect way without intentionally directing their attention to them (peripheral learning). Students selecttarget language names and new occupations. The texts contain lengthy dialogs. Next to the dialogs aretranslations in the sts.’ L1. There are also reproductions of paintings, notes on vocabulary and grammar.Baroque music is played while T reads the dialog. T matches her voice to the rhythm of the music. T aims toactivate both left and the right brain for effective learning. No homework is assigned. Sts. may read the dialogbefore going to sleep and after they wake up if they want to.The nature of student-teacher interaction: The interaction with the whole group of students right from thebeginning. T dili kisitli da olsa kullanmaya baslamalari icin sts’a en basta basit bir dialog ogretiyor.Feeling of students: A great deal of attention is given to their feelings. It is believed that if sts. are relaxed andconfident they will learn the language effortlessly. Sts’ psychological barriers should be desuggested. A newidentity makes them feel more secure because the mistakes will not be made by themselves, it will be thatidentity’s mistake.Language & Culture: Sts. study common, everyday speech in the target language. Sts. also study culture andlearn how the speakers of that language live. The use of fine arts is also important.Language skills emphasized: Vocabulary is emphasized. Sts. has to memorize large number of words. Minimalexplicit grammar is introduced. The paraconscious mind is expected to absorb the linguistic rules accordingly.
Speaking is emphasized. Students also read in the target language (dialogs) and write (imaginarycompositions).Error correction: Errors are corrected gently. The teacher uses a soft voice.The role of the sts’ native language: L1 translation is used to make meaning of the dialog clear. T also uses L1in class when necessary. As the course proceeds the use of L1 decreases. Sample Lesson: Konu “To want to is to be able to”. T once sts. greeting ve sonra ogrenmek icinugrasmamalarini, ogrenmenin dogal olarak gerceklesecegini soyluyor. Kendilerine yeni identity ve occupationsecmelerini istiyor. Meslekleri onlara pantomime kullanarak anlatiyor. Sonra yeni identity ve isleriyle ilgilisorular soruyor. Sts. yes/no cevaplari veriyorlar. Sonra siniftaki muzik aletlerini calmaya basliyorlar. T 20 syf.Dialogu dagitiyor. Otline’I biraz L1, biraz L2 biraz da pantomime ile anlatiyor. Instructions baslangicta mostlyL1. 3 kere okuyor. Ilk okumada sesini muzige uyduruyor, ikinci okumada muzik degisiyor ve daha geri plandakaliyor. O arada translated taraftan takip etmelerini ve not tutmalarini tavsiye ediyor. En son okumada sadecedinliyorlar. Class is dismissed and there is no homework. T isterseniz yatmadan ve uyaninca okuyun diyor.Ikinci derste T sapkalar cikariyor. Once kendi takip karakterkerden biri oluyor. Sonra dorder dorder digerlerinegiydiriyor. Dialogu bir kizgin, bir uzgun, bir mutlu okutuyor. “You are auditioning for a role in Broadway”oynatiyor. Bu defa dramatic okumalarini istiyor. Sonra dialogdan target language’da sorular soruyor. Bazentranslation yapmalarini istiyor. Sonra onlara alfabe oyunu oynatiyor (cocuk gibi davranmalarini saglamayacalisiyor). Circle Time activity yaptiriyor (hayali identityleri ve occupationlari uzerinden). Yanlislar soft voice ileduzeltiliyor.More advanced levels: daha complex cumleler ve grammar, yeni kelimelerin antonyms/synonyms veriliyor.Sts. kendileri novel kelimeler kurmalari icin tesvif ediliyor.
DESUGGESTOPEDIAPRINCIPLES OBSERVATIONS & TECHNIQUESLearning is facilitated in a cheerful environment. The classroom is bright and colorful (Classroom set- up)Students can learn from their environment even if Among the posters there are several grammaticaltheir attention is not directed to (peripheral learning) information are hung on the walls (Peripheral learning)If sts. trust and respect T’s authority, they will accept The teacher speaks confidently.and retain information better.T aims to desuggest the psychological barriers that T teacher says “you will not need to learn, just enjoy”sts. bring to class. (Positive Suggestion)They will feel less inhibited since their performance is Sts. choose new names and identities (Choose a newreally that of a different person. identity)T teaches them a dialog so that they can start to Sts. learn a dialog and introduce themselves to eachcommunicate immediately. other and to T.Songs are useful for freeing the speech muscles. They play instruments as they sing a song.The teacher integrates indirect positive suggestions The title of the dialog is “To want to is to be able to”.meaning that there’s no limit what they can do.Fine art provides positive suggestions for the There are reproductions of classical paintingstudents. throughout the textCommunication takes place on two phases. The first T matches her voice to the rhythm while reading thephase is language (message is encoded by T-receptive textphase for sts.) The second phase is factors thatinfluence the message to be decoded.On the conscious phase learner attends to thelanguage and on the subconscious phase the musicsuggests that learning is fun and easy. When they arein unity learning will take place effectively. Music isalso ideal for overcoming sts. barriers.Fantasy reduces barriers to learning Sts. are directed to act as the characters in the dialogT helps the students to activate their brain for T leads the class in various activities involving dialogs,learning through various activities. T also tries to role-plays, games, question answer, translations….avoid repetition. (Creative Adaptation)When sts. act as children, they will be more open to T teachers the sts. children songslearning. Trusting the T is also important.
COMMUNITY LANGUAGE LEARNINGCurran’s “Counseling-Learning” model of education was inspired by Carl Roger’s “Humanistic Psychology”which views humans as a whole. According to this view true human learning is both cognitive and affective.Adults often feel threatened by a new situation being afraid of appearing foolish. Curran believed that ifteachers acted as counselors “language counselors” they would reduce the fear of students. By appreciatingstudents’ feelings and fears a teacher could help students to overcome their negative feelings and turn theminto positive energy for successful learning.Weaknesses: Teachers attempt counseling without special training. The method lacks a syllabus. Theobjectives are unclear. Evaluation is difficult. The focus is on fluency rather than accuracy.Goals of the T: T’s goal is to teach sts. to communicate in the target language. Also, T wants students to takeresponsibility for their own learning. They should also learn how to learn to learn from other sts. T acceptsthem as whole persons. T values the sts. and their feelings.Role of the T & Sts: T is the counselor. T recognizes how threatening a new environment can be for adultlearners so understands and supports them.Characteristics of the teaching/learning process: In beginning classes sts. have conversation using their L1.According to Curran there are 6 elements necessary for non-defensive learning.SAARRD (Security – Attention - Aggression – Retention - Reflection – Discrimination)Security : Sts should feel secure to enter in a successful learning experienceAttention : St’s involvement in learning.Aggression : The sts should be given an opportunity to assert themselves, involve in the activities and has to show what he/she has learntRetention : The material takes place within the whole itself (whole person).Reflection : Students are invited to consider their learning experience.Discrimination : Sorting out the differences among target language formsThe nature of student-teacher interaction: Neither student, nor teacher centered but rather teacher-student-centered both being decision makers in the class. Not competition but cooperation is encouraged. It isbelieved that trusting relationship can reduce the trait anxiety that students fell.Students’ Feelings: Responding to the students’ feelings is very important. One regular activity is inviting themto comment on how they feel. T can help them to overcome negative feelings that might otherwise block theirlearning. L1 use is also for them to feel secure.Language skills emphasized: At the early stages students decide on what to do in class. Later, when they feelmore secure, T might prepare specific materials. Understanding and speaking the language is seen as basic.Thus, reading and writing exercises are based on what sts. practice orally.Error correction: Rephrasing is used for correcting errors (to repeat correctly what the student has saidincorrectly without calling further attention to the error).
The role of the sts’ native language: L1 use is also for them to feel secure. Where possible native languageequivalents are given to the target language. Instructions are given in L1. Sts. express and share their feelingsin L1. Sample Lesson: Herkes masanin cevresinde circle olacak sekilde oturuyor. Masanin ortasinda bir taperecorder var. Tanisma faslindan sonra ogretmen sohpet edeceklerini ve kendi soylediklerinin kayit edileceginisoyluyor. Daha sonra kaydin transcriptini cikaracaklarini anlatiyor. Arkalarinda durup konusmalarinicevirecegini soyluyor. Elini kaldiran ogrencinin gidip arkasinda duruyor. Translate ediyor, sonra kayit ediliyor.Sohpet bitince ogrt. De yanlarina oturuyor ve L1’da hislerini soruyor. Hepsini saygiyla accept etmek zorunda.Sonra teypten kendilerini dinleyip tekrar etmeye calisiyorlar. Teyp durdurularak utterance’lar tek tek tahtayayaziliyor. Ogrt. Ogrencilerin sadece dinlemelerini ve seyretmelerini istiyor, yamayin diyor. Tekrar okuyor.Arkaniza dayanin dinleyin diyor. Sonra da Human Computer olacagini ve tam olarak yapacaklarini anlatiyor.Sonra grup work yapiyorlar. Transcriptteki kelimeleri kullanarak yeni cumleler kuruyorlar. Ogrt. Erroroldugunda rephrasing yapiyor. Tape 2 kere daha dinleniyor. Dersin son 10 dk. Yine fikirlerini soruyor.Following lessons: Conversation uzerinde calismaya devam, study grammar in conversation, sira ile transcriptokuma (biri L1 biri taget language), pronunciation uzerinde calisma olanagi, create a new dialogue with thatwords.
COMMUNITY LANGUAGE LEARNINGPRINCIPLES OBSERVATIONS & TECHNIQUESBuilding a relationship with and among sts. is very T greets sts and introduces himself and has sts.important introduce themselvesA new learning experience can be threatening. When Explains briefly what they are going to dosts. know what to do they feel more secureLanguage is for communication. Sts. have conversationT superior knowledge may be threatening for the sts. The teacher stands behind the studentsT also fosters interaction by standing behind the sts.T should be sensitive to sts’ level of confidence and T translates what sts. want to say and the utterancesgive them what they need to succeed. are tape recorded (Tape Recording Conversation)T and sts are whole persons. By sharing their Sts. are invited to talk about how they feel.experiences they will get to know each other and builtcommunityEach learner is unique. T should create an accepting T accepts and understands what sts. sayatmosphere. By this way the learning experiencebecomes less threatening. The teacher counsels thests.L1 is used to make the meaning clear. Sts. feel more S listen to the tape and give the L1 translation.secure when they understand everything.Sts. learn best when they have a choice in what to In the (Human Computer Activity) sts. choose whatpractice. They should take control of their own they want to repeat and T repeats as many times aslearning. they want him to repeat.They feel a sense of community and also they learn Sts. work in groups (Small Group Tasks).from each other in groups. Cooperation notcompetition is encouraged.Fantasy reduces barriers to learning Sts. are directed to act as the characters in the dialogT helps the students to activate their brain for T leads the class in various activities involving dialogs,learning through various activities. T also tries to role-plays, games, question answer, translations….avoid repetition.When sts. act as children, they will be more open to T teachers the sts. children songslearning. Trusting the T is also important.
TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSEThis method is developed by James Asher. It was influenced by a general approach named “TheComprehension Approach” by which the importance is given to listening comprehension. L2 learning shouldbe more like L1 acquisition. A baby spends many months listening to the people around it long before it eversays a word. The child has the time to internalize the sounds it hears. No one tells the baby that it must speak.The child chooses to speak when he feels ready to do so. Asher also added that the child’s listening isaccompanied by physical responses (reaching, grabbing, moving, looking and so forth). He also gave someattention to right brain learning. According to Asher motor activity is a right brain function and it shouldprecede left brain language processing. He also wished to come up with a method that would lower down thedebilitative anxiety level that appears in many language classes. TRP heavily utilized the imperative mood.Commands were the easy ways to get learners to move about and to loosen up. No verbal response wasnecessary. More complex syntax could also be incorporated into the imperatives.Weaknesses: The method does not cater for the needs of advanced learners.Goals of the T: T’s goal is to have their students to enjoy their experience in learning a second language. T alsoaims to reduce the debilitative anxiety that students feel.Role of the T & Sts: T is the director of sts’ behaviors. Sts. are imitators of her non-verbal model. Whenstudents feel ready to speak they can act as a teacher and give commands.Characteristics of the teaching/learning process: T always models what to do. T performs the actions with thestudents. Later, T gives directions and sts. perform alone. Afterwards, all class performs. Then, T combines theelement of the commands and give commands that they are not familiar with. Sts. perform them, also. Thesecommands are usually humorous. Sts. also learn to read and write them. Sts. who are ready to speak startsgiving commands.The nature of student-teacher interaction: T is speaking and directing the sts. by giving commands. Sts. arenon-verbal respondents. Later on, sts. become more verbal and T becomes more non-verbal. Sts. perform alltogether.Culture: Culture is the life style of people who speak the language. Sts. learn how the speakers of thatlanguage live.Students’ Feelings: The major goal of this method is to lower down the debilitative anxiety and stress sts. feelwhen studying foreign languages. One of the primary ways of doing it is to let them speak whenever they areready. In addition, perfection should not be expected. Another way to lower down anxiety is to makelanguage learning enjoyable.Language skills emphasized: Vocabulary and grammatical structures are emphasized over other languageareas. These are embedded within imperatives. It is believed that all grammatical features can be introducedthrough imperatives. One of the reasons of using imperatives is that children acquiring their L1 are exposed tolanguage that includes imperatives. Comprehension should precede production. Sts. reading and writingworks are based on what they practice only. Sts. learn to read only after 10 hours of instruction.
Error correction: It is expected that sts. will make errors when they first begin speaking. Teachers should betolerant on them and only correct major errors. The errors should be corrected in an non-threatening way.The role of the sts’ native language: L1 is not used. T conveys his message using his body language and visualaids. Sample Lesson: Ogrt. sinifa giriyor. Greets the sts. L1 kullanarak ne yapacaklarini anlatiyor. Bastakonusmayacaklarini ogretmeni dinleyip yaptiklarini ve soylediklerini yapacaklarini anlatiyor. Ingilizcecommandlar verecegini soyluyor. 4 kisiyi secip yanina oturtuyor. Hep beraber oturuyorlar. Once onlarasirasiyla hep 6 command veriyor. Once kendi gosteriyor, sonra hep beraber, sonra yalniz onlar, sonra tum sinifyapiyorlar. Command sirasini degistirip tekrar soyluyor, hizli soyluyor. Sonra bir ogrenci seciyor. O ogr. tekbasina command veriyor. Bu 6 command’I iyice anladiklarindan emin olunca yenilerini ekliyor. Sonracommand’lari birbirine karistirip novel command’lar veriyor. Bunlar genelde komik oluyor. Sonra dahacomplex commandlar veriyor. Sonra verdigi command’lari tahtaya yaziyor. Sts. defterlerine yaziyorlar. Dahaileri seviyede ogranciler konusmaya hazir olunca commandlar vermeye basliyorlar.
TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSEPRINCIPLES OBSERVATIONS & TECHNIQUESMeaning is conveyed through actions and body T gives a command and performs it with the students.language. The right brain which is responsible for thenon-verbal behavior should be activated at thebeginning of foreign language instruction. The targetlanguage should be presented in chunks rather thansingle words.Their comprehension is expected to develop before Sts. say nothing.production. They are not forced to speak until theyfeel ready. They learn the language by moving theirbody parts.The imperative is a powerful linguistic device. By T sits down and issues commands to the volunteersgiving commands in imperatives T can direct sts.’behaviors and actions.Sts. learn by both performing and observing the After the volunteers whole class performs the actions.actions.Sts. should feel successful. Feeling of success and low T introduces new commands after they succeed in theanxiety facilitate learning. previous ones.Sts. should not be made to memorize fixed routines. T changer changes the order of commandsError correction should be in a non-threatening way. When sts. make an error, T repeats the command byErrors should be tolerated. acting it out.Sts. should develop flexibility in understanding novel T issues novel commands to the sts.combinations in the target language.Language learning is more effective when it is fun. T issues commands that are humorous commands.Spoken language should be emphasized over written T writes the new commands on the board.language.Sts. speak when they feel ready. A few weeks later, a st. begins giving commandsT helps the students to activate their brain for T leads the class in various activities involving dialogs,learning through various activities. T also tries to role-plays, games, question answer, translations….avoid repetition.When sts. act as children, they will be more open to T teachers the sts. children songslearning. Trusting the T is also important.
THE FUNCTIONAL-NOTIONAL APPROACHFirst of all, it is not a method. It is an approach. Teacher can choose this approach and add the techniquestaken from other methods and form an eclectic approach for their teaching. Its’ major emphasis is on thecommunicative (pragmatic) purposes of the speech act. It focuses on what people want to do or what theywant to accomplish through speech. The curriculum is set dependent on the functions of the language that thelearner wants to accomplish.Functions of language:Introducing self and other peopleAsking for informationExchanging informationAsking questionsGiving commands and directing peopleApologizing and thankingIdentifying and describingImaginative functionFunctional language also incorporates specific notions. Notions are meaning of elements which may beexpressed through nouns’ pronouns, verbs, prepositions, conjunctions, adjectives and adverbs. Notions maychange according to gender, number, tense, aspect, emphasis, the context and to whom we are addressingour speech (the teacher or a student; the boss or the employee, family member or a stranger).Students and their communicative purposes are at the very center of the teaching program. The learner’sacademic, social and vocational needs will underlie all aspects of the program’s linguistic and cultural context.It makes provision through a unit or a module system. As the program is designed according to the needs ofthe learner, the linguistic context, the curriculum will be meaningful to the learner and thus will be self-motivating. The learner will have intrinsic motivation which leads to successful learning.
COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHINGCommunicative Language Teaching is influenced by the Communicative Approach. According to this approach,communicative competence is the goal of language teaching. Classroom goals are focused on all of thecomponents of communicative competence such as grammatical, discourse, functional, sociolinguistic andstrategic. That means, linguistic competence (the knowledge of forms and their meanings) is just one part ofcommunicative competence. Another aspect of communicative competence is knowledge of the functions thelanguage is used for. The teacher tries to get students to develop linguistic fluency besides accuracy. Inaddition, learners should be able to adjust their language use according to the status of the interlocutor andthe social context in which the communication takes place. Language techniques are designed to engagelearners in the functional and authentic use of language for meaningful purposes. It reminds us of functional-notional approach. It involves knowing and using the appropriate notions according to the functions of thelanguage that the learner wants to accomplish.For example; in the role-play activity, T wants them to imagine that they are employees of the same company.He also wants one member of each group to act as the boss. T wants them to discuss the possible outcomes ofa merging agreement between their company and another company in a company meeting. After thediscussion session, they discuss on the language forms appropriate when speaking to a colleague and whenspeaking to the boss. T introduces a situation in which the boss doesn’t think that the vacation policy willchange after the merging but the employee thinks it will. T and the students discuss that it is more appropriateto say “I think the vacation policy might change” instead of saying “The vacation policy will change”. On theother hand, if it is your colleague with whom you disagree, than there is no problem in saying “The vacationpolicy will change” or “I know/I’m sure that the vacation policy will change”.According to Morrow (1981), activities that are truly communicative should have three features in common:1) Information gap: It refers to a situation where one of the communicators knows something that the otherone does not.In the card game the speaker did not know what her classmate was going to do the following weekend. So,there is an information gap.2) Choice: Student chooses a kind of sport from the blackboard and utters it in the form that she likes. So, thestudent has a choice both in terms of prediction and the language form.3) Feedback: The speaker received feedback from the members of her group. If the students didn’t have thecard that involved her prediction, she opened the card which had been put face down on the table andlearned that her prediction was true. Classroom tasks are designed to equip students with the skills necessary for communication outside the classroom in different contexts.Goals of the T: The goal is to enable students communicate in the target language. T guides them to learn anduse the functions of the language as well as the linguistic forms and the meanings. They need to know that a
variety of forms can be used to accomplish a single function or the same form of language can be used for avariety of functions.A speaker may say “It may rain” or “Perhaps it will rain” to make a prediction (variety of forms of language fora single function)A speaker can use “May” both to make a prediction and to give permission “You may sit in the back” (thesame form of language for a variety of functions)They must also be able to choose the appropriate form according to the roles of the interlocutors and thesocial context that the communication takes place in. In addition, they must also be able to negotiate meaningwith their interlocutors in order to understand whether the interlocutors decoded the message correctly ornot.A speaker may say “Can you pass the salt?” when having dinner a dinner with his friends and family.A speaker is more likely to say “Could you pass the salt please?” when having dinner in a formal context withinterlocutors who are socially in a higher position like his boss.Role of the T & Sts: Teacher is the facilitator, need analyst, adviser, researcher and counselor. She is notsupposed to know everything. The teacher aims to facilitate lifelong learning among students. During theactivities he acts as an adviser, he answers sts’ questions and monitors their performance. He might makenote of the sts’ errors during a communication based activity and he might work on sts’ errors later during anactivity that focuses on forms and accuracy.Sts. are active communicators even if they have limited competence in the target language. They are expectedto negotiate meaning continuously during communication. They are encouraged to discover their ownlearning styles and to develop skills for lifelong learning.Characteristics of the teaching/learning process: Everything is done in class and every activity aim to enhancests’ communication skills. Sts. use the language through meaningful communicative activities such asscrambled sentences, language games, role-plays and problem solving tasks. Another important characteristicof CLT is the use of authentic materials such as newspaper articles, radio programs, debates on radio and TV.Authentic materials help students to become familiar with different types of language used in real life.The nature of student-teacher interaction: The teacher is more effective when working with sts’ linguisticaccuracy. At other times, he is the facilitator of the activities. He mostly establishes situations that enable ststo communicate with each other.Language & Culture: Language is for communication. Linguistic competence is not enough. It should beaccompanied by sociolinguistic competence. Sts. should know the functions that the language is used for. Inaddition, they should be able to adjust their use of language according to the status of the interlocutor and thesocial context that the communication takes place in. They should be competent in using the appropriatenotions according to the functions of the language that they want to accomplish.Culture is everyday lifestyle of people who use both verbal and non-verbal language.
Students’ Feelings: It is believed that if the learning is meaningful they will be more motivated to learn thetarget language. Sts. are also given a chance to express their ideas and opinions on a regular basis.Error correction: Errors are seen as the signs of sts’ developing language competence. Errors of form aretolerated during communication based activities which aims to develop fluency. Sts. are accepted to becandidates of successful communicators even with a limited linguistic knowledge. T may note the errorsduring fluency activities and return to them later with an accuracy-based activity.The role of the sts’ native language: Judicious use of sts’ native language is permitted. However, wheneverpossible, the target language should be used during communicative activities, while giving instructions andassigning homework. It is important to use the target language as much as possible because by this way stsrealize that the target language is not only a subject to be studied in school; rather, it is a tool forcommunication.Language skills emphasized: Students work on all four skills from the beginning. Generally a functionalsyllabus is used. A variety of forms are introduced for each function. At first, simpler forms are introduced.Later, as the sts become more proficient in the target language more complex forms are introduced. They alsolearn about cohesion and coherence. They learn how sentences are bound together through linguistic devicesthat make a text cohesive such as pronouns, articles, prepositions, auxiliaries and tense markers. They alsomake use of basic semantic propositions and add linguistic devices to make a unified and a coherent text.Activity: Introducing a newspaper headline “PM Meets Queen”. Sts. are directed to add grammar to unify theheadline and to make it coherent. “The Prime Minister has met the Queen”Activity: Scrambled words “Kim/dog/run/over” How many sentences can you make with the following elementin any order by adding grammatical words such as pronouns, articles, prepositions, auxiliaries and tensemarkers?Subject & Object relations can be established through the use of Passive Voice.A relationship between nouns can be established through the use of possessive ‘s.Time relations can be clarified through the use of tense markers.Some Definitions:Information gap: Exists when two communicating people already know the answer to a question. In this casethe exchange is not really communicative. If the exercise is tightly controlled so that students can only saysomething in one way, the speaker has no choice and the exchange, therefore, is not communicative.Communicative competence: The knowledge of forms and their meaning is just one part of communicativecompetence. Knowledge of the functions is another aspect of communicative competence. Communicativecompetence is interlanguage plus 1 (i+1)Communication: In communication the speaker has a choice of what she will say and how she will say it. Truecommunication is purposeful
4 dimensions of communicative competence according to Canale & Swain (1980)1) Grammatical competence (Chomsky’s Linguistic competence): It’s the ability to recognize and produce thedistinctive grammatical structures of a language and to use them effectively in communication.2) Sociolinguistic competence : (social context, purpose, participants) The knowledge of the socio-culturalrules of language and of discourse.3) Discourse competence (Interconnectedness within a text): The ability to connect sentences in stretches ofdiscourse and to form a meaningful whole out of a series of utterances. (the odd-one out, scrambledsentences, completing a dialogue, choosing the right response)4) Strategic competence : the verbal and nonverbal communication strategies that may be called into action tocompensate for breakdowns in communication due to performance variables or due to insufficientcompetence. a) Initiate a communication: it’s a starter (hello, I think I know who you are ) b) Maintain a communication: to keep the communication going. c) Repair a communication: if someone misunderstood you and you try to explain your position. d) Terminate a communication: to stop to communicate (I have to go …..) Strategic competence is the ability to keep the communication going.Littlewood (1981) Functional Communicative Activities : Social Interaction Avtivities : Comparing pictures Conversation & Discussion Determining likely sequence of events Dialogues & Role-plays Discovering missing features Simulations & Skits Following directions Improvisations Solving problems DebatesSample Lesson: Ogrt. bir handout dagitiyor. On yuzunde gazeteden alinmis bir spor haberi var. Kose yazari DunyaKupasini kimin kazanacagi konusunda tahminlerde bulunuyor. Ogr. yaziyi okuyor ve yazarin prediction yaptigi bolumlerinaltini ciziyor. Instructions are all in English. Daha sonra altini cizdiklerini okuyorlar. Ogrt. tartistiklari predictionlaritahtaya yaziyor. Daha sonra yazarin hangi predictionlarda daha emin hissettigi, hangilerinde daha emin hissettigikonusunda tartisiyorlar. Daha sonra ogrt. tahtadaki ilk cumleye bakmalarini ve onu baska sekilde soylemelerini istiyor.Sts. tahminde bulunuyor. Ogrt. de bir tane offer ediyor. Daha sonra sayfanin arkasini ceviriyorlar ve scrambled sentences(metinden) activity yapiyorlar. Sonra bes kisilik gruplara ayrilip oyun oynuyorlar. Her gruba 13 kartlik bir deste dagitiyor.Her kartin uzerinde bir sport equipment resmi var. Ogr. isimlerini tek tek identify ediyor ve ogrt. de tahtaya yaziyor.Kartlar karistiriliyor ve gruptaki ogr. her birine 3 adet kart dagitiliyor. Kalan tek kart grubun ortasina kapali olarakkonuyor. Ogr. ellerindeki kartlari kimseye gostermiyor. Gruptaki 5. Kisiye kart dagitilmiyor. O ogr. siniftaki belirli bir ogr.gelecek haftasonu ne yapacagini bulmaya calisiyor. Bunun icin predictionlar iceren cumleler kuruyor. “Simon may goskiing this weekend.” Eger grup arkadaslarinin elinde o kart var ise cevap veriyor “Simon can’t go skiing because I havehis skis.” Eger prediction yapan ogr. soyledigi spora ait malzeme kimsenin elinde yok ise o ogr. ortadaki kapali kartiaciyor ve bu defa daha kesin bir prediction yapiyor ve mesela “Simon will go skiing next weekend” diyor. Sts. take turns
so that each st. has a chance to make the predictions about how a classmate will spend his or her time. Daha sonraogrt.ulkelerin gelecegi ve dunya ile ilgili bir dizi predictions okuyor. The sts. are told to make statements about howprobable they think the predictions are and why they believe so. They are also asked how they feel about the prediction.Bir ogr. dusuncelerini soylerken ungramm. cumle kuruyor ama ogrt. ignore ediyor. Daha sonra ogrt. ogr. 3 kisilik gruplaraboluyor. Gruptaki 1 ogr. picture strip story veriliyor. There are six pictures in a row on a piece of paper, but no words.The pictures tell a story. Hikayeyi elinde tutatn ogr. grup arkadaslarina ilk resmi gosteriyor (digger resimleri coverederek). Grup arkadaslari takip eden resimde ne olacagini predict ediyorlar. Hikayeyi elinde tutan ogr. dogru olupolmadiklarini soyluyor ve resmi aciyor. Tum resimler bitene kadar oyun devam ediyor. Bitince ogrt. yeni bir set picturestrip veriyor. Ogr. roller degiserek aktiviteye devam ediyorlar. Son aktivite olarak ogrt. role-play yapacaklarini soyluyorve ogr. 4 kisilik gruplara boluyor. Ayni sirketin employee’leri olduklarini hayal etmelerini istiyor. Iclerinden birini bossolarak secmelerini ve bor toplantida olduklarini dusunmelerini istiyor. They are having a meeting to discuss what willpossibly occur as a result of their company merging with another company. Baslamadan once bazi possibilityleri sinifcatartisiyorlar (possibility of losing their jobs, moving, changes in company policies, increase/decrease in salaries,ext.) Ogr.aktiviteye baslamadan ogrt. bir hatirlatma yapiyor: “Remember, that one of you in each group is the boss. You shouldthink about this relationship if, for example, he or she makes a prediction that you don’t agree with. 15 dk. They performtheir role. Ogr. bu arada grup grup dolasiyor ve offers advice on what the sts. can discuss. Ogr. sorularini da yanitliyor.Sonra sinifta statu olarak kendilerinden yuksek bir konumda olan patronlarinin disagree ettigi durumlardapredictionlarini yaparken use of language’I nasil adjust edebeliceklerini tartisiyorlar. Mesela patron vacation policy’nindegisecegi konusunda sizinle ayni fikirde degil ise, “The vacation policy will change” yerine “I think the vacation policymay change” demenin daha dogru olmasi gibi. Son olarak ogrt. homework assignment veriyor. TV veya radio’da o aksamyayinlanacak olan iki politikaci adayinin katildigi bir debate’I dinlemelerini ve Ingilizce olarak kimin kazanacagina dairpredictionlarini nedenlerini belirterek yazmalarini istiyor. Gelecek dersin basinda ogrencilere okuyacaklarini soyluyor.
COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHINGPRINCIPLES OBSERVATIONS & TECHNIQUESWhenever possible, authentic language that is the T distributes a handout that has a copy of a sportslanguage used in real context should be introduced. column from a recent newspaper.Being able to figure out the speaker’s or writer’s Sts. underline the writer’s predictions and try to findintentions is part of being communicatively out the ones that he is uncertain and less certain.competent.The target language is not only a subject to be T gives all the instructions in the target language.studied. It is the means of communication.One function can be expressed by using different Sts. try to state the reporter’s predictions in differentnotions. The focus of the course is on real language words.use so, a variety of linguistic forms are presentedtogether. The emphasis is on the process ofcommunication rather than just the mastery oflanguage forms.Sts. should work with language at the discourse level. Sts. unscramble the sentences of the newspaperThey must learn about the properties of language article.(cohesion and coherence) which bind the sentencestogether.Games have certain features in common with real Sts. play a language game.communicative events. Also, the speaker receivesimmediate feedback from the listener on whether ornot he or she has successfully communicated. In thisway, they can negotiate meaning.Sts. should be given an opportunity to express their Sts. are asked how they feel about the predictions.ideas and opinions.Errors are tolerated and as seen as a sign of sts’ A student makes an error. The teacher and other sts.developing competence in the target language. T ignore it.doesn’t correct the st. during a fluency-based activitybut simply notes the errors and work on them at alater point.One of the major responsibilities of the T is to T gives each group a strip of story and a task toestablish situations that promote communication. perform. Sts. predict what the next picture in the stripCommunicative interaction encourages cooperative story will be.relations among sts. Sts. find an opportunity tonegotiate meaning.Learning to use language forms appropriately is an In a role-play activity one of the sts. acts as the bossimportant part of communication competence. and T reminds sts. that they should remember this when speaking to that st.T acts as a facilitator in setting up communicative T moves form group to group offering advice andactivities. T also acts as an advisor during the answering questions.activities.
The Audio-Lingual Method The Communicative Language TeachingAttends to structure and form more than meaning. Meaning is paramount.Structure-based dialogues are memorized. Dialogues center around communicative functions and are not memorized.Language learning is learning structures, sounds or Language learning is learning to communicate.words.Overlearning is sought. Effective communication is sought.Drilling is a central technique. Drilling may occur but peripherally.Native-speaker-like pronunciation is sought. Comprehensible pronunciation is sought.Grammatical explanation is avoided. Any device that helps the learners is accepted.Reading and writing are deferred until speech is Reading and writing can start from the first day, ifmastered. desired.Linguistic competence is a desired goal. Communicative competence is a desired goal.T controls the learners and prevents them from T help learners in any way that motivates them tomaking errors. Language is seen as a habit formation work with the language. Errors are tolerated as theyprocess. Errors cause the formation of bad habits so are seen as signs of sts’ developing competence in thethey must be prevented at all costs. target language.Accuracy, in terms of formal correctness, is a primary Fluency and acceptable language are the primarygoal. goals, accuracy is judged in context.Interaction between sts. is not allowed due to the risk Sts. are expected to interact with other sts. throughof error formation. pair and group work.T makes use of totally controlled-activities. T cannot know exactly what language the sts. will use.
CONTENT-BASED INSTRUCTIONContent-Based instruction and Task-based instruction are two other approaches that make communicationcentral. They draw on the principles of CLT. The only difference between these approaches is a matter of theirfocus. The CLT instruction is centered on giving students opportunities to practice using of the communicativefunctions of language. Content-Based instruction does not begin with the functions. Rather, there is apredetermined linguistic content and the language is used to learn the content. Students learn the language asa by-product of learning about real-world content.Thus, CBI stands in contrast to traditional approaches to language teaching in which language form is theprimary focus of the syllabus and of classroom teaching.It integrates the learning of language with the learning of some other content which is often an academicsubject matter. Learners get both content knowledge and increased language proficiency.Students get “two for one” – both content knowledge and increased language proficiency.CBI leads to integrated teaching of the four language skills. It employs authentic reading materials whichrequire students not only to understand information but to interpret and evaluate it as well. It provides aforum in which students can respond orally to reading and lecture materials. It recognizes that academicwriting follows from listening and reading and thus requires students to synthesize facts and ideas frommultiple sources as preparation for writing.There are other educational initiatives that also emphasize the principle of acquiring content throughlanguage rather than the study of language for its own sake. These are; Language Across the Curriculum Immersion Education Immigrant On-Arrival Programs Programs for Students with Limited English Proficiency Language for Specific PurposesImmersion Education is a type of foreign language instruction in which the regular school curriculum is taughtthrough the medium of the foreign language. The foreign language is the tool for content instruction; it is notthe subject of instruction.Immigrant on Arrival Programs typically focus on the language newly arrived immigrants in a country need forsurvival. Such learners typically need to learn how to deal with differing kinds of kinds of real-world content asa basis for social survival. In current on arrival programs, a competency based approach is often used in whicha teaching syllabus is developed around the competencies learners are presumed to need in different survivalsituations.Programs for Students with Limited English Proficiency are designed to provide instruction for any school-agechildren whose language competence is insufficient to participate fully in normal school instruction.
Language for Specific Purposes is a movement that seeks to serve the language needs of learners who needlanguage in order to carry out specific roles (e.g., student, engineer, technician, nurse) and who thus need toacquire content and real world skills through the medium of a second language rather than master thelanguage for its own sake. (its subfields are English for Occupational Purposes and English for AcademicPurposes).Approach People learn a second language more successfully when they use the language as a means of acquiring information rather than as an end itself. Content-Based Instruction better reflects learners’ needs for learning a second language.Theory of LanguageLanguage is Text-Discourse Based : CBI addresses the role of language as a vehicle for learning content. thefocus of teaching is how meaning and information are communicated and constructed through texts anddiscourse. The linguistic units that are central are not limited to the level of sentences, clauses and phrases butare those that account for how longer stretches of language are used and the linguistic features that createcoherence and cohesion within speech events and text types. This involves study of the texture and discoursestructure of written texts such as letters, reports, essays, descriptions or book chapters or of speech eventssuch as meetings, lectures and discussions.Language use Draws on Integrated Skills: In a content-based class students are often involved in activities thatlink the skills because this is how the skills are generally involved in the real world. Topic or theme-basedcourses provide a good basis for an integrated skills approach because the topics selected provide coherenceand continuity across skill areas and focus on the use of language in connected discourse rather than isolatedfragments. They seek to bring together knowledge, language and thinking skills. Grammar can also bepresented through a content-based approach.Language is Purposeful : language is used for specific purposes. When learners focus on the purpose of thelanguage samples they are exposed to, they become engaged in following through and seeing if the purpose isattained and how their own interests relate to this purpose. In order to make content comprehensible forlearners teachers need to make adjustments and simplifications.These modifications include; Simplification (using shorter teacher units and clauses) Well-formedness (using few deviations from standard usage) Explicitness (speaking with non-reduced pronunciation) Regularization (use of conocial word order) Redundancy (highlighting important materials through simultaneous use of several linguistic mechanisms).
Theory of Learning People learn a second language more successfully when they use the language as means of acquiring information, rather than as an end itself. o In formal educational settings, second languages are best learned when the focus is on mastery of content rather than on mastery of language. People learn a second language more successfully when the information they are acquiring is perceived as interesting, useful and leading to a desired goal. o For successful learning to occur, the language syllabus must take into account the eventual uses the learner will make of the target language. The use of informational content which is perceived as relevant by the learner is assumed by many to increase motivation in the language course, and thus to promote more effective learning. Language learning is also believed to be more motivating when students are focusing on something other than language, such as ideas, issues and opinions. If content with a high level of interest is chosen, learners may acquire the language more willingly. Some content areas are more useful as a basis for language learning than others. o For example geography is often the first choice of the subject matter as it is highly visual, spatial and contextual. It includes the use of maps, charts and relia. In addition the language tends to be descriptive in nature with use of the cognates and proper names. Students learn best when instruction addresses students’ needs o Authentic texts, both written and spoken, that students will encounter in the real world provide the starting point for developing a syllabus, so relevance to learners’ needs is assured. Teaching builds on the previous experience of the learners o CBI seeks to build on students’ current knowledge and previous knowledge. Students do not start out as blank slates but are treated as bringing important knowledge and understanding to the classroom.Learners RolesStudents will support each other in collaborative modes of learning. CBI is in the learning by doing school ofpedagogy. This assumes an active role by learners in several dimensions. Learners are expected to be activeinterpreters of input, willing to tolerate uncertainty along the path of learning, willing to explore alternativelearning strategies and willing to seek multiple interpretations of oral and written texts. Learners themselvesmay be sources of content and joint participants in the selection of topics and activities.
The Role of TeachersThey must be knowledgeable in the subject matter and be able to elicit that knowledge from their students.They are responsible for selecting and adapting authentic materials for use in class, they become studentneeds analysts and they have to create truly learner-centered classrooms.Stryker and Leaver suggest the following essential skills for any CBI instructor: Varying the format of classroom instruction Using group work and team-building techniques Organizing jigsaw reading arrangements Defining the background knowledge and language skills required for student success. Helping students develop coping strategies Using process approaches to writing Using appropriate error correction techniques Developing and maintaining high levels of student esteemThe Role of MaterialsThe materials are authentic. They are like the kinds of materials used in native-language instruction.Authenticity refers to introduction of newspaper and magazine articles and any other media materials thatwere not originally produced for language teaching purposes. CBI practitioners recommend the use of reliasuch as tourist guidebooks, technical journals, railway timetables, newspaper adds, radio and TV broadcasts,videotapes and audiotapes.Materials may need modification in order to ensure maximum comprehensibility. This may mean linguisticsimplification or adding redundancy to text materials.Contemporary Models of CBITheme-based language instruction refers to a language course in which the syllabus is organized aroundthemes or topics such as “pollution” or “woman rights”.A topic might be introduced through a reading, vocabulary developed through guided discussion, audio orvideo material on the same topic used for listening comprehension, followed by written assignmentsintegrating information from several different sources.Sheltered-content instruction refers to content courses taught in the second language by a content areaspecialist, to a group of ESL learners who have been grouped together for this purpose. The ESL students arenot in a class together with native speakers. The instructor will choose a text of suitable difficulty level for thelearners and adjust course requirements to accommodate the learners’ language capacities.Adjunct language instruction refers to a kind of instruction in which students are enrolled in two linkedcourses. Students enroll in a regular academic course. In addition, they take a language course that is linkedto the academic course. Then, during the language class, the language teacher’s focus is on helping students
process the language in order to understand the academic content presented by the subject teacher. Thelanguage teacher also helps students to complete academic tasks such as writing term papers, improving theirnote-taking abilities and reading academic textbooks assigned by the content teacher.Team-teach approach is a variation on the adjunct approach. It focuses on lecture comprehension and thewriting of examination questions in fields such as transportation and plant biology. An example is from apolytechnic program in Singapore. An English-for-occupational purpose writing course was designed toprepare students for writing tasks they might have to carry out in future jobs in building maintenance andmanagement.Skills-based approach focuses on a specific academic skill area (eg. Academic writing)Courses at Elementary and Secondary LevelTheme-based approach: Topics (eg. consumer education, map skills, foods and nutrition, nuclear age, sports,Green movement, street kids and teenage smoking) were chosen primarily cater to the widest variety ofstudents’ needs and interests. Linguistic appropriateness was another factor taken into account.A sample content-based lesson IThe lesson is a Spanish lesson built around the viewing of the film El Norte.Preliminary Preparation: Students read reference materials regarding US immigration laws as well as anextract from Octavio Paz’s book.1. Linguistic analysis: Discussion of grammar and vocabulary based on students’ analysis of oral presentationsdone the day before.2. Preparation for the film : Activities previewing vocabulary in the film including a vocabulary worksheet.3. Viewing a segment of the movie.4. Discussion of the film: The teacher leads a discussion of the film.5. Discussion of the reading.6. Videotaped interview: Students see a short interview in which immigration matters are discussed.7. Discussion: A discussion of immigration reform.8. Preparation of articles: Students are given time to read related articles and prepare a class presentation.9. Presentation of articles: Students make presentations, which may be taped so that they can later listen for self-correction.
A sample content-based lesson IIT ss’a “what is a globe” diye soruyor. Bazilari isaretle bazilari sozle cevap veriyor. T masanin altindan bir globecikariyor ve ss’a onunla ilgili ne bildiklarini soruyor. Cevaplari tahtaya yaziyor. Dil acisindan anlatmaktazorlandiklarinda eksik bolumleri tamamlamalari icin destek oluyor. Daha sonra, seyredecekleri video“Understanding Globes” uzerine hazirlanmis bir handout dagitiyor. Handoutun basinda “Some Vocabulary toknow” yaziyor. Listed are some key geographical terms used in the video. T kelimeleri okurken ss. dinliyor.Paragraphi okumalarini ve tepede yazan kelimeleri kullanarak fill in the blanks yaomalarini istiyor. Bitirdiktensonra video’yu izliyorlar. Videoyu izlerken kalan bosluklara uygun kelimeleri yaziyorlar. Daha sonra ss. pair upto chech their answers. Daha sonra T dikkatlerini paragrafta cok gecen passive verb yapilara cekiyor. Passive’inne ise yaradigini anlatiyor (there’s no deductive teaching). Latitude ve longitude’un dunyadaki herhangi biryeri tespit etmekte nasil kullanildigini anlatiyor ve ornekler veriyor. In her examples, T integrates the presentpassive and the content focus at the same time. Sonra ss. play a guessing game. Gruplara ayrilip bes sehir ismidusunuyorlar. Daha sonra bu sehirleri T ogrettigi sekilde globe uzerine yerlestiriyorlar ve latitude ve longitudecoordinatlarini yaziyorlar. Sonra sesli okuyorlar ve digger ogrencilerin sehrin ismini bilmesini bekliyorlar. Odevolarak T onlara bir harita ve Australia’nin description’ini veriyor. Description’I okumalari ve major sehirleri vepoints of interest bolgeleri isaretlemelerini istiyor.CriticsMost language teachers have been trained to teach language as a skill rather than to teach a content subject.Thus, language teachers may be insufficiently grounded to teach subject matter in which they have not beentrained.
CONTENT-BASED INSTRUCTIONPRINCIPLES OBSERVATIONS & TECHNIQUESThe subject matter content is used for language The class is studying geography.teaching purposes.Teaching should build on students’ previous The teacher asks the students what they know aboutexperience. a globe.When learners perceive the relevance of their Sts. call out their answers enthusiastically as thelanguage use, they are motivated to learn. They know teacher writes them on the board.that it is a means to an end, rather than an end itself.T scaffolds the linguistic content. She helps learners T supplies the missing language when the sts. havesay what it is they want to say by building together trouble in explaining a concept in the target language.with the sts. a complete utterance.Language is learned most effectively when it is used Sts. unscramble the sentences of the newspaperas a medium to convey informational content of article.interest to the sts.Games have certain features in common with real T reads the new vocabulary and then the sts. watch acommunicative events. Also, the speaker receives video entitled “Understanding Globes”.immediate feedback from the listener on whether ornot he or she has successfully communicated. In thisway, they can negotiate meaning.Vocabulary is easy to acquire when there are Sts. fill in the vocabulary words in the blanks in thecontextual clues to help convey meaning. modified cloze passage as they watch the video.When they work with authentic subject matter, sts. T provides a number of examples using the presentneed language support. For instance, the teacher may passive with latitude and longitude co-ordinates.provide a number of examples, use comprehensionchecks, etc.Learners work with meaningful, cognitively Sts. are given the latitude and longitude coordinatesdemanding language and content within the context and they have to come to the front of the classroomof authentic material and tasks. to find the city on the globe.Communicative competence involves more than using In a role-play activity one of the sts. acts as the bosslanguage in conversation. It also includes the ability to and T reminds sts. that they should remember thisread, discuss and write about content from other when speaking to that st.fields.
THE WHOLE LANGUAGE APPROACHIts philosophy has much in common with Content-Based Instruction. The language is regarded holistically,rather than as pieces such as the vocabulary words, grammatical structures and pronunciation points. Wholelanguage educators believe that students do not learn best by learning the language piece by piece. They learnbest when they are working to understand the meaning of whole texts. In other words, students work fromthe “top down” attempting first to understand the meaning of the overall text before they work on thelinguistic forms comprising it. It is thought that the learning process will work best when students are engagedin purposeful use of language.Whole language educators see errors as part of learning and they encourage students to experiment withreading and writing to promote both their enjoyment and ownership. Whole Language educators embrace theideas of Vygotsky about the social nature of learning. As a social process, it is assumed that learning is bestserved by collaboration between teacher and students and among students.A Sample LessonReading Skills: Sts. okumayi ogreniyorlar. T onlarin sirayla life experiences’larini ogreniyor ve bir kagida yaziyor(in the target language). Sonra her st. T yardimiyla kendi hayat experience’ini okumaya calisiyor.It applies the principles of whole-language as the text is about content that is significant to the students, it iscollaboratively produced, it is whole and since it is the student’s story, the link between text and meaning isfacilitated.Writing Skills: do a bit of brainstorming about the topic during the pre-writing stage and then, have studentswrite about the topic. While they are writing assist them and let them communicate and assist each other.Give feedback on their writing up to that point, make revisions. Based on the feedback they receive, let themrevise and continue their writing.In this way, students learn to view their writing as someone else’s reading and to improve both the expressionof meaning and the form of their writing as they draft and redraft.Another way is to have students keep dialogue journals. It is a widely used technique in the Whole LanguageApproach. It involves students writing in class or for homework regularly, perhaps after each class or once aweek. There may be particular focus for the writing, such as the students’ expressing their feelings for howand what they are learning. The writing might also be on anything that the students wish to communicate tothe teacher. The teacher reads the students’ journals and writes a response to it but does not correct its form.
TASK-BASED LANGUAGE TEACHINGContent-Based instruction and Task-based instruction are two other approaches that make communicationcentral. They draw on the principles of CLT. The only difference between these approaches is a matter of theirfocus. It refers to an approach based on the use of tasks as the core unit of planning and instruction inlanguage teaching.Task is a form of technique that focuses on the authentic use of language for meaningful communicativepurposes.David Nunan 1989 “…is a piece of classroom work which involves learners in comprehending, manipulating ,producing or interacting in the TL while their attention is principally focused on meaning rather than form”. Activities that involve real communication are essential for language learning. Activities in which language is used for carrying out meaningful tasks promote learning. Language that is meaningful to the learner supports the learning process.Recent researches revealed that the traditional type of grammar focused teaching activities do not promotethe cognitive development of learners. Engaging learners in task work provides a better context for theactivation of learning processes. Thus, provides better opportunities for language learning to take place. Tasksare proposed as useful vehicles for applying these principles.Language focus follows the completion of the task. The teacher may introduce a material and they may matchtheir task with that of the teachers. Then, they discuss on the language. The teacher and the students givefeedback.Task typesListingTask: Make a list of vocabulary or make a list of good teaches. The student may list as following- a goodteacher is planned, honest, competent …..Ordering sortingTask: Order from the most important quality to the less important one.Here the student is asked to arrange the adjectives which he had chosen beforeComparingTask: They might be asked to compare and present two citiesProblem solvingTask: What can we do to prevent global warming? HomeworkSharing personal experiencesTask: Students are going to talk about their experiences.
Creative taskTask: Come up with come solutions about global warmingJig-sawThe teacher gives each group a part of the information and the students need to complete the task. In thisjigsaw task students have to listen to different parts of a total set of information they need to complete a task.Decision makingKalp nakli için 6 kişiden 4 ünü seçmekOpinion exchange and Problem solving (authentic speaking and listening)The three types of tasks identified by PraphuAn information-gap activity: it involves the exchange of information among participants in order to complete atask. For example, a student may describe a picture for another student to draw or students drawing eachother’s family trees after sharing information.In the sample lesson described below, students had to exchange information within their groups in order tocomplete the timetable.A reasoning-gap activity: it requires sts. to derive some new information by inferring it from information theyhave been given. For example sts. might be given a railroad timetable and asked to work out the best route toget from one particular city to another or they might be asked to solve a riddle.In the sample lesson described below, students were asked to use their findings to figure out how best todiscover their classmate’s three popular subjects.Project WorkThe language practiced in the classroom is not predetermined, but rather derives from the nature of aparticular project that students are required to do. For example students might decide to take on a projectsuch as publishing a school newspaper in the target language.This project would follow three stages;During the first stage, the students would work in their class, planning in collaboration with the teacher, thecontent and scope of the project and specific language needs they might have. They might also devise somestrategies for how they will carry out the tasks, such as assigning each other specific roles to fulfill.The second stage typically takes place outside the classroom and involves the gathering of any necessaryinformation. For example, if the students have decided to publish a school newspaper then, this stage mightinvolve their conducting interviews, taking photographs and gathering printed or visual material. It would alsoinclude writing up their interviews and laying out and printing and distributing the first edition of theirnewspaper. During this stage students may well use all four skills in a natural integrated fashion.In the third and final stage students review the project. They monitor their own work and receive feedbackfrom the teacher on their performance. At each of these three stages, the teacher will be working with thestudents acting as counselor and consultant, not as the project director.
Sample Lesson PlanT derse “We are going to do a lesson on timetables” diyerek basliyor. Tahtaya columns and rows ciziyor ve ilkcolumn’a 09:30-10:15 yaziyor. Sts. ogretmenin gunun ilk ders saatinin suresini yazdigini anliyorlar ve devaminigetiriyorlar. T’nin tum columnlari doldurmasina sinifca yardim ediyorlar. T tahtaya voluntarily bir sts. cagiriyorve o da haftanin gunlerini yaziyor. Sasirdigi yerde sinif spelling’e yardim ediyor. “is that correct?” T asks andsts. say “Yes”. T sinifi beser kisilik 8 gruba boluyor. Her gruba haftanin bir gununun schedule’ini iceren bir cardveriyor. The students’ task is to complete the week’s schedule by sharing the information on their cads witheach other. T moves around and listens to the sts. T also reminds them to speak in English. Bitiren gruptahtaya gelip bos schedule’I hep beraber dolduruyor. Sonra T tum gruplarim timetable’larini okumak ve dahasonra geri iade etmek uzere topluyor. Amaci content’in dogru olup olmadigina bakmak. Daha sonra sts’a gruparkadaslari ile interview yapmalarini ve en sevdikleri dersi ogrenmelerini istiyor. Her gruptaki en sevilen 3 dersibulmalari gerekiyor. Bunun icin bir questionnaire hazirlamalari ve sinifta dolasarak digger arkadaslari ile deinterview yapmalari gerekiyor. Later, they have to summarize and report the results. They have to determinehow to do this. They may use percentages, a bar graph, a pie chart or some other visual display. Again, muchinteraction takes place.
TASK-BASED INSTRUCTIONPRINCIPLES OBSERVATIONS & TECHNIQUESThe class activities have a perceived purpose and a T tells the class that they are going to complete aclear outcome. timetable.A pre-task in which students work through a similar T begins by having the class help her begin to fill out atask to one that they will later do individually, is a class schedule. This is done through whole-classhelpful way to have sts. see the logic involved in what interaction in the form of teacher question andthey are being asked to do. It will also allow the student response.language necessary to complete the task to come intoplay.T breaks down into smaller steps the logical thinking T first has the sts. label the time periods and then theprocess necessary to complete the task. The demand days.on thinking made by the activity should be just abovethe level which learners can meet without help.T needs to seek ways of knowing how involved the T asks the sts. if a particular answer is right.sts. are in the process, so she can make adjustmentsin light of the learners’ perceptions of relevance andtheir readiness to learn. Such teacher-classnegotiation ensures that as many students as possiblyin a mixed ability class grasp the nature of the activity.T does not consciously simplify her language; she uses T asks “What about Saturday? Do we have school onwhatever language is necessary to have sts. Saturday?”comprehend the current step in the pre-task. Hereshe switched from a wh- question to a yes/noquestion. This switch is natural strategy thatproficient speakers use when interacting with lessproficient speakers inside and outside of theclassroom.This jigsaw task, where sts. have to listen to different Sts. then, do the task in groups, following T’sparts of a total set of information they need to instructions. They are each given part of thecomplete a task, gives them plenty of opportunity to information they need to complete the task.engage in authentic speaking and listening andprovides opportunities to develop theircomprehension and speaking skills.Sts. should receive feedback on their level of success Sts.’s papers were marked by the teacher on the basisin completing the task. The overall focus is on of the content.meaning.Sts. have input into the design and the way that they Sts. are asked to design a way to survey the other sts.carry out the task. This gives them more opportunity about their favorite subjects. They are to figure out afor authentic and meaningful interaction. way to report their findings to the rest of the class.
MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCESMultiple Intelligences refers to a learner-based philosophy that characterizes human intelligence as havingmultiple dimensions. MI is based on a work of Howard Gardner. Gardner notes that traditional IQ testsmeasure only logic and language, yet the brain has other equally important types of intelligence. Gardnerclaims that his view of intelligences is culture-free and avoids the conceptual narrowness usually associatedwith traditional models of intelligence (IQ). People differ in the strengths and combinations of intelligencesGardner posits eight different intelligences that can be enhanced through training and practice over a lifetime;1. Verbal/Linguistic: The ability to use language in special and creative ways, which is something lawyers, writers, educators and interpreters are strong in. Skills include: listening, speaking, writing Activities: note-taking, story telling2. Logical/Mathematical : The ability to use numbers effectively to see abstract patterns and to reason well, which is often found with doctors, engineers, programmers and scientists. Activities: puzzles3. Bodily/Kinesthetic : The ability to use one’s body to express oneself and to solve problems, something found in athletes and crafts persons. Skill include: dancing, physical coordination Activities: hands-on activities, field trips, pantomime4. Musical: The ability to recognize tonal patterns and sensitivity to the rhythm, pitch melody found in strong singers and composers. Activities: singing, playing music5. Visual/Spatial: The ability to form mental models of the world, something architects, decorators, sculptors and painters are good at. Enjoy looking at maps, charts, picture…. Skills: puzzle building, reading, writing, videos6. Interpersonal: The ability to be able to work well with people, which is strong in salespeople, politicians and teachers. Generally they try to maintain peace in group settings and encourage cooperation Skills include: listening, using empathy counseling Pair work, project work7. Intrapersonal: The ability to understand oneself and to practice self-discipline. Activities: self evaluation, journal keeping8. Naturalistic: The ability to understand and organize the patterns of nature.