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Water Collection And Purification
Water Collection And Purification
Water Collection And Purification
Water Collection And Purification
Water Collection And Purification
Water Collection And Purification
Water Collection And Purification
Water Collection And Purification
Water Collection And Purification
Water Collection And Purification
Water Collection And Purification
Water Collection And Purification
Water Collection And Purification
Water Collection And Purification
Water Collection And Purification
Water Collection And Purification
Water Collection And Purification
Water Collection And Purification
Water Collection And Purification
Water Collection And Purification
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Water Collection And Purification

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Here is a quick handout on water purification. Water is life and hopefully this will be useful in studying how to obtain it and make it safe for drinking.

Here is a quick handout on water purification. Water is life and hopefully this will be useful in studying how to obtain it and make it safe for drinking.

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  • 1. Water Collection and Purification Kevin Estela Survival Instructor Wilderness Learning Center 435 Sandy Knoll Road Chateaugay, NY 12920 www.weteachu.com
  • 2. Agenda
    • Water Requirements
    • Things that can harm you
    • Treatment
    • Not So Urban Legends/Myths
    • Ways to Make Water Safe
    • Improving the Taste
    • Water Collection
    • Special Circumstances
    • Recommended Gear
    • Last Minute Tips and Tricks
    • Definite Do’s and Don’ts
    • Notes
    Photo Credit: Kevin Estela Location: Little Square Pond in the Adirondacks
  • 3. Water Requirements
    • At least one liter of water per person per day. Twice or triple this in the winter or during heavy aerobic work. Water is used to keep the body cool through sweating.
    • Necessary to keep your body functioning properly. Digestion requires fluids. Constipation can occur if the body isn’t hydrated.
    • Water helps the liver remove toxins and helps the blood circulate more efficiently. Remember, the body is ¾ water.
    • Urine should be translucent or light yellow. May vary with vitamin or mineral intake.
    • The brain is 80% water and requires it to function properly.
    • Drink little but often. It is better to drink before you feel thirsty than a lot when you are dry mouthed. At this point, you are probably 2% dehydrated.
    • The body uses calories to warm any fluids ingested. Drinking cold water can bring about chills or cooling sensations.
  • 4. Things That Can Harm You
    • Parasites Giardisis (Giardia) Symptoms include gas, diarrhea, upset stomach, greasy stool, nausea Cryptosporidiosis Symptoms include those associated with the Flu, watery diarrhea and loss of appetite
    • Bacteria Dysentery Symptoms include bloody stool, fever and vomiting
    • Viruses Hepatitis A Symptoms include jaundice, fever, nausea, vomiting, fatigue
    • Chemicals Lead, petroleum products, fertilizers, etc. Source: www.cdc.gov
  • 5. Mugshots of the “Invisible” Nasties Photo Credit: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  • 6. Treatment
    • According to the CDC, healthy individuals will recovery from Crypto on their own w/o treatment. Simply drink plenty of “safe” fluids.
    • Giardia treatment is similar with the recommendation of anti-biotics.
    • Lack of treatment results in severe dehydration and ultimately death.
    • If a person is suspected to be suffering from any water-borne ailment, consider the trip to be over and seek immediate medical attention.
    • Don’t let a bad situation become worse!
    • Monitor for dehydration before it becomes a problem. Monitor for irritability, headache, nausea, dizziness, inability to swallow or thirst.
  • 7. Not So “Urban” Legends/Myths
    • Running water is safe to drink.
    • Eating snow is one way to rehydrate safely.
    • Cold water doesn’t contain anything harmful.
    • Drinking salt water in small doses is safe.
    • Water found in natural depressions is safe to drink.
    • Urine is safe to drink. UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES ARE ANY OF THE ABOVE TRUE!
  • 8. Ways to Make Water Safe
    • Chemical (Iodine or Chlorine) iodine crystals, tinctures, etc.
    • Mechanical and Electrical (Pumps, straws and pens) Filter vs. Purifier (Regional and Worldwide Concerns) Ultraviolet Pens (Battery operated, not approved for cold weather by U.S. Military)
    • Boiling (at least 10 minutes) Metal cup is a requirement Boiling is possible in a non-metallic cup but difficult Safest way to turn suspect water into safe water
  • 9. Photos of Treatment Products Photo Credit: www.polarequipment.com Photo Credit: www. Equipped.org Photo Credit: www.potableaqua.com
  • 10. Boiling Water Method
    • Note the “log cabin” built around the bottle.
    • Also note the use of the snare to suspend the bottle.
    • Here, softwood is used to burn hot quickly.
    Photo Credit: Kevin Estela
  • 11. Improving the Taste
    • Chemically treated water often has an aftertaste to it.
    • Boiled water tastes flat to some.
    • Use powdered drink mixes to improve the taste if available.
    • Pine Needles add Vitamin C and remove some taste.
    • Keep your bottle clean if using additives otherwise it will attract bugs.
  • 12. Water Collection
    • Transpiration Bags Choose the leafiest tree branch that faces East Set up multiple bags for increased water collection
    • Solar Stills Don’t waste your time Think effort put into making it versus amount of water produced Where are you going to get a large plastic sheet? Why not use it for shelter? Why waste resources?
    • Rag or Sponge Bandannas can pick up morning moisture Prepackaged dry sponges take up no space in a survival kit A bandanna can also be used to make a crude water filter
  • 13. Transpiration Bag
    • Place a large bag around a thick group of deciduous live leaves.
    • Make sure it is in the sunlight
    • Just like a person, a tree will sweat but it will sweat clean drinking water.
    Photo Credit: Tom Sciacca of www.mydirttime.com
  • 14. Water Collection Continued
    • Winter water generators are bags or containers of snow that melt near heat sources (fire, body, etc.)
    • Seepage basins can be dug for sediment-filled water near swamps
    • Rainwater collection devices (i.e. poncho, garbage bag, emergency blanket)
    • A string leading to a cup will let drops of water run along the length of cord into the container
    • Ferns, moss and other plant life can indicate where water sources are.
    • Animals are attracted to water. Follow their tracks downhill.
  • 15. Special Circumstances
    • Cold weather -Eating snow lowers body core temperatures. -Water left in pump filters can expand as ice and destroy delicate filters. -Add a little water to a pot before melting snow over heat.
    • Saltwater environment -Saltwater can be boiled and the moisture from the steam is pure water. -Drinking salt water will make you sick. -Drinking fluids from fish can lead to more salt intake.
    • Desert or high heat -Drink as much water as possible. Force yourself if need be. -Wear loose clothes with long sleeves and legs. -Travel at night and rest during the day. -Work only in the coolest part of the day.
  • 16. Recommended Gear
    • Reynolds Oven Bags vs. Condoms or Ballons
    • Large plastic bags (Contractor grade if possible)
    • PolarPur or Pur Tablets
    • Metal Canteen 32 oz. or equivalent i.e. Metal Cup
    • Bandanna or sponge
    • Small length of cordage and a small length of silicon tubing
  • 17. A Variety Of Metal Water Containers
    • USGI Stainless Canteen
    • Guyot Designs Stainless Steel “Standard Bottle”
    • Klean Kanteen Stainless Steel Botttle
    Photo Credit: Kevin Estela
  • 18. Last Minute Tips and Tricks
    • Water trapped around the threads of a bottle lid is often not treated. Caution!
    • Store bottles upside down in the cold, ice forms from the top down.
    • Don’t let your lips freeze to the metal of your canteen. Warm it up with your hand or breath.
    • A straining device will help filter out sediment and particles when pouring water from a pot.
    • Avoid caffeine, salty foods or alcohol if the water supply is limited.
  • 19. Definite Do’s and Don’ts
    • Do take every opportunity to “tank up”
    • Do practice water collection
    • Don’t assume water is safe to drink
    • Don’t boil water for less than 10 minutes
    • Do be prepared with multiple ways to treat water
    • Do learn the limitations of your equipment and yourself before you head out
    • Do drink water since WATER = LIFE!
  • 20. Notes

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