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Here is the textbook that I used for teaching my New Media Technology class during the Spring semester of 2012 at Hannam University's Linton Global College. I took great effort to give credit where …

Here is the textbook that I used for teaching my New Media Technology class during the Spring semester of 2012 at Hannam University's Linton Global College. I took great effort to give credit where it is due. I aimed to show my students how they could access enough free info on the web that was of equal or greater value than expensive textbooks. Feel free to share and please support the true authors of this book in any way you can (money, likes, comments, links, etc.) I am simply the currator of this content.

If you would like a tablet-friendly PDF file just email me at kenmorrison30 @ (no spaces)

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  • 1. New Media Technology Curated By Ken MorrisonHannam University, Linton Global College Spring - 2012 1
  • 2. This non-traditional textbook represents the best knowledge available for free on the internet. Much of it is directly from the minds of the people creating the changes in the tech world. The articles and linked videos been curated by KenMorrison for students at Linton Global College (Hannam University), in Daejeon South Korea. Morrison is an Assistant Professor of New Media & GlobalCommunications. All materials were free at the time of the curation and creationof the .pdf file. I have taken care to provide links to all of the original content. Ihighly endorse all websites included in this .pdf and encourage you to follow the links to learn more.From Awel Ghonim to Mark Zuckerberg, 2011 has been an exciting year of manybenchmarks of humans finding new ways to use technology to connect and create change. This course will study the convergence of how new media technology is changing the worlds of business, education, and Society. We will also briefly examine how this changing landscape effects journalism, law. globalization, and even how technology changes our brains and our behavior. Most importantly,students will learn how to use free new media tools to personalize their learning to help prepare for success in reaching for their future goals. We live in a new world where information that was once reserved only for the wealthy, is now becoming a commodity. However, this new luxury comes with anew responsibility. We must learn a new set of skills of how to swim through thesemassive waves of information in order to find the information that is most helpful for us. I have modeled the skills that I will teach in this class to collect the following 340 pages of information that I feel represent a solid foundation for success in this new digitally-connected world.We will learn from Bezos and Brogan for business, Turkle and Shirky will teach us about society, We will learn about law from Lessig, changes in education from Rheingold and Siemens for, and changes in journalism from Assange and Cashmore. Although the front lines of “The Great Tech War of 2012” is in the United States, we will use these materials to discuss the implications of thesechanges around the world. Most importantly, students in this class will be able touse new tools to connect and create, while also using new thinking tools to become critical consumers of information in a digital age. Let’s begin! 2
  • 3. NEW MEDIA TECHNOLOGY Textbook Curated by Ken Morrison for Linton Global College www.lgc.hnu.krNew Media Technology Syllabus! 7The Great Tech War Of 2012! 16SOCIETY! 29 Is Social Media Actually Making Us Less Connected?! 30 genM: The Multitasking Generation! 31 Do you obsessively check your smartphone?! 37 IBM Worker Email-Free for 4 Years: How to Live without Email! 42 How mobile is forcing us to change the way we measure the Internet! 44 Why your computer is becoming more like your phone! 48 GOOGLE, MOTOROLA, AND A PATENT WAR! 51 Twine: The Revolutionary Box That Can Make Your Appliances Tweet! 52BUSINESS! 54 Let’s Talk Social Media For Business! 55 How to Systematically Build a Mountain of Links! 95EDUCATION! 100 New Media Literacy In Education: Learning Media Use While Developing Critical Thinking Skills! 101 College students limit technology use during crunch time! 109THOUGHT LEADERS! 112 Tim Cook! 113 Mark Zuckerberg! 115 Sergei Brin! 120 Larry Page! 123 Ev Williams! 125 Sheryl Sandberg! 134 Pete Cashmore! 143 3
  • 4. Tariq Krim! 147 Clay Shirky! 150 Nicholas Carr! 152 George Siemens! 157 Sherry Turkle! 165 Sugata Mitr! 184 Steve Hargadon! 185 Awel Ghonim! 191 Jeff Bezos:! 193 Chris Brogan! 198 Julian Assange:! 204 Yoshikazu Tanaka:! 206TERMS! 208 TERM #1: LOCATION-BASED MARKETING! 211 By Cynthia Boris on February 14, 2012 The Future of Location-Based Marketing is Cool. . . or Scary! 211 7 Things You Need to Know About QR Codes! 213 STOP CENSORSHIP: THE PROBLEMS WITH SOPA! 214 Wikileaks! 216 What is digital media literacy and why is it important?! 217 HOT TRIGGERS! 220 Hashtag! 224 KHAN ACADEMY! 226 CONNECTIVSM! 229 CROWDSOURCING! 231 Content Curation?! 234 COGNITIVE SURPLUS! 235 INFOTENSION! 238 4
  • 5. MOBILE:! 242 MECHANICAL TURK! 246 Digital Divide! 249 SECOND SCREEN! 252 FLASH MOB! 253 SEO (SEARCH ENGINE OPTIMIZATION)! 255 AUGMENTED REALITY! 257 GOOGLE HANGOUTS! 259 GENERATION FLUX! 261 PETE CASHMORE! 271 FLIPPED CLASSROOMS! 282 ORKUT Orkut App Finally Arrives for iPhone, iPad! 286 RENREN! 287 PLN! 290PROGRAMS! 293 GOOGLE+! 294 GOOGLE DOCS PROGRAM #2- GOOGLE DOCS (! 307 Evernote! 310 LIVEBINDERS! 311 NETVIBES! 315 Qwiki! 317 Other Programs We Will Preview:! 319USING TECHNOLOGY TO HELP YOU GET A JOB! 320DIGITAL PORTFOLIO Using Technology | Electronic Portfolios in theK-12 Classroom! 321 FACEBOOK TO GET YOU A JOB INFOGRAPHIC! 324 View full-screen at job/! 324 5
  • 6. 5 Ways You Should Be Using Pinterest To Attract Employers! 325 HOW TO: Optimize Your LinkedIn Profile for the Job Hunt! 327 9 Ways Students Can Use Social Media to Boost Their Careers! 330 Twitter Literacy (I refuse to make up a Twittery name for it)! 334EXTRA! 338 ABOUT KEN MORRISON! 340 Assistant Professor of New Media and Global Communcations at:! 340 Biography:! 340 6
  • 7. New Media Technology Syllabus Linton Global College Hannam University Spring 2012Instructor : Ken Morrison, MS (Instructional Design & Technology)E-mail : (best way to contact me)Cellphone : 010-8653-6352 (Please send text message if there is no answer)Schedule : 12:00 AM – 1:15 AM (Wednesday & Friday)Blogs Due : Every Friday 5 PMClassroom : 330-103 (Computer Lab)Office : English Cafe 104Website : Is This Course Important:We have crossed an important point in world history. Very recently, media and technologyhas changed everything. New Media Technology has changed how businesses makemoney, how governments lead people, how teachers teach, and how family and friendscommunicate and think. It is very important for us to understand this trend in order to beeducated participants in the 21st century. As communication majors, it is crucial tounderstand how new media technology is changing your field. If you are a business major,you will also learn many things that will directly affect your future.Course OverviewThe official Hannam University Website says:This course will provide students with a good theoretical and practical understanding ofhow to harness the power of the new internet applications and media tools in a highlynetworked world. Students will look at the social implications of new technologies and alsolook at the technologies themselves to understand their level of complexity and howconsumers and organizations can use or implement them appropriately.What does that mean?We will study how New Media Technology is changing our world and your future in fourways:1) Business 2) Social 3) Education 4) Politics 5) JournalismI. Course Objectives:1. Explore new media tools that may help you succeed in your career2. Explore new media tools that new media can help you succeed at LGC3. Explore new media trends that are changing society, business and education4. Gain experience using new media in a safe, private environment.5. Learn resources to help you make future adjustments when new media tools andtrends change in the future.6) Learn facts about 20 people who are changing how we use technology todayTextbooks and Course Materials 7
  • 8. I am creating an updated textbook with Apple’s brand new iBooks 2 Author Program. Yourtextbook will be available for download in .pdf format. I suggest budgeting about 30,000 Wand printing out the book and additional printoutsRequired Technology.You do not need to own a computer for this course. Yet, you will need access to acomputer with reliable internet access for much of your homework. Plan your schedule sothat you can do homework when you have access to a computer connected to a reliableinternet connection. Please make a schedule to do much of your homework in a computerlab on campus.Office HoursMonday 12:00 - 14:00 (My Office)Tuesday: 2:45 - 3:45 (My Office)Wednesday 1:15 - 2:15 (Pink Building Computer Lab)Thursday: 2:45 - 3:45 (My Office)Friday: 1:45 - 2:15 (Pink Building Computer Lab)Evaluation and Grading SystemThere will be two major examinations. They may contain multiple-choice, true-or-false,matching, fill in the blank and essay questions. You will have many quizzes over yourhomework to prove that you have been doing your readings. This is to reward studentswho do their homework. You will have weekly writing assignments due in the form of blogsthat your classmates can see. Your classmates will see your work, so make sure that yourwriting is of high quality. Attitude, attendance & participation are all very important keys toyour success. Some of my grading for test questions and projects are quite subjective. Iwill provide rubrics so that you can know what I am looking for when I am grading.AttendanceI need to be as clear as possible here. You must be at class. This is not a class that youcan miss and catch up easily I give attentive points, not attendance points. Simplycoming to class is not enough. If you want to earn points you must1) Be in class on time2) Pay Attention3) Avoid distractions. If you are playing on your cell phone or browsing the internet, I willnot give you credit for coming to class that day.4) No Sleeping. I do not give attendance credit to students who sleep in class!I will allow up to three absences (excused or unexcused). Use your absences wisely.Budget time for being sick, conferences, HNU/LGC events, family emergencies. You mustcommunicate in advance when you will miss a class. You can not make up any quiz thatyou missed during an absence (excused or unexcused). Being late three times equals oneabsence.Classes always start on time. Being late three times is equal to one absence. In otherwords, don’t be late. As regards absences, we will strictly observe the university rule thatstudents absent for more than 25% of class periods will receive an automatic “F.” In thesame way that I prepare for every class, you should do the same by reading the assignedreferences and submitting your homework on time. Cheating or any other form ofacademic dishonesty will not be tolerated in this course. Any student caught plagiarizingwill automatically receive a failing grade for the course. In order to avoid being accused ofplagiarism, please do not forget to cite your sources. Before turning in your work, please 8
  • 9. edit and proofread it. Please do not hesitate to contact me if you have any problemsrelated to the course. You may send me an email, leave a comment in my blog or drop bymy office. I reserve the right to revise this syllabus. Should I decide to do so, I will post anupdated copy on the class website and tell you in class. Be aware of some schedulechallenges. I will make all reasonable efforts to get your questions answered. I need youto plan ahead so that I can help you in best way possible. I will return all phone calls andemails and website posts within 24 hours. It will be a rare situation when you actually wait24 hours during the week, but that may happen. This is similar to many managers’ policiesin the working world. So remember to plan ahead.Participation (5 Points)Participation points in my class are my way of rewarding students who give extra effort toparticipate in class and/or online in a way that shows that they are willing to actively sharewhat they are learning in class. These points are not easy to earn. In 15 weeks, you willhave many opportunities to be a leader and share what your opinions and new informationfrom this course. It is up to you to share that information with the class.VI. Preparation & ParticipationI plan your homework carefully. All homework assignments are directly related to helpingyou meet the short-term and long-term objectives of this course. You must do yourhomework to succeed in this class. You should be prepared to give specific points that youfound interesting from every reading or online activity. You should also be prepared with atleast one question every class.HonestyDo not lie. Do not cheat. We will meet each other 30 times during this semester. Eachtime,you are representing your family, your country, and yourself. I am very good at finding outwhois being dishonest. You will not be happy with the results if you are caught being dishonestorcheating in my class.During your LGC days you will have the opportunity to meet many foreign professors fromaround the world. Each of us have many professional connections both in Korea and inothercountries. If you work hard and prove to have a good character, we will write letters ofrecommendation to help you get a job after graduation. Professors communicate with eachother about who is not being honest in classes. It is not wise to destroy your reputation bymaking bad choices. Is that clear?AttitudeWe are going to have a fun class. I love teaching at LGC. I love learning new knowledge,and I loved learning about organizational behavior during my career and during graduateschool. We are going to learn many things that will help you both at LGC and aftergraduation. The world is changing. We can not predict the future. Yet one skill has beenthe key to success in any economy in any country. That skill is Communication. I will helpprepare you for a successful career of identifying and using communications skills. I also 9
  • 10. think you will find this class to be exciting if you come to class with a positive attitude andopen mind every time.CommunicationI have many years of experience. I have learned from some great people and have hadsome great experiences. I have lots of passion and energy to help good people learn.However, I am not perfect. If you have suggestions on how to improve the class or anyproject, I am willing to talk about possible alternatives. But you must communicate yourconcerns or I can not help you.There will be some times when you have a true excuse for why you can not be at class orwhy you are not available to do your best work on homework. Your future managers willneed you to communicate with them. I am very fair to students who plan ahead andcommunicate their concerns. I am not very flexible to students who are not willing to.Unfortunately, sometimes managers view a lack of communication as laziness, disrespect,or worse. Practice using your communication skills during this course. I am here to help.There are many ways to contact me: Before/after class, Face-to-face meetings at myoffice, our class website, phone calls before 7pm, email, or hand-written notes. If youchoose not to communicate in any of these ways, I will probably assume that you do notcare.Please do not contact me about class-related questions on Facebook or YahooMessenger. Also, I often have many windows open on my computer. So I may not see achat request on our class website. The best way to contact me on our class website is bysending a message. You can try to chat any time that you see my name as ‘active’. But ifI don’t respond, please know that I am not ignoring you.ConferencesI encourage students to go to conferences to expand their network and get experience in aglobal atmosphere. Choose your conferences wisely. I will allow you to go to twoconferences during this semester. Choose them wisely. These will count toward yourthree (3) excused absences. I feel this is fair. During my advertising career, I was allowedto miss 4 days of work per year for conferences. I will allow you to miss two classes in 15weeks. This is a fair balance between class responsibilities and possible opportunities forbuilding your future. I will have specific steps that you must follow to receive an excusedabsence.This is your busI accept, appreciate, and encourage creativity. This class can be a bus where you learn,have fun, meet new students, and prepare for an exciting career after graduation. As longas you communicate with me, I will allow some freedom in planning your projects. One ofmy favorite college professors always said, “Ken, this is your bus. You are the driver. Howcan I help you get to where you want to go.” It is crucial that you communicate. As long asyou are applying the new information from class with real situations in the outside world, Iencourage you to adapt these projects to meet your personal, academic and professionalgoals. However, you must communicate these desires with me in advance. 10
  • 11. Please keep in mind that the university follows this grading chart:Hannam University (like other Korean Universities) has a curved grading policyI can give up to 30% of you a A- or higherI can give up to 40% of you a B-, B, or B+I must give at least 30% of you a C+ or lowerQuizzes from Homework Reading (10%)I give quizzes to reward the students who do their homework and come to class on time.You do not have to be the expert of your reading homework assignment, but you will needto be able to clearly and quickly communicate (via writing) that you have done your 11
  • 12. homework. Quizzes are given during the first 10 minutes of class. If you are late for class,you can not take the quiz. I do not give make-up quizzes for any reason. This is anotherreason why you must come to class. I am pretty generous in grading your quizzes. If it isclear to me that you did your homework and tried to understand it, you will not get below a75% on a quiz.Weekly Blogs (15%)You will need to write 20 sentences each week to share with me what you have learnedduring the week. Deadlines will be very important in your future career. You may also berequired to give reports of your projects. Your required weekly blogs are a good way foryou begin documenting what you do during the week. These blogs will be seen by yourclassmates, so do your best. These blogs will be very helpful for you and others inpreparing for your midterm test, final test, and final projects. The deadline is every Fridayat 5pm. However, you do not have to wait until after Friday’s class to write your blog. Youwill probably have enough to write about after the first class, and your homework to write ablog. You can also write about your progress of your long-term projects, or how our classmaterial relates to other things you are learning in other classes or observing in the worldnews.Attentive Points (formerly known as “Attendance Points” (15%)As stated above, you are not guaranteed attendance points by just showing up. I giveAttentive Points, not attendance points.Participation (5%)These are basically extra credit points for the students who spend the whole semesterfinding ways to lead and participate. The best way to earn points is by participating inclass and online in our class website. Our class website has a unique way of measuringwho is participating the most. Again, these are only for the leaders in the class. It is acompetition to earn these points.Personal Projects (35%)I believe in giving students control to earn their grades. I also know that spending four ormore years in college is a waste of time if you can not show what you have learned. Thatis why 35% of your final grade will be determined by personal projects.Midterm Test (10%)My tests are not easy, but they are fair. My tests are mostly short answer and essays.They take one hour. Most students use all 60 minutes.Midterm Test (10%)My tests are not easy, but they are fair. My tests are mostly short answer and essays.They take one hour. Most students use all 60 minutes.Cell Phones:There is a new policy this semester at LGC’s Global Communications and Culturedepartment that says that students can not use cell phones at any time during class.Class ConductThe goal of this course is to provide a stimulating environment for learning. Coursematerial includes both theory and application, with an emphasis on application to realworld problems and situations. Written and oral reports are required because these skills 12
  • 13. are needed in the work environment in general, and in digital communication,management, and consulting in particular. Students are required to comment andcollaborate as these are practical skills.Classes always start on time. Being late three times is equal to one absence. In otherwords, don’t be late. We will strictly observe the university rule that students absent formore than 25% of class periods will receive an automatic “F.” In the same way that Iprepare for every class, you should do the same by reading the assigned references andsubmitting your homework on time. Cheating or any other form of academic dishonesty willnot be tolerated in this course. Any student caught plagiarizing will automatically receive afailing grade for the course. In order to avoid being accused of plagiarism, please do notforget to cite your sources. Before turning in your work, please edit and proofread it.Please do not hesitate to contact me if you have any problems related to the course. Youmay send me an email, leave a comment in my blog or drop by my office. I reserve theright to revise this syllabus. Should I decide to do so, I will post an updated copy on theclass website and tell you in class.Be aware of some schedule challenges. I will make all reasonable efforts to get yourquestions answered. I need you to plan ahead so that I can help you in best way possible.I will return all phone calls and emails and website posts within 24 hours. It will be a raresituation when you actually wait 24 hours during the week, but that may happen. This issimilar to many managers’ policies in the working world. So remember to plan ahead.Grade NegotiationAfter you receive your final grade, HNU allows one week for changing grades. This isonly to change mathematical errors. It is not for students to ask professors to change forany reason other than mathematical errors. You will have many opportunities during thesemester to earn a high grade.Keeping Your ScholarshipDid you earn a scholarship from HNU/LGC? GREAT! That means that HNU and LGChave invested in you. They think that you are the type of young person who will spendfour years taking classes seriously. They think you will be a leader in your classroom andon campus. They think that you will be the type of young person who will get a good joband represent HNU/LGC in a positive way by doing more than what is expected by yourprofessors or your boss. A scholarship is like the stock market. It is an investment, butnot a guarantee. If a company stops performing well, people stop investing. If a studentstops performing well, the university may take away a scholarship. If you need to have aspecific grade in this class to keep your scholarship, it is up to you to earn it....two timesevery week. It is your choice. I believe that you can do great things. I am here to helpyou learn. If you communicate clearly, I will do everything I can to help you continue toearn your scholarship.Citation:This site helps you with citations: site helps you understand the rules for using citations: FEW WISE QUOTES FROM WISE PEOPLE:“Begin Classes on time. End classes on time. Homework for every student every class.Professors and students attend every class. Christian atmosphere.”-- 1960 June, President W.A. LintonPractice does not make perfect. Perfect practice makes perfect. 13
  • 14. --Vince LombardiI do not expect you to be perfect. I do expect progress from you every day.--Jim Morrison (my Father)The only people who become truly great are those that do what they love to do--Malcolm GladwellThe difference between the almost right word and the right word is equal to the differencebetween a lightning bug and lightning--Samuel Langhorne ClemensAsk yourself the easy questions and youll have a hard life, ask yourself the hard questionsand youll have an easier life!— Peter Thomson: U.K. strategist on business and personal growthSeriously Ken, Why be average?--Nancy Touil (8th grade teacher)Dear God, Your will, nothing more, nothing less, nothing else. Amen.--Bobby RichardsonDate last updated: March 1, 2012I encourage you to join the official LGC Facebook Page by clicking the like button at: <--LGC Facebook Page <--Professor Morrison’s PagePlease see class website for future revisions. All revisions will be announce in class. 14
  • 15. New Media Technology Course will help you through:-Learning Key People Who Are Changing our World-Learning Key Terms That Tech Leaders are Passionate About-Learning programs that can help you at LGC, at home, and in your career.Through readings, videos, lecutres, and personal projects, you will become much more aware athow New Media Technology plays an important role in Education (Scool & self-learning), Business(buying/selling, marketing), and Society (behavior, social, politics, parenting, lifestyle, and evenhow our brains are wired)This video should get you excited about this course: out Blank Graphic Organizers here: 15
  • 16. The Great Tech War Of 2012retrieved from onMarch 6, 2012Apple, Facebook, Google, and Amazon battle for the future of the innovation economy.BY Farhad Manjoo | 10-17-2011 From left: The late Apple cofounder Steve Jobs, Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg, Google CEO Larry Page,and Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos. | Photos courtesy of David Paul Morris/Getty Images (Jobs); Justin Sullivan/Getty Images (Zuckerberg); Chip East/Reuters (Page); Mario Tama/Getty Images (Bezos).Gilbert Wong, the mayor of Cupertino, California, calls his city council to order. "As you know,Cupertino is very famous for Apple Computer, and were very honored to have Mr. Steve Jobs comehere tonight to give a special presentation," the mayor says. "Mr. Jobs?" And there he is, in hisblack turtleneck and jeans, shuffling to the podium to the kind of uproarious applause absent frommost city council meetings. It is a shock to see him here on ground level, a thin man amid othercitizens, rather than on stage at San Franciscos Moscone Center with a larger-than-life projectionscreen behind him. He seems out of place, like a lion ambling through the mall.Fast Company is tracking developments in The Great Tech War of 2012 for 30 daysafter this storys original publication to show just how quickly competition betweenApple, Google, Facebook, and Amazon is heating up. Follow the updates here."Apple is growing like a weed," Jobs begins, his voice quiet and sometimes shaky. But theresnothing timorous about his plan: Apple, he says, would like to build a gargantuan new campus on a150-acre parcel of land that it acquired from Hewlett-Packard in 2010. The company hascommissioned architects--"some of the best in the world"--to design something extraordinary, asingle building that will house 12,000 Apple employees. "Its a pretty amazing building," Jobs says,as he unveils images of the futuristic edifice on the screen. The stunning glass-and-concrete circlelooks "a little like a spaceship landed," he opines.Nobody knew it at the time, but the Cupertino City Council meeting on June 7, 2011, was Jobss lastpublic appearance before his resignation as Apples CEO in late August (and his passing in earlyOctober). Its a fitting way to go out. When completed in 2015, Apples new campus will have afootprint slightly smaller than that of the Pentagon; its diameter will exceed the height of the 16
  • 17. Empire State Building. It will include its own natural-gas power plant and will use the grid only forbackup power. This isnt just a new corporate campus but a statement: Apple--which now jockeysdaily with ExxonMobil for the title of the worlds most valuable company--plans to become agalactic force for the eons.And as every sci-fi nerd knows, you totally need a tricked-out battleship if youre about to engage inserious battle."Our development is guided by the idea that every year,the amount that people want to add, share, and expressis increasing," says Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg."We can look into the future--and its going to be really,really good."To state this as clearly as possible: The four American companies that have come to define 21st-century information technology and entertainment are on the verge of war. Over the next two years,Amazon, Apple, Facebook, and Google will increasingly collide in the markets for mobile phonesand tablets, mobile apps, social networking, and more. This competition will be intense. Each of thefour has shown competitive excellence, strategic genius, and superb execution that have left the restof the world in the dust. HP, for example, tried to take a run at Apple head-on, with its TouchPad,the product of its $1.2 billion acquisition of Palm. HP bailed out after an embarrassingly short 49-day run, and it cost CEO Léo Apotheker his job. Microsofts every move must be viewed as areaction to the initiatives of these smarter, nimbler, and now, in the case of Apple, richer companies.When a company like Hulu goes on the block, these four companies are immediately seen aspossible acquirers, and why not? They have the best weapons--weapons that will now be turned onone another as they seek more room to grow.There was a time, not long ago, when you could sum up each company quite neatly: Apple madeconsumer electronics, Google ran a search engine, Amazon was a web store, and Facebook was asocial network. How quaint that assessment seems today.Jeff Bezos, who was ahead of the curve in creating a cloud data service, is pushing Amazon intodigital media, book publishing, and, with his highly buzzed-about new line of Kindle tablets,including the $199 Fire, a direct assault on the iPad. Amazon almost doubled in size from 2008 to2010, when it hit $34 billion in annual revenue; analysts expect it to reach $100 billion in annualrevenue by 2015, faster than any company ever.Remember when Googles goal was to catalog all the worlds information? Guess that task was tootiny. In just a few months at the helm, CEO Larry Page has launched a social network (Google+) tochallenge Facebook, and acquired Motorola Mobility for $12.5 billion, in part to compete moreferociously against Apple. Googles YouTube video service is courting producers to make originalprogramming. Page can afford these big swings (and others) in the years ahead, given the way hisadvertising business just keeps growing. Its on pace to bring in more than $30 billion this year,almost double 2007s revenue.Why Apple Will WinThe iPhone, iPad, and iEverything else will keep it merrily rolling along.Continue >> 17
  • 18. Facebook, meanwhile, is now more than just the worlds biggest social network; it is the worldsmost expansive enabler of human communication. It has changed the ways in which we interact(witness its new Timeline interface); it has redefined the way we share--personal info, pictures(more than 250 million a day), and now news, music, TV, and movies. With access to the "Likes" ofmore than 800 million people, CEO Mark Zuckerberg has an unequaled trove of data on individualconsumer behavior that he can use to personalize both media and advertising.Amazon, Apple, Facebook, and Google dont recognize any borders; they feel no qualms aboutmarching beyond the walls of tech into retailing, advertising, publishing, movies, TV,communications, and even finance. Across the economy, these four companies are increasinglysetting the agenda. Bezos, Jobs, Zuckerberg, and Page look at the business world and justifiablyimagine all of it funneling through their servers. Why not go for everything? And in theircompetition, each combatant is getting stronger, separating the quartet further from the rest of thepack.Everyone reading this article is a customer of Amazon, Apple, Facebook, or Google, and mostprobably count on all four. This passion for the Fab Four of business is reflected in theblogospheres panting coverage of their every move. ExxonMobil may sometimes be the worldsmost valuable company, but can you name its CEO? Do you scour the Internet for rumors about itsnext product? As the four companies encroach further and further into one anothers space,consumers look forward to cooler and cooler products. The coming years will be fascinating towatch because this is a competition that might reinvent our daily lives even more than the four havechanged our habits in the past decade. And that, dear reader, is why you need a program guide to thebattle ahead.1) The Road MapAmazon, Apple, Facebook, and Google do not talk about their plans. Coca-Cola would tweet itssecret formula before any of them would even hint at whats next. "That is a part of the magic ofApple," says new CEO Tim Cook.That secrecy only fuels the zeal of those bent on sussing out their next moves. And it is certainlypossible to decode the Fab Fours big-picture strategic ambitions: Over the next few years, each willinfiltrate, digitize, and revolutionize every corner of your life, taking a slice out of each transactionthat results. This is a vision shared by all four, and it hinges on three interrelated ideas.First, each company has embraced what Jobs has branded the "post-PC world"--a vision of dailylife that is enabled by, and comes to depend on, smartphones, tablets, and other small, mobile, easy-to-use computers. Each of these companies has already benefited more than others from thisproliferation of mobile, a shift that underlies their extraordinary gains in revenue, cash reserves, andmarket cap.The second idea is a function of the fact that these post-PC devices encourage and facilitateconsumption, in just about every form. So each of these giants will deepen their efforts to serve upmedia--books, music, movies, TV shows, games, and anything else that might brighten your lonelyhours (theyre also socializing everything, so you can enjoy it with friends or meet new ones). Butits not just digital media; they will also make the consumption of everything easier. The new $79Kindle, for example, isnt just a better reading device; it integrates Amazons local-offers product.The Fire will be accompanied by a tablet-friendly redesign of that will make it easierfor you to buy the physical goods that the company sells, from pet food to lawn mowers. Whereverand whenever you are online, they want to be there to assist you in your transaction. 18
  • 19. All of our activity on these devices produces a wealth of data, which leads to the third big ideaunderpinning their vision. Data is like mothers milk for Amazon, Apple, Facebook, and Google.Data not only fuels new and better advertising systems (which Google and Facebook depend on)but better insights into what youd like to buy next (which Amazon and Apple want to know). Dataalso powers new inventions: Googles voice-recognition system, its traffic maps, and its spell-checker are all based on large-scale, anonymous customer tracking. These three ideas feed oneanother in a continuous (and often virtuous) loop. Post-PC devices are intimately connected toindividual users. Think of this: You have a family desktop computer, but you probably dont have afamily Kindle. E-books are tied to a single Amazon account and can be read by one person at atime. The same for phones and apps. For the Fab Four, this is a beautiful thing because it means thateverything done on your phone, tablet, or e-reader can be associated with you. Your likes, dislikes,and preferences feed new products and creative ways to market them to you. Collectively, the FabFour have all registered credit-card info on a vast cross-section of Americans. They collectpayments (Apple through iTunes, Google with Checkout, Amazon with Amazon Payments,Facebook with in-house credits). Both Google and Amazon recently launched Groupon-like daily-deals services, and Facebook is pursuing deals through its check-in service (after publicly retreatingfrom its own offers product).It would be a mistake to see their ambitions as simply a grab for territory (and money). These fourcompanies firmly believe that they possess the ability to enhance rather than merely replace ourcurrent products and services. They want to apply server power and software code to make everytransaction more efficient for you and more profitable for them.2. The Inevitable WarHardware. Media. Data. With each company sharing a vision dependent on these three big ideas,conflict over pretty much every strategic move seems guaranteed. Amazon, for example, needs abetter media tablet to drive more customers to its Kindle, MP3, and app stores. But how to avoid anHP-like disaster? The Kindle Fire has just a 7-inch screen, rolls up all of Amazons streamingservices, and retails for a mere $199, thus slotting into a price and feature niche just between aniPhone and an iPad. Who knew there even was a niche there? Apple doesnt believe that niche exists(see the next section), but you can bet it will if the Kindle Fire succeeds.Why Facebook Will WinEverything is social--and Zuckerberg hasnt even gone public yet.Continue >>When Google introduced its new social network Google+, it was seen, rightly, as a challenge toZuckerbergs Facebook. But at its core, Google+, along with +1, Googles version of the like button,should be understood as a product that will generate more data about what users like. Those dataimprove search algorithms and other existing services, and can even lead to new products. SoGoogles search for self-improvement is what has brought it into direct competition with Facebook.Why did Zuckerberg flirt with a "Facebook phone" earlier this year? (HTC released a handset calledthe Status that included a built-in button that let users post to the social network with one click.)While Facebook is the most-downloaded app on the iPhone and acts as a central contacts repositoryfor millions of Android, Windows, and BlackBerry devices, its rivals all have competing socialnetworks that could siphon away users. Most strikingly, Apple has integrated Twitter throughoutiOS 5, letting you tweet from any app, a feature clearly aimed at dulling Facebooks mobile growth.Page now has Google+. Amazons Kindle has a social network that connects readers of the same 19
  • 20. book. Zuckerberg needs to maintain a direct line to the pockets of Facebook members, and thatswhy you can discount his repeated dismissal of rumors that hell enter the hardware business.The torrent of news and rumor surrounding these companies and their initiatives is alreadyoverwhelming, and its only going to grow stronger. But viewing their moves through the lens ofhardware, media, and data is the first step toward understanding their strategies.3) The Profit GameLate in 2010, Jobs made a surprise visit to Apples quarterly earnings call. The purportedreason was to celebrate Apples first $20 billion quarter, but Jobs clearly had something else on hismind: Android. At the time, Googles free mobile operating system was beginning to eclipse theiPhones market share, and Jobs was miffed. He launched into a prepared rant about Androidsshortcomings. "This is going to be a mess for both users and developers," he said, citing theinevitable complications that arise from the fact that Android phones look and work differentlyfrom one another. As for the crop of 7-inch Android tablets being developed to take on the iPad?"DOA--dead on arrival," Jobs asserted. (Jeff Bezos, for one, has ignored Jobss perspective.)What Jobs didnt say in his outburst, though, was how little Androids market share matters toApple. According to Nielsen, Android now powers about 40% of smartphones; 28% run ApplesiOS. But heres the twist: Android could command even 70% of the smartphone business withouthaving a meaningful impact on Apples finances. Why? Because Apple makes a profit on iOSdevices, while Google and many Android handset makers do not. This is part of a major strategicdifference between Apple and the other members of the Fab Four. Apple doesnt need a dominantmarket share to win. Everyone else does. The more people who use Google search or Facebook, themore revenue those companies can generate from ads. Amazon, too, depends on scale; retail is alow-margin business dependent on volume.Apple, on the other hand, makes a significant profit on every device it sells. Some analysts estimatethat it books $368 on each iPhone. You may pay $199 for the phone, but thats after a subsidy thatthe wireless carriers pay Apple. Google, in contrast, makes less than $10 annually per device for theads it places on Android phones and tablets. Thats because it gives away the OS to phone makers aspart of its quest for market share. Googles revenue per phone wont go up after the Motorolapurchase closes--Motorola Mobilitys consumer-device division has lost money the past fewquarters. So despite Googles market-share lead, Apple is making all the money. By some estimates,its now sucking up half of all the profits in smartphones.Making a lot of profit on every device has always been Apples MO, but in recent years it has addedsomething extra to this plan. In the past, Apples profit margins were a function of higher prices--thecompany sold computers at luxury price points and booked luxury profits. But in smartphones andtablets, Apple has managed to match mass-market prices and still make luxury profits. This neattrick is the work of new CEO Cook, who, during his years as COO, mastered the global productioncycle. He did so by aggressively using cash to bolster the power of Apples considerable scale;several times over the past few years, hes dipped into the companys reserves to secure long-termcontracts for important components like flash memory and touch screens. Buying up much of theworlds supply of these commodities has one convenient added benefit: It makes them moreexpensive for everyone else.One of Cooks great challenges will be to maintain this edge. While Amazon will continue to pursueaudience at the expense of profit margins, Google (and eventually Facebook) will try to make likeApple and increase profits. When Googles only goal was to proliferate Android software, it couldlive with that sawbuck per phone, per year. But with Motorola, Google now has a direct stake in the 20
  • 21. profitability of Android devices. Developing, marketing, and distributing attractive phones andtablets requires a much more substantial investment than selling software. Google has pledged torun Motorola as a separate entity, but its shareholders wont stomach a series of money-losingquarters that could depress Googles earnings or stock. In short, now that Page is in the hardwarebusiness, hes going to have to start thinking about phones the way Cook does.The Dangerous DecoysFor a onetime agricultural hub thats been turned into suburbia, Silicon Valley is home to anawful lot of talk about moats these days. Warren Buffett deserves credit for the metaphor, whichdescribes the companies hes most interested in pursuing--ones with huge revenues (a castle ofmoney) whose businesses are protected by unbeatable competitive advantages (or very wide moats).The Fab Four all have moats to rival those at Angkor Wat.As a result of these wide moats, these companies generate so much money that they can spendfreely on new ventures; and in some cases, theyre willing to do so even if the business wont everbring the kinds of gains theyre used to. Look at Apples efforts in e-books: Does the company reallywant to overthrow Amazon or is it simply trying to offer one more reason to buy iPhones and iPadsand, thus, guard its cash cow? When Google invests billions to build smartphones and a new socialnetwork, is it really trying to topple Apple and Facebook--or is it simply building a wider moat toprotect its core interest, search revenue? "We dont do things that we dont think will generate reallybig returns over time," says Larry Page. But if a possibly unprofitable social network beefs upsearch revenue? Thats just fine.These ventures are decoy threats that tax a rivals resources. Google+ will be hard-pressed to evermatch Facebooks global reach, but it will certainly keep Zuckerberg and his engineers on their toes.Indeed, it already has. Facebook has clearly copied the most-lauded Google+ features, such as fine-grained privacy controls and smart groupings, and pushed new ideas such as Timeline and auto-sharing. Zuckerberg has to do this--he simply must eliminate any incentive for leaving Facebook.And Page knows that the more time Zuckerberg worries about Google+, the less time and fewerresources Facebook has to build a search engine that will threaten Google. Such is life in SiliconValley, especially when companies have money to burn. Every offensive move is also a defensivemove--and every move has potential. You never know whats going to hit big in tech. So if you can,why wouldnt you try everything?The Living RoomIn the spring of 2010, Rishi Chandra, a Google product manager, took to the stage at thecompanys developer conference to announce Googles next victim: the TV business. Chandradescribed television as the most important mass medium that hadnt yet been breached by the digitalworld. Four billion people watch TV; in the U.S. alone, the medium generates $70 billion a year inadvertising revenue. Google, Chandra promised, was going to "change the future of television." Heturned on a prototype of Googles new device, a set-top box called Google TV that would bring theweb to the tube--and thats when things got awkward. His Bluetooth remote didnt work. Chandraand his team called for the guys backstage, who blamed the problem on all the phone signalsfloating about the room. Several minutes passed while engineers fiddled furiously with the device,the scene playing out like the worst Curb Your Enthusiasm episode ever. Engineers fixed theproblem, but like a racehorse stumbling out of the starting gate, Google TV never recovered.Released a few months later, the product was panned and sold quite poorly. 21
  • 22. Why Google Will WinIts CEO is daring, decisive--and willing to wait for his big bets to pay off.Continue >>Each of the Fab Four believes that it can somehow define the future of television, when that flatpanel in your living room (and every other device you own) is connected to the web, pulling in thevideo you want at the moment you want it. With the universe of choice now available, the moribundchannel grid will need to be revolutionized with a fresh interface for finding programs. Socialsignals--such as indications of what shows your friends are watching and hints as to what showsyou might like given those friendships--will be part of the mix, as will live conversations withfriends watching the same show. And the advertising will be more targeted and relevant. Each of theFab Four wants a piece of this. The honey pot? Not only that $70 billion in domestic ad revenue butalso $74 billion in cable-subscriber fees.Thats the idea anyway. So far the Fab Four is the Failed Four when it comes to TV. There are manyreasons for this, starting with the fact that they are trying to unseat entrenched players who arefiercely protective of the business model theyve relied on for decades. Network execs, for example,had no intention of handing Google the right to give Google TV customers access to the full-lengthshows that are currently available for streaming only on their own network websites. Not without alot more money, anyway, given that their online ad revenue is a fraction of their TV take. Googleapproached its negotiations with the networks with arrogance, and the networks responded byblocking access.Then theres the fact that none of the Fab Four want to think of itself as being in the TV business--rather, each sees television as a means to an end. For instance, Amazon offers free streaming moviesand TV as an incentive to join Prime, a service that offers a years worth of free two-day shipping(on most purchases) for $79. Bezos has recently made deals to bolster his video library. He paidCBS a reported $100 million to offer old Star Trek and Cheers episodes, among other things, for 18months. And he made a similar partnership with Fox. "Were just getting started," Bezos said at theKindle rollout event in late September. But on balance, Prime is not a way to give the people lots ofgreat TV; TV is a way to get people to Prime.And creating next-generation television hardware has proved difficult. Apple TV, a box that first andforemost connects your iTunes video library to your TV, has been remade several times since its2007 debut and is still a product for early adopters. Even Jobs and Cook have dismissed it as "ahobby" for the company.Still, the massive, old, and profitable business of television does seem ripe for disruption, perhapsthrough the invention of some magical device. Cook had barely erased "interim" from his CEO titlebefore analyst and media speculation began that his first bravura move as CEO would be an honest-to-goodness Apple-branded television set, perhaps as early as Christmas 2012 (cue fanboyswooning). The dreamers note that Apple could create an Internet TV that would merge webservices and standard broadcasts; it does, of course, already make the worlds best remote controlsin the iPhone and iPad.But dont hold your breath for iTV. Of all four companies, Apple is the one that provokes the mostrumors. Thats been the case for years; iPhone whispers started around 1999, but the product didntgo on sale until 2007. And selling TV sets is almost a commodity venture, so Cook will either haveto master a new supply chain or deliver so much magic that customers will pay a significantpremium. 22
  • 23. While Apple is the focus of all the next-gen TV rumors, the most interesting player in this spacemight be the most overlooked: Facebook. CEO Zuckerberg has made deals with several studios torelease streaming movies and TV pilots on the site. But Facebooks real strength is in facilitating theconversation surrounding TV. Every show and star has a fan page, and Facebook knows exactlywhat each of its 800 million users like and dont like. Millions of people watch TV with a computer,tablet, or smartphone beside them, so they can chat with friends around the globe about the showtheyre watching. At Facebooks f8 developers conference in late September, it integrated Hulu andNetflix (the latter in 44 countries, though not in the U.S.) and made it seamless to share what yourewatching. Sure, this will allow Facebook to create an even more engaging experience for its users,but this also taps a new gold mine of data thats invaluable to advertisers and the entertainmentstudios. Why not make it easy for Facebook users to click like during their favorite moments of ashow, and monitor that activity? Nielsen, whose 61-year-old TV ratings are the linchpin of its $5billion global research business, is built on extrapolating information from small samples, so what ifadvertisers and studios could pay to get actual data on actual individuals? With one trivialtechnological shift, Facebook could remake the TV business without even touching the remote.The Next Steve JobsIn 2005, Google bought Android, a tiny company led by Andy Rubin, who at his previous startupcreated a proto-smartphone that was marketed as the T-Mobile Sidekick. At that point, the Androidteam had spent two years working on what it thought would be the next killer mobile platform; itspent two more years building out its vision at Google. In 2007, a few images of Android hardwareand software leaked online. They landed with a thud. Androids revolutionary phone smacked of aBlackBerry knock-off--hard buttons on the bottom, a small screen on top, ugly all over. There wereno touch gestures; to point to something, you used a hardware direction button. There was nothingnovel about the on-screen user interface--to choose something, you navigated through nestedmenus, a concept that harked back to Windows 95. Android circa 2007 is the nightmare vision oftech: Its what smartphones would look like if it werent for Steve Jobs."A big piece of the story we tell ourselves about who weare is that we are willing to invent," says Amazon CEOJeff Bezos. "And, very importantly, we are willing to bemisunderstood for long periods of time."Todays Android--the touch gesture, app-enabled operating system thats helped make smartphonesthe majority of all new phones sold in the United States--is testament to Googles engineeringprowess and marketing acumen. But it is also, obviously, a direct descendant of the iPhone. AfterRubin and his team saw what Jobs had cooked up, they remade Android in Apples image. And theywerent alone: Almost every smartphone thats come along since borrows major and minor featuresfrom Apple. (Ironically, the most original mobile platform is the one developed by Microsoft, of allcompanies--Windows Phone.) Apples brilliant reinvention of the cell phone, and its equallybrilliant invention of the modern tablet, are the reasons Amazon built an app store, the reasonsFacebook is rumored to be flirting with making a smartphone, the only reason that any company iscompeting in those particular hardware businesses. This is what has been amazing about Steve Jobs:Nurturing the next great thing in tech wasnt simply the most important thing for Apple. It has beenthe most important thing for the entire tech industry.And that is why the industrys next Steve Jobs is . . . Steve Jobs. Thanks to its founder, Apple has along-term product road map in place--keep making better iOS products, keep bringing innovationsit discovered in the mobile world to the Mac--and you can bet that Cook and his rivals will follow 23
  • 24. Jobss path for the foreseeable future. We know Cook is an operational genius. Anyone who claimsto know if he is a visionary is lying.Over the next two years, Bezos, Page, and Zuckerberg will gingerly start to vie for Jobss innovator-in-chief mantle. (One way to consider this battle among the Fab Four is as a fight for this honor.) Ofthem, Bezos has the best record with new products. Amazon Web Services and the Kindle were trueinnovations that changed and inspired the rest of the industry. (According to some reports, evenApple relies in part on Amazons cloud infrastructure for its iCloud service.) Bezos also seems themost temperamentally attuned to the creation of Next Big Things. "A big piece of the story we tellourselves about who we are is that we are willing to invent," he told investors at Amazons annualmeeting this summer. "We are willing to think long-term. We start with the customer and workbackward. And, very importantly, we are willing to be misunderstood for long periods of time."Page, too, has the "think different" gene, and his CEO stint has been characterized by swift, decisiveaction to reinvigorate the company. He has impressively bet on Android, YouTube, and Chrome,and "we have some new businesses--Google+, Commerce, and Local--that we are really excitedabout and are pretty early stage," Page told analysts over the summer. There is another way oflooking at this, though--as an example of Pages reactive streak. In the past, when Google offered anew take on an old thing--see Gmail or Google Maps--the search companys version was soradically novel that it instantly rendered the incumbents obsolete. Thats not true of Google+, forexample. Googles social network has earned praise for an elegant interface and some innovativefeatures, but it clearly mimics Facebook and Twitter, rather than offering something wholly new.Page has tied every Googlers bonus, even those not working on social, to Googles ability to beatFacebook. So while the Google CEO can be seen as making big, bold moves, he might also appearto be spending an awful lot of time fretting about beating something old.As for Zuckerberg . . .The Age Of ZuckIn some ways, its unfair to compare Facebook to Amazon, Apple, and Google. WhileFacebooks growth is impressive, its actual numbers barely register next to the other three:Facebook is reported to have made $1.6 billion during the first half of 2011 (about double what itmade in the first half of 2010), but Apple makes that much in nine days. Facebooks only directcompetition with these companies is Google in the global $24 billion online display-advertisingbusiness, an arena that Google believes will be a $200-billion-a-year market in the next few years.As a private company, Facebook can shield itself from scrutiny (an advantage that Bezos, Cook,and Page would dearly love), but being private has also hampered Facebook. It lacks the capital theothers have to make major strategic acquisitions, or to finance the production of factories that wouldmake a Facebook device.Why Amazon Will WinIts retail engine keeps humming, and its ambitions feed the beast.Continue >>Zuckerbergs ambitions will only be fully realized after Facebook goes public. Its path will thenlikely mirror Googles post-IPO trajectory--it will evolve from a company with one product into amany-tentacled beast that uses its newfound capital to disrupt all of its rivals. Zuckerberg isnt givento Jobsian rants, but when he discusses how the web will shift over the next few years, he can soundlike a hoodie-burning revolutionary. "Just like Intel with Moores law, our development is guided bythe idea that every year, the amount that people want to add, share, and express is increasing," he 24
  • 25. proclaimed at f8 in late September. "We can look into the future and we can see what might exist--and its going to be really, really good." Zuckerberg is even maturing into a capable presenter.Compared to Bezos, Cook, and Page, hes most adept at mimicking Jobss singular skills, and comesoff as infectiously visionary when unveiling a new product.From search to ads to phones to tablets to TV to games, Facebook aims to be in everything. In somecases, as with music or gaming, it will partner with others to serve its massive audience. But overtime, look for Zuckerberg to build his own products. Search is the most provocative example.Facebooks partnership with Bing already shows off links that your friends liked; Facebook Searchcould go even deeper, sorting the web according to your social interactions. It would use everythingit knows about you to decipher your queries in a way that Google cant muster. Type in "jobs" andFB Search would know youre looking for news on the Apple founder and not employment. (Itknows you have a job; it even knows how often you goof off there.)Zuckerbergs app strategy is also ambitious and intriguing. At f8, he debuted a new class ofFacebook media apps that let Facebook users read, watch, and listen to content without ever leavingthe site--and share it seamlessly. Hes lured impressive media partners such as The Wall StreetJournal, Spotify, and Netflix. If Zuckerberg can bring those apps to the social networks mobileproduct, hell have a winner on his hands: an app ecosystem that works on every phone and tablet,rather than on just one companys devices, and one that captures the next generation of mobiledevelopers (not to mention all those Facebook credits). Watch out, Apple: Zuck is coming for you.The Phone BarrierOne industry stands directly between the Fab Four and global domination. Its an industry thatfrustrates you every day, one that consistently ranks at the bottom of consumer satisfaction surveys,that poster child for stifling innovation and creativity: your phone carrier. And your cable or DSLfirm. For Amazon, Apple, Facebook, and Google, the worlds wireless and broadband companies area blessing and a curse. By investing in the infrastructure that powers the Internet, theyve made thefour firms services possible. But the telcos and cable companies are also gatekeepers to customers,and Amazon, Apple, Google, and Facebook would love to cut them out of the equation. In the longrun, they actually stand a shot at doing so.While Google has historically had a difficult relationship with the telcos, that will have to change asthe company keeps pushing Android into the market. That leaves Apple as the thorn in the carriersside. Before the iPhone, carriers routinely prevented smartphone users from installing their ownapps, and they regularly disabled hardware features that competed with their revenue streams.(Verizon once crippled BlackBerrys GPS system because the carrier sold its own subscriptionlocation plan.) The iPhone forever changed this culture: It conditioned phone users to expect todownload any apps they choose (actually, any app approved of by Apple). Carriers can no longertell you that you cant run, say, Skype, or an app that gives you free text messages. Buy asmartphone, and youve earned that right. Apples move to expand its carrier lineup in the U.S. is thenext great front in the battle with communications companies. Now that you can get the iPhone onAT&T, Verizon, and Sprint, carriers will be forced to compete with one another on network speed,price, and customer service. This will be a first: Back in 2009, when Apple unveiled "iPhonetethering"--the ability to use your phones network connection to surf the web on your computer--AT&T took a year to implement the service, while other carriers around the world launched itinstantly. But if AT&T dithers now, you can go somewhere else. 25
  • 26. The best tech companies stay at their peak for a decadeat most. Amazon, Apple, Facebook, and Google havethe potential to be exceptions.Thats small potatoes compared to some potential breakthroughs. All but Amazon have avideophone service: Apples FaceTime, Google+ Hangouts, and Facebooks Skype integration.Apples iMessage and Facebooks Messenger, which offer text, photo, video, and group messaging,intend to get people to route all of their communications through the Internet rather than thecarriers. If either takes off--and, given that iMessage will be built into the next iPhone andMessenger will be available to every Facebook user on iPhone and Android, they both seem sure tobe hits--theyll stand a good chance at replacing SMS, which is highly lucrative for carriers, as thestandard for mobile conversations.In a larger sense, all these companies have devalued the idea of talking on the phone; paying forminutes is passé when you can text, IM, and video chat instead. Now we all just pay for data,delivered via high-speed networks that might be built around and between what the carriers offer.(Of course, the Fab Four seems to assume retailers and municipalities will build those networks toenable their vision--anyone but them.) Verizon is a $100 billion company built on dumb pipes, anddumb pipes may not make for a smart business model for the long run.The Bank HeistThe other outfit standing between you and the Fab Four is one that barely registers: your credit-card company. When you buy something through iTunes, the Android Market, Amazon, orFacebook, the credit-card company gets a small cut of your payment. To these giants, the cutrepresents a terrible inefficiency--why surrender all that cash to an interloper? And not just anyinterloper, but an inefficient, unfriendly one that rarely innovates for its consumers. These credit-card giants seem ripe for the picking.While this attack is less mapped out than the one on your phone and cable company, heres how thescenario would play out. The first step is getting consumers used to the idea of paying by phone.The second step is to encourage consumers to link their bank accounts directly to their devices, thuseliminating the credit-card middleman. For example, Google just launched Wallet, a service thatallows you to pay for purchases by waving your phone at a merchant paypad. Google is not billingthe system as a credit-card killer; in fact, its partnering with MasterCard and Citi on Wallet. But ifcustomers embrace Wallet to make payments, Google could add services that make it the centralrepository of all our coupons and other special deals, taking a bite out of the likes of Groupon andLivingSocial (in which Amazon is a major investor). The move is so ambitious that its alreadyrattled the leader in online payments: PayPal sued Google just hours after the Wallet announcement,back in May, claiming that Google stole its intellectual property when it poached Osama Bedier, aformer exec who now runs Googles payment project.Both Amazon and Facebook could transform their online-payments services into similar walletlikemobile apps, while Facebook could create a significant PayPal rival in web commerce if it rolledout payments as part of Facebook Connect. Apple has a very different, but potentially moredisruptive, shot at this market. The company has long been rumored to add near-field-communication chips--which allow for waving your phone to pay--into its phones. If it does, anApple payments system would have two advantages over everyone else. First, the iTunes databaseof customers is huge. Second, theres the iPad, which is fast gaining traction as a next-gen cashregister in small businesses around the country. This sets up Apple to own both sides of potentiallymillions of transactions: Go to your coffee shop, wave your iPhone against the cashiers iPad, and 26
  • 27. voilà, youre done. Multiply that by every hipster in America and you see the scale of Applesambition.The Hit MenSo who could derail these best-laid plans? Well, lets start with the lawyers, of course. Over thepast year, the tech industry has become an increasingly ugly place, with Apple, Google, Microsoft,Amazon, and just about every handset maker joining a legal scrum over patents. Everyone is suingeveryone else, while the government, spurred on by the likes of, yes, Microsoft, is considering anantitrust suit against Google. None of this bodes well. Over the summer, Apple succeeded in gettingSamsungs Galaxy tablet (which runs Android) banned from release in Germany and delayed itslaunch in Australia. This is part of a global fight about design and Android, complicated by the factthat Samsung is Apples largest component supplier.The Samsung suits were also the most significant sign that Google may have a problem with theintellectual property underpinning Android, since its "free and open" operating system is forcing itsdevice makers into expensive courtroom battles over their Android phones and tablets. This, in turn,has set off a buying frenzy of global patents that might have anything to do with transmittingmobile data. A coalition that included Apple and Microsoft spent $4.5 billion to outbid Google for astash of 6,000 mobile-related patents from Nortel. Page responded by spending $12.5 billion forMotorola and its slug of 17,000 patents, and by then making two deals with IBM for more than2,000 patents in all (the purchase price was not disclosed).All these patent suits could stifle innovation. Most new devices are so complicated--touching on somany specialized areas, from intricate chip design to battery placement to touch-screen dynamics--that its impossible for any companys devices to be wholly original. Tech companies used to letminor patent violations slide, but the rise of patent-hording trolls has changed this. Now everyonesinstinct is to sue.Its almost as if theyd never studied Microsofts decline in relevance. The software giant neverresumed its place as an agenda setter after its antitrust trial in the late 1990s. The suit consumed somuch time and brainpower that the company fell behind on a decades worth of trends. Thats therisk in todays patent wars: The more time Page spends defending Android, the less effort he putsinto making sure Google is actually inventing new stuff.Tech companies are ephemeral enterprises, with a built-in obsolescence much like their products.The best firms stay at their peak for a decade tops; most get snuffed out before anyone even noticesthem. Amazon, Apple, Facebook, and Google have the potential to be exceptions to this rule. TheirCEOs are driven, disciplined, and relatively young (Cook, the oldest, will be 51 in November). Allbut Cook are founders, and their personalities are such that they seem unlikely to get tired or boredby their empire building. Their market caps and strong revenue growth should allow them toneutralize other would-be rivals--witness Bezos acquiring Zappos and Quidisi ( beforeeither could become a threat.As our modern oligarchy, and as individual companies, Amazon, Apple, Facebook, and Google willnot last forever. But despite this oncoming war, in which attacking one another becomes standardoperating practice, their inevitable slide into irrelevancy likely wont be at the hands of one of theirfellow rivals. As always, the real future of tech belongs to some smart-ass kid in a Palo Alto garage. 27
  • 28. infographic retrieved from on March 6, 2012Mission Statements of the Fab FourApple:  Apple is committed to bringing the best personal computing experience to students, educators,creative professionals and consumers around the world through its innovative hardware, software andInternet offerings.Facebook:  Facebook’s mission is to give people the power to share and make the world more open andconnected.Google:  Google’s mission is to organize the world‘s information and make it universally accessible anduseful.Amazon:  Amazon’s vision is to be earth’s most customer centric company; to build a place where peoplecan come to find and discover anything they might want to buy online.  (They list this as their mission as acombination mission/vision on their site).  28
  • 29. SOCIETY 29
  • 30. Is Social Media Actually Making Us Less Connected?Retrieved from;utm_campaign=My%2BStories&amp;utm_medium=email&amp;utm_source=newsletter on Marrch 1, 2012LONG BEACH, Calif. – Checking email during meetings. Shopping on your smartphone inthe middle of class. Texting at funerals. These are a few of the examples that MITprofessor Sherry Turkle offered during her TEDTalk on Thursday, in which she argued that“technology is taking us places we don’t want to go.”Turkle, a psychologist who leads MIT’s Initiative on Technology and Self, believes thatwhile our constant communication and social media engagement does make us moreconnected, it’s coming at the sacrifice of real conversation.And she thinks that will have some serious consequences for our relationships, our self-perceptions and our emotions.One major issue, she said, is that when we text, email or post to a social networking site,we’re able to project ourselves as we want to be seen. “We get to edit, we get to delete,and that means we get to retouch.”Inversely, Turkle notes that a face-to-face conversation “takes place in real time and youcan’t control what you’re going to say.”Further, with our phones at our constant disposal, Turkle says we’re only paying attentionto the things we want to pay attention to. And that leaves us increasingly disconnectedfrom our friends, family and co-workers as we simply turn to our devices when aconversation no longer interests us.This creates a situation that Turkle said makes us, “expect more from technology and lessfrom each other.” In the long run, she thinks technology is ultimately headed towardscreating a Siri-like program that can offer “companionship without the demands offriendship.”There’s certainly plenty of data that supports Turkle’s argument. Surveys showing thatwe’re increasingly texting and social networking during meal time or in the bedroom havebecome commonplace.But what’s to be done about it? Turkle isn’t calling for a return to the dark ages of pre-smartphone life. Rather, she says it’s time for us to have a more self-aware relationshipwith technology. And in turn, we should do things like create sacred places at home and atwork where we leave the devices out.Turkle’s remarks drew an emphatic standing ovation from the TED crowd. But we want toknow what you think: Does technology threaten the quality of our relationships andpersonal development, or are such fears an overblown perception of a generation thatdidn’t grow up with digital? Let us know in the comments. 30
  • 31. Monday, Mar. 27, 2006genM: The Multitasking GenerationBy Claudia WallisRetrieved From,8816,1174696,00.html on March 5, 2012Its 9:30 p.m., and Stephen and Georgina Cox know exactly where their children are. Well, theirbodies, at least. Piers, 14, is holed up in his bedroom--eyes fixed on his computer screen--where hehas been logged onto a MySpace chat room and AOL Instant Messenger (IM) for the past threehours. His twin sister Bronte is planted in the living room, having commandeered her dads iMac--as usual. She, too, is busily IMing, while chatting on her cell phone and chipping away athomework.By all standard space-time calculations, the four members of the family occupy the same three-bedroom home in Van Nuys, Calif., but psychologically each exists in his or her own little universe.Georgina, 51, who works for a display-cabinet maker, is tidying up the living room as Bronteworks, not that her daughter notices. Stephen, 49, who juggles jobs as a squash coach, fitnesstrainer, event planner and head of a cancer charity he founded, has wolfed down his dinner alone inthe kitchen, having missed supper with the kids. He, too, typically spends the evening on his cellphone and returning e-mails--when he can nudge Bronte off the computer. "One gets obsessed withones gadgets," he concedes.Zooming in on Piers screen gives a pretty good indication of whats on his hyperkinetic mind. O.K.,theres a Google Images window open, where hes chasing down pictures of Keira Knightley. Goodones get added to a snazzy Windows Media Player slide show that serves as his personal e-shrine tothe actress. Several IM windows are also open, revealing such penetrating conversations as this onewith a MySpace pal:MySpacer: suuuuuup!!! (Translation: Whats up?)Piers: wat up dudeMySpacer: nmu (Not much. You?)Piers: sameNaturally, iTunes is open, and Piers is blasting a mix of Queen, AC/DC, classic rock and hip-hop.Somewhere on the screen theres a Word file, in which Piers is writing an essay for English class. "Iusually finish my homework at school," he explains to a visitor, "but if not, I pop a book open onmy lap in my room, and while the computer is loading, Ill do a problem or write a sentence. Then,while mail is loading, I do more. I get it done a little bit at a time."Bronte has the same strategy. "You just multitask," she explains. "My parents always tell me I cantdo homework while listening to music, but they dont understand that it helps me concentrate." Thetwins also multitask when hanging with friends, which has its own etiquette. "When I talk to mybest friend Eloy," says Piers, "hell have one earpiece [of his iPod] in and one out." Says Bronte: "Ifa friend thinks shes not getting my full attention, I just make it very clear that she is, even thoughIm also listening to music."The Coxes are one of 32 families in the Los Angeles area participating in an intensive, four-yearstudy of modern family life, led by anthropologist Elinor Ochs, director of UCLAs Center onEveryday Lives of Families. While the impact of multitasking gadgets was not her original focus,Ochs found it to be one of the most dramatic areas of change since she conducted a similar study 20 31
  • 32. years ago. "Im not certain how the children can monitor all those things at the same time, but Ithink it is pretty consequential for the structure of the family relationship," says Ochs, whose workon language, interaction and culture earned her a MacArthur "genius" grant.One of the things Ochs team of observers looks at is what happens at the end of the workday whenparents and kids reunite--and what doesnt happen, as in the case of the Coxes. "We saw that whenthe working parent comes through the door, the other spouse and the kids are so absorbed by whattheyre doing that they dont give the arriving parent the time of day," says Ochs. The returningparent, generally the father, was greeted only about a third of the time, usually with a perfunctory"Hi." "About half the time the kids ignored him or didnt stop what they were doing, multitaskingand monitoring their various electronic gadgets," she says. "We also saw how difficult it was forparents to penetrate the childs universe. We have so many videotapes of parents actually backingaway, retreating from kids who are absorbed by whatever theyre doing."HUMAN BEINGS HAVE ALWAYS HAD A CAPACITY to attend to several things at once.Mothers have done it since the hunter-gatherer era--picking berries while suckling an infant, stirringthe pot with one eye on the toddler. Nor is electronic multitasking entirely new: weve been drivingwhile listening to car radios since they became popular in the 1930s. But there is no doubt that thephenomenon has reached a kind of warp speed in the era of Web-enabled computers, when it hasbecome routine to conduct six IM conversations, watch American Idol on TV and Google the namesof last seasons finalists all at once.That level of multiprocessing and interpersonal connectivity is now so commonplace that its easyto forget how quickly it came about. Fifteen years ago, most home computers werent even linked tothe Internet. In 1990 the majority of adolescents responding to a survey done by Donald Roberts, aprofessor of communication at Stanford, said the one medium they couldnt live without was aradio/CD player. How quaint. In a 2004 follow-up, the computer won hands down.Today 82% of kids are online by the seventh grade, according to the Pew Internet and AmericanLife Project. And what they love about the computer, of course, is that it offers the radio/CD thingand so much more--games, movies, e-mail, IM, Google, MySpace. The big finding of a 2005 surveyof Americans ages 8 to 18 by the Kaiser Family Foundation, co-authored by Roberts, is not that kidswere spending a larger chunk of time using electronic media--that was holding steady at 6.5 hours aday (could it possibly get any bigger?)--but that they were packing more media exposure into thattime: 8.5 hours worth, thanks to "media multitasking"--listening to iTunes, watching a DVD andIMing friends all at the same time. Increasingly, the media-hungry members of Generation M, asKaiser dubbed them, dont just sit down to watch a TV show with their friends or family. From aquarter to a third of them, according to the survey, say they simultaneously absorb some othermedium "most of the time" while watching TV, listening to music, using the computer or evenwhile reading.Parents have watched this phenomenon unfold with a mixture of awe and concern. The Coxes, forinstance, are bowled over by their childrens technical prowess. Piers repairs the family computersand DVD player. Bronte uses digital technology to compose elaborate photo collages and create adocumentary of her fathers ongoing treatment for cancer. And, says Georgina, "they both makethese fancy PowerPoint presentations about what they want for Christmas." But both parents worryabout the ways that kids compulsive screen time is affecting their schoolwork and squeezing outfamily life. "We rarely have dinner together anymore," frets Stephen. "Everyone is in their ownlittle world, and we dont get out together to have a social life."Every generation of adults sees new technology--and the social changes it stirs--as a threat to therightful order of things: Plato warned (correctly) that reading would be the downfall of oral tradition 32
  • 33. and memory. And every generation of teenagers embraces the freedoms and possibilities wroughtby technology in ways that shock the elders: just think about what the automobile did for dating.As for multitasking devices, social scientists and educators are just beginning to assess their impact,but the researchers already have some strong opinions. The mental habit of dividing ones attentioninto many small slices has significant implications for the way young people learn, reason,socialize, do creative work and understand the world. Although such habits may prepare kids fortodays frenzied workplace, many cognitive scientists are positively alarmed by the trend. "Kids thatare instant messaging while doing homework, playing games online and watching TV, I predict,arent going to do well in the long run," says Jordan Grafman, chief of the cognitive neurosciencesection at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). Decades ofresearch (not to mention common sense) indicate that the quality of ones output and depth ofthought deteriorate as one attends to ever more tasks. Some are concerned about the disappearanceof mental downtime to relax and reflect. Roberts notes Stanford students "cant go the few minutesbetween their 10 oclock and 11 oclock classes without talking on their cell phones. It seems to methat theres almost a discomfort with not being stimulated--a kind of I cant stand the silence."Gen Ms multitasking habits have social and psychological implications as well. If youre IMingfour friends while watching That 70s Show, its not the same as sitting on the couch with yourbuddies or your sisters and watching the show together. Or sharing a family meal across a table.Thousands of years of evolution created human physical communication--facial expressions, bodylanguage--that puts broadband to shame in its ability to convey meaning and create bonds. Whathappens, wonders UCLAs Ochs, as we replace side-by-side and eye-to-eye human connectionswith quick, disembodied e-exchanges? Those are critical issues not just for social scientists but forparents and teachers trying to understand--and do right by--Generation M.YOUR BRAIN WHEN IT MULTITASKSALTHOUGH MANY ASPECTS OF THE networked life remain scientifically uncharted, theressubstantial literature on how the brain handles multitasking. And basically, it doesnt. It may seemthat a teenage girl is writing an instant message, burning a CD and telling her mother that shesdoing homework--all at the same time--but whats really going on is a rapid toggling among tasksrather than simultaneous processing. "Youre doing more than one thing, but youre ordering themand deciding which one to do at any one time," explains neuroscientist Grafman.Then why can we so easily walk down the street while engrossed in a deep conversation? Why canwe chop onions while watching Jeopardy? "We, along with quite a few others, have been focusedon exactly this question," says Hal Pashler, psychology professor at the University of California atSan Diego. It turns out that very automatic actions or what researchers call "highly practiced skills,"like walking or chopping an onion, can be easily done while thinking about other things, althoughthe decision to add an extra onion to a recipe or change the direction in which youre walking isanother matter. "It seems that action planning--figuring out what I want to say in response to apersons question or which way I want to steer the car--is usually, perhaps invariably, performedsequentially" or one task at a time, says Pashler. On the other hand, producing the actions youvedecided on--moving your hand on the steering wheel, speaking the words youve formulated--can beperformed "in parallel with planning some other action." Similarly, many aspects of perception--looking, listening, touching--can be performed in parallel with action planning and with movement.The switching of attention from one task to another, the toggling action, occurs in a region rightbehind the forehead called Brodmanns Area 10 in the brains anterior prefrontal cortex, accordingto a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study by Grafmans team. Brodmanns Area 10is part of the frontal lobes, which "are important for maintaining long-term goals and achieving 33
  • 34. them," Grafman explains. "The most anterior part allows you to leave something when itsincomplete and return to the same place and continue from there." This gives us a "form ofmultitasking," he says, though its actually sequential processing. Because the prefrontal cortex isone of the last regions of the brain to mature and one of the first to decline with aging, youngchildren do not multitask well, and neither do most adults over 60. New fMRI studies at TorontosRotman Research Institute suggest that as we get older, we have more trouble "turning downbackground thoughts when turning to a new task," says Rotman senior scientist and assistantdirector Cheryl Grady. "Younger adults are better at tuning out stuff when they want to," saysGrady. "Im in my 50s, and I know that I cant work and listen to music with lyrics; it was easierwhen I was younger."But the ability to multiprocess has its limits, even among young adults. When people try to performtwo or more related tasks either at the same time or alternating rapidly between them, errors go wayup, and it takes far longer--often double the time or more--to get the jobs done than if they weredone sequentially, says David E. Meyer, director of the Brain, Cognition and Action Laboratory atthe University of Michigan: "The toll in terms of slowdown is extremely large--amazingly so."Meyer frequently tests Gen M students in his lab, and he sees no exception for them, despite their"mystique" as master multitaskers. "The bottom line is that you cant simultaneously be thinkingabout your tax return and reading an essay, just as you cant talk to yourself about two things atonce," he says. "If a teenager is trying to have a conversation on an e-mail chat line while doingalgebra, shell suffer a decrease in efficiency, compared to if she just thought about algebra until shewas done. People may think otherwise, but its a myth. With such complicated tasks [you] willnever, ever be able to overcome the inherent limitations in the brain for processing informationduring multitasking. It just cant be, any more than the best of all humans will ever be able to run aone-minute mile."Other research shows the relationship between stimulation and performance forms a bell curve: alittle stimulation--whether its coffee or a blaring soundtrack--can boost performance, but too muchis stressful and causes a fall-off. In addition, the brain needs rest and recovery time to consolidatethoughts and memories. Teenagers who fill every quiet moment with a phone call or some kind of e-stimulation may not be getting that needed reprieve. Habitual multitasking may condition theirbrain to an overexcited state, making it difficult to focus even when they want to. "People lose theskill and the will to maintain concentration, and they get mental antsyness," says Meyer.IS THIS ANY WAY TO LEARN?LONGTIME PROFESSORS AT UNIVERSITIES around the U.S. have noticed that Gen M kidsarrive on campus with a different set of cognitive skills and habits than past generations. In lecturehalls with wireless Internet access--now more than 40% of college classrooms, according to theCampus Computing Project--the compulsion to multitask can get out of hand. "People are going tolectures by some of the greatest minds, and they are doing their mail," says Sherry Turkle, professorof the social studies of science and technology at M.I.T. In her class, says Turkle, "I tell them this isnot a place for e-mail, its not a place to do online searches and not a place to set up IRC [Internetrelay chat] channels in which to comment on the class. Its not going to help if there are paralleldiscussions about how boring it is. Youve got to get people to participate in the world as it is."Such concerns have, in fact, led a number of schools, including the M.B.A. programs at UCLA andthe University of Virginia, to look into blocking Internet access during lectures. "I tell my studentsnot to treat me like TV," says University of Wisconsin professor Aaron Brower, who has beenteaching social work for 20 years. "They have to think of me like a real person talking. I want tohave them thinking about things were talking about." 34
  • 35. On the positive side, Gen M students tend to be extraordinarily good at finding and manipulatinginformation. And presumably because modern childhood tilts toward visual rather than print media,they are especially skilled at analyzing visual data and images, observes Claudia Koonz, professorof history at Duke University. A growing number of college professors are using film, audio clipsand PowerPoint presentations to play to their students strengths and capture their evanescentattention. Its a powerful way to teach history, says Koonz. "I love bringing media into theclassroom, to be able to go to the website for Edward R. Murrow and hear his voice as he walkedwith the liberators of Buchenwald." Another adjustment to teaching Generation M: professors areassigning fewer full-length books and more excerpts and articles. (Koonz, however, was stunnedwhen a student matter-of-factly informed her, "We dont read whole books anymore," after Koonzhad assigned a 350-page volume. "And this is Duke!" she says.)Many students make brilliant use of media in their work, embedding audio files and video clips intheir presentations, but the habit of grazing among many data streams leaves telltale signs in theirwriting, according to some educators. "The breadth of their knowledge and their ability to findanswers has just burgeoned," says Roberts of his students at Stanford, "but my impression is thattheir ability to write clear, focused and extended narratives has eroded somewhat." Says Koonz:"What I find is paragraphs that make sense internally, but dont necessarily follow a line ofargument."Koonz and Turkle believe that todays students are less tolerant of ambiguity than the students theytaught in the past. "They demand clarity," says Koonz. They want identifiable good guys and badguys, which she finds problematic in teaching complex topics like Hutu-Tutsi history in Rwanda.She also thinks there are political implications: "Their belief in the simple answer, put together in avisual way, is, I think, dangerous." Koonz thinks this aversion to complexity is directly related tomultitasking: "Its as if they have too many windows open on their hard drive. In order to have ataste for sifting through different layers of truth, you have to stay with a topic and pursue it deeply,rather than go across the surface with your toolbar." She tries to encourage her students to find aquiet spot on campus to just think, cell phone off, laptop packed away.GOT 2 GO. TXT ME L8ERBUT TURNING DOWN THE NOISE ISNT EASY. By the time many kids get to college, theirdevices have become extensions of themselves, indispensable social accessories. "The minute thebell rings at most big public high schools, the first thing most kids do is reach into their bag andpick up their cell phone," observes Denise Clark Pope, lecturer at the Stanford School of Education,"never mind that the person [theyre contacting] could be right down the hall."Parents are mystified by this obsession with e-communication--particularly among youngeradolescents who often cant wait to share the most mundane details of life. Dominique Jones, 12, ofLos Angeles, likes to IM her friends before school to find out what they plan to wear. "Youll getIMs back that say things like Oh, my God, Im wearing the same shoes! After school we talk aboutwhat happened that day, what outfits we want to wear the next day."Turkle, author of the recently reissued The Second Self: Computers and the Human Spirit, has anexplanation for this breathless exchange of inanities. "Theres an extraordinary fit between themedium and the moment, a heady, giddy fit in terms of social needs." The online environment, shepoints out, "is less risky if you are lonely and afraid of intimacy, which is almost a definition ofadolescence. Things get too hot, you log off, while in real time and space, you have consequences."Teen venues like MySpace, Xanga and Facebook--and the ways kids can personalize their IMpersonas--meet another teen need: the desire to experiment with identity. By changing their picture,their "away" message, their icon or list of favorite bands, kids can cycle through different 35
  • 36. personalities. "Online life is like an identity workshop," says Turkle, "and thats the job ofadolescents--to experiment with identity."All that is probably healthy, provided that parents set limits on where their kids can venture online,teach them to exercise caution and regulate how much time they can spend with electronics ingeneral. The problem is that most parents dont. According to the Kaiser survey, only 23% ofseventh- to 12th-graders say their family has rules about computer activity; just 17% say they haverestrictions on video-game time.In the absence of rules, its all too easy for kids to wander into unwholesome neighborhoods on theNet and get caught up in the compulsive behavior that psychiatrist Edward Hallowell dubs "screen-sucking" in his new book, CrazyBusy. Patricia Wallace, a techno-psychologist who directs the JohnsHopkins Center for Talented Youth program, believes part of the allure of e-mail--for adults as wellas teens--is similar to that of a slot machine. "You have intermittent, variable reinforcement," sheexplains. "You are not sure you are going to get a reward every time or how often you will, so youkeep pulling that handle. Why else do people get up in the middle of the night to check their e-mail?"GETTING THEM TO LOG OFFMANY EDUCATORS AND PSYCHOLOGISTS SAY parents need to actively ensure that theirteenagers break free of compulsive engagement with screens and spend time in the physicalcompany of human beings--a growing challenge not just because technology offers such a handyalternative but because so many kids lead highly scheduled lives that leave little time for old-fashioned socializing and family meals. Indeed, many teenagers and college students sayovercommitted schedules drive much of their multitasking.Just as important is for parents and educators to teach kids, preferably by example, that its valuable,even essential, to occasionally slow down, unplug and take time to think about something for awhile. David Levy, a professor at the University of Washington Information School, has found, tohis surprise, that his most technophilic undergraduates--those majoring in "informatics"--aregenuinely concerned about getting lost in the multitasking blur. In an informal poll of 60 studentslast semester, he says, the majority expressed concerns about how plugged-in they were and "theway it takes them away from other activities, including exercise, meals and sleep." Levys studentstalked about difficulties concentrating and their efforts to break away, get into the outdoors andinside their head. "Although it wasnt a scientific survey," he says, "it was the first evidence I hadthat people in this age group are reflecting on these questions."For all the handwringing about Generation M, technology is not really the problem. "The problem,"says Hallowell, "is what you are not doing if the electronic moment grows too large"--too large forthe teenager and too large for those parents who are equally tethered to their gadgets. In that case,says Hallowell, "you are not having family dinner, you are not having conversations, you are notdebating whether to go out with a boy who wants to have sex on the first date, you are not going ona family ski trip or taking time just to veg. Its not so much that the video game is going to rot yourbrain, its what you are not doing thats going to rot your life."Generation M has a lot to teach parents and teachers about what new technology can do. But its upto grownups to show them what it cant do, and that theres life beyond the screen. 36
  • 37. Do you obsessively check your smartphone?By Elizabeth Cohen, Senior Medical CorrespondentJuly 28, 2011 -- Updated 1111 GMT (1911 HKT)Retrieved from on March 12, 2012If you put your phone away for an hour, but get itchy during that time, you might be a habitualchecker.STORY HIGHLIGHTS 1 On average, study subjects checked phones 34 times a day out of habit or compulsion 2 Once the brain gets used to positive feedback, reaching for the phone is automatic 3 Urge to check lives in striatum, the brain area that governs habitual actions 4 Habitually checking can also become a way to avoid interacting with people(CNN) -- There I was at a long-awaited dinner with friends Saturday night, when in themidst of our chatting, I watched my right hand sneaking away from my side to grab myphone sitting on the table to check my e-mail."What am I doing?" I thought to myself. "Im here with my friends, and I dont need to bechecking e-mail on a Saturday night."The part that freaked me out was that I hadnt told my hand to reach out for the phone. Itseemed to be doing it all on its own. I wondered what was wrong with me until I read arecent study in the journal Personal and Ubiquitous Computing that showed Im hardlyalone. In fact, my problem seems to be ubiquitous.The authors found smartphone users have developed what they call "checking habits" --repetitive checks of e-mail and other applications such as Facebook. The checks typicallylasted less than 30 seconds and were often done within 10 minutes of each other.On average, the study subjects checked their phones 34 times a day, not necessarilybecause they really needed to check them that many times, but because it had become ahabit or compulsion."Its extremely common, and very hard to avoid," says Loren Frank, a neuroscientist at theUniversity of California, San Francisco. "We dont even consciously realize were doing it --its an unconscious behavior."Why we constantly check our phonesEarlier this year, Frank started to realize that he, too, was habitually checking hissmartphone over and over without even thinking about it. When he sat down to figure outwhy, he realized it was an unconscious, two-step process.First, his brain liked the feeling when he received an e-mail. It was something new, and itoften was something nice: a note from a colleague complimenting his work or a requestfrom a journalist for help with a story."Each time you get an e-mail, its a small jolt, a positive feedback that youre an importantperson," he says. "Its a little bit of an addiction in that way." 37
  • 38. Once the brain becomes accustomed to this positive feedback, reaching out for the phonebecomes an automatic action you dont even think about consciously, Frank says. Instead,the urge to check lives in the striatum, a part of the brain that governs habitual actions.The cost of constant checkingFor Frank, constant checking stressed him out and really annoyed his wife.Dr. Adam Gazzaley, a neurologist at UCSF, sees another cost: Whenever you take a breakfrom what youre doing to unnecessarily check your e-mail, studies show, its hard to goback to your original task. "You really pay a price," he says.Habitually checking can also become a way for you to avoid interacting with people oravoid doing the things you really need to be doing."People dont like thinking hard," says Clifford Nass, a professor of communication andcomputer science at Stanford University. Constantly consulting your smartphone, he says,"is an attempt to not have to think hard, but feel like youre doing something."How to know if youre a habitual checker1. You check your e-mail more than you need to.Sometimes youre in the middle of anintense project at work and you really do need to check your e-mail constantly. But behonest with yourself -- if thats not the case, your constant checking might be a habit, not aconscious choice.2. Youre annoying other people.If, like Frank, youre ticking off the people closest to you, its time to take a look at yoursmartphone habits."If you hear put the phone away more than once a day, you probably have a problem,"says Lisa Merlo, a psychologist at the University of Florida.3. The thought of not checking makes you break out in a cold sweat.Try this experiment: Put your phone away for an hour. If you get itchy during that time, youmight be a habitual checker.How to get rid of your checking habit1. Acknowledge you have a problem.It may sound AA-ish, but acknowledging that youre unnecessarily checking your phone --and that there are repercussions to doing so -- is the first step toward breaking the habit."We can be conscious of the habit of checking. We can unlearn its habits," says SherryTurkle, a psychologist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and director of theMIT Initiative on Technology and Self.2. Have smartphone-free times.See if you can stay away from your phone for a few hours. If that makes you too nervous,start off with just 10 minutes, Merlo suggests. You actually dont have to stay away fromyour phone altogether -- you can just turn the e-mail function off (or Facebook or whateveryoure habitually checking).3. Have smartphone-free places.You can also establish phone-free zones, which is what Frank did to cure his smartphonehabit."The first thing I did was banish it from the bedroom," he says. "I would have to walk downthe hallway to my study to actually be able to see it."You could also force yourself to stop checking when youre in a social situation, like out todinner with friends. (Last Saturday night, I shoved my phone way down into my pursewhere I couldnt see it).Joanna Lipari, a psychologist who practices in California, uses this strategy when herteenage daughter has friends over."I have a rule. Like the Old Wild West which had you check your gun at the saloonentrance, I have a basket by the door, and the kids have to check their phones in thebasket," she says. Otherwise, she says, the kids would stare at their phones and notinteract with one another. 38
  • 39. The Fractured FamilyRetrieved from on Marrch 1, 2012Copyright ©Illustration: David BrinleyWhen an interdisciplinary team of UCLA faculty and graduate students began astudy of 32 Los Angeles households nearly five years ago, they scrutinized theirsubjects as if the family members were a newly discovered pack of exotic animals.The work was done for the universitys Center on the Everyday Lives of Families(CELF), one of six similar projects sponsored by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. Itmeant excruciatingly detailed observation of the subjects, all middle-class, dual-income families. Moms, dads and their school-age kids were videotaped forseveral months from the moment they woke until they left for work or school,then again later in the day, until the kids bedtime. Everything was fair game forinterpretation —meals, errands, interactions with the world and each other. Eventhe families’ homes were studied, mapped and measured, with families shootingtheir own video tours; up to 1,000 photos were taken of rooms, furniture and"artifacts."The approach is not as farfetched as it may seem at first blush. After all, saysElinor Ochs, CELF director and UCLA professor of anthropology, "We can tell a lotabout beavers by looking at the dams they build."The question to be answered here was basic: How was this particular pack of two-legged animals doing? With both parents working "and working a lot," says Ochs,"how do families manage?"The answer seems to be "not so well." CELF data collection completed in 2005 hasfueled a series of articles, and the centers staff hopes to have a book manuscriptcompleted by next spring. Findings suggest that family life endures in the 21st 39
  • 40. century, but its different than it used to be, and neither our social institutions norour expectations and fantasies have adapted. The result is struggle and stress.No one who seriously studies the family would suggest we look to the historicalblip that was the 1950s for an archetype, but still, family life has "been through arevolution," says Evergreen State Colleges Stephanie Coontz, who serves asdirector of research and public education for the Council on ContemporaryFamilies. “The first phase came 200 years ago with the idea that men and womenshould choose their own mates on the basis of love. The second came in the1970s and 1980s when women went to work.""The median age for first marriage has risen to an all-time high of 25 for womenand 27 for men," says Megan Sweeney, an associate professor in UCLAs sociologydepartment who studies family-related issues. "The divorce rate has stabilized,but its still very high; as many as a third of all young people will live in astepfamily at some point in their lives."Add to these numbers the growing percentage of same-sex couples raisingchildren and its not surprising that in the 2000 census, the traditional nuclearfamily represented only 24 percent of American households. These changes aren’tbreaking news, of course. Whats startling is how little we’ve dealt with or adaptedto them.Take chores, for example. Even though two-thirds of mothers with kids under 18are working, husbands and wives still fight about housework. CELF fellow andpostdoc scholar Carolina Izquierdo 94, M.A. 95, Ph.D. 01, who has previouslystudied families of the Peruvian Amazon, noted that "in that region, there’s acultural expectation of what each person does, so things get done." By contrast, inthe CELF households, "there was a lack of clear division of labor andunderstanding of what tasks couples should do and how to do them."Also unresolved: how to manage the dual-career family time crunch. In fact, inthat arena, weve gone backwards, taking on more to do in less time, withresearch showing that dual-income parents now work more than 90 hours a weekcombined.San Jose State University anthropologist Chuck Darrah has pointed out thatparents are expected to be far more involved in their childrens lives than in thepast. Its not just the endless round of distant soccer games, the weekly ballet andflute lessons, and the helping with hours of homework each night, but alsoconsidering, selecting and managing school choices, an option that either didntexist a generation or two ago, or that middle-class parents didn’t consider.Rising expectations for parenting put additional pressure on inner-city familieswho face not only a time crunch but a "spatial bind," says Alesia Montgomery,assistant professor of sociology at Michigan State University. "If youre a low-income parent, trapped in your neighborhood, you must engage in frequentsurveillance and monitoring of your child. If youre a middle-class family living ina low-income area — and the black middle class tends to live in areas with twicethe level of poverty than the white middle class — you can get out, but you may 40
  • 41. have to drive your children to a distant school or park in order to feel they’resafe."With all that, togetherness is almost impossible to come by. The CELF team usedvideo cameras to see how often families actually shared space while at home. Thediscouraging result, says CELF fellow and UCLA anthropology graduate studentAnthony Graesch 97, M.A. 00, was that "family members were all together in thesame room only 14 percent of the time." Parents spent even less time with eachother. Jeanne Arnold, UCLA professor of anthropology and member of the CELFteam, found that a similar pattern held outside. The CELF families "maintainedvery nice private yards," she says, and during their self-narrated video toursshowed off built-in pools, play sets, batting cages, patios, decks and flower beds."Were out here all the time playing," men and women would say. "We eat out here,too."Finally, the irony of pervasive technology is that it makes it easier for familymembers to keep in touch when theyre away from each other, but pushes themapart at home. Says Aimée Dorr, dean of UCLAs Graduate School of Education &Information Studies, "The Internet and cell phones give young people muchgreater independence and secrecy. In the past, you couldn’t just jump out yourwindow into the outside world all the time or even talk privately on the phone,which was in the kitchen."The good news is that families still care — and care very much — about beingfamilies. A 2001 study by Rutgers University and the University of Connecticutreported that 90 percent of working adults were concerned that they didnt spendenough time with their families. And CELF researchers found numerous dailymoves toward togetherness within the fragmented lives they observed. In somehouseholds, says Wendy Klein, couples "had thought about housework a greatdeal and had explicit understandings as to who did what, which tasks tocollaborate on, and which to split. They had noticeably less tension, and it wasimpressive how well they ran." In many homes, children routinely shunned theirbedroom desks to do homework near the kitchen, just so they could be close to aparent. In addition, while few families ate together every night, most managed todo so at least once a week. 41
  • 42. IBM Worker Email-Free for 4 Years: How to Live withoutEmailBy IBTIMES STAFF REPORTER: Subscribe to IBTimess RSS feedJanuary 16, 2012 4:58 PM ESTRetrieved by: on March 7, 2012Email is one of the Catch-22s of an Internet-connected age: communication becomeseasy enough to fill an inbox with hundreds of time-consuming messages that begresponses.Luis Suarez, a self-described "social computing evangelist" at IBM, decided to forgo emailfour years ago to ease his life and on Jan. 6 gave his annual update of "A world withoutemail."The 8,000 word update includes graphs of emails received, interspersed with pictures ofGran Canaria off the coast of Morocco where he lives and a documentary video whereSuarez describes the " amazing experience".Mind you, Surarez hasnt chopped off digital communication. Far from it. Instead, hecommunicates through social media sites such as Facebook, Twitter and Google+."I suppose we would have to wait and watch attentively to see what happens eventuallyand see whether email will finally reinvent itself, or not, into accommodating a new set ofneeds where it would need to find its sweet spot and consider itself part of a bundle, a setof options, in a new, much more complex collaborative environment, wheresocial collaboration consoles will rule; where its just one more of the mix, one more of thepotential solutions for very specific use cases and from there onwards we would have towatch and see how it will decide to blend in," he writes.MUSTSuarez has even inspired one IBM colleague to at least reduce their email.Juliana Leong, project manager with IBMs Office of the CIO, isnt getting rid of email, butshe told Wired that shes trying to reduce it., inspired by Suarez. 42
  • 43. "Hes a very prominent person in the social community in IBM, so a lot of people like tofollow his example," she told Wired.The idea behind Suarezs approach is that information made public through social mediawill result in fewer questions and less time communicating, similar to building aprofessional FAQ.One of the most famous advocates of living email-free is Timothy Ferriss, author of the 4-Hour Workweek. His solution isnt to get rid of email, but to outsource his email to virtualassistants who filter and respond to emails.The folks behind social media would agree that email is being replaced by social media."When we were doing research for our messaging product, we actually looked at whatsubject lines people used. And like 80 percent of subject lines are "hey," "hi," or left blank.The subject line is outdated. The truth is, e-mail is outdated," Molly Graham, part ofFacebooks mobile group, told Wired.Other techies have experimented with becoming email free.Atos, a French IT company, became potentially one of the first companies aiming toeliminate email from the workplace by mid-2012."We are producing data on a massive scale that is fast polluting our working environmentsand also encroaching into our personal lives," CEO Thierry Breton said in a statementwhen the policy was first announced in February. "At [Atos] we are taking action now toreverse this trend, just as organizations took measures to reduce environmental pollutionafter the industrial revolution."Breton told the Wall Street Journal in November that he hadnt used email since hebecame the CEO in 2008.Instead, the company seeks for its employees to communicate through social media andinternal instant messaging.In another case, a partner of a Highway 12 Ventures firm in Idaho, Mark Solon - wentemail free in 2008 and said: "If the people who sent the majority of those e-mails knew thatI didnt have an inbox, they would have either picked up the phone and called me or (andthis is the heart of it) probably wouldnt have bothered because it really wasnt thatimportant after all.""I like Mark, but Im skeptical that this is going to work," wrote Seth Levine, a technologyinvestor. "Even with his secretary printing out important documents (board packages andthe like), the limits of old school communication in my mind significantly outweigh theupside from people self-filtering their communications with you."However, industry experts project that the email-free-population will only be a slim minority.The number of worldwide email accounts is projected to increase to 3.8 billion in 2014, upfrom 2.9 billion in 2010, according to a report from the Radicati Group, a communicationsconsulting company based in Palo Alto, Calif. 43
  • 44. How mobile is forcing us to change the way wemeasure the Internet24TH OCTOBER 2011 by JON RUSSELLRetrieved on on March 11, 2012It is a metric that is well used across the world in research, analysis and reporting but it is time thatthe technology world stopped leaning so heavily on Internet penetration. The statistic is one of anumber that are at a risk of becoming out-dated in today’s multi-platform Internet.Internet penetration rate denotes the percentage of a (usually) national population that has access tothe Internet in their home. The figure is calculated by studying customer figures from fixed-lineInternet service providers (ISPs), and – though not 100% accurate – it is a reliable estimate of thereach of fixed, home web access.Once upon a time…Back when Internet access was primarily through dial-up connections, a time when firms like AOLwere titans of the Internet and even MySpace was yet to arrive on the scene, Internet penetrationwas the ultimate indicator of access.This was a time when ‘going online’ was not a regular part of life and certainly not the always-onexperience of today. Back then, the rate clearly showed just how many households that were bothdigitally-minded enough to seek access to the World Wide Web, and suitably affluent to afford it. Itmade for an interesting metric when compared to statistics like GDP, average salary, mobilepenetration (let us save the discussion for the aging of this metric for another time) and more.The Internet todayIn short, Internet penetration rate was a very telling statistic, however the online space of today haschanged massively. Not only has AOL shifted its position, and is now the owner of a globally-influencing media empire, but the frequency of locations where and devices used to access the webhave evolved way beyond the dial-up days. 44
  • 45. Today’s average Internet user could access the web from as many as five different locations in justone single day.Meet Fred. While taking his breakfast he grabs his iPad, logging into his personal email accountover the Wi-Fi in his flat. He sets off to work, taking the subway during which he whips out hisiPhone to check the reaction to last night’s big match.He gets to the office, just in time, and quickly scans his work inbox on his BlackBerry in the lift en-route to his desk on the 24th floor. Fred is online through out the day using the company’s wiredInternet to his desktop, while a lunch meeting sees him log in using his laptop and Starbucks’ Wi-Fi.The rest of his day is fairly uneventful and by 9.00 pm he is at home, catching up with friends overFacebook on his laptop whilst talk to his girlfriend on Skype.Today, like any ordinary day, Fred has accessed the Internet through 6 different IP addresses using 6different devices. Yet using a metric like Internet penetration, precious little of his day’s Internetactivity is measured.Assessing him through Internet penetration, Fred is classed as an Internet user, which he is,however his usage is considerably more advanced than his Grandma, for example, who – quiteadvanced for her age – accesses the web through her fixed-line Internet at home, but nowhere else.Yet the difference in the Internet access of Fred and his grandma is not reflected when looked atthrough Internet penetration rate.In reality, Fred and his grandma are on a different level of Internet access and usage, but fewmainstream statistics can adequately assess and represent this difference.The potential of mobileFixed-line is just one of the many ways we access the Internet today, and if we are to analyse andlook at the way nations use the web – as Internet penetration is used for – then other popular touchpoints and platforms must be included. The issue is more significant when stepping out of thewestern web, where connection to the Internet is pretty much ubiquitous amongst society.In regions like Latin America, Africa and Southeast Asia, Internet access is less widespread for anumber of reasons. Cost is one key factor, as fixed-line Internet requires hardware – such as PCs –which are often luxury items beyond the reach of many. There is a strong culture of pre-pay inmany developing markets, particularly visible when looking at mobile. ISPs require long-termagreements which many are reluctant to engage.Finally, those in remote areas suffer from lack of access to technology, if ISPs don’t have thenecessary infrastructure in place they can only offer a slow service, if anything at all. 45
  • 46. Mobile Internet offers the potential to hurdle many of these obstacles, however its usage is notrecognised in reports or analysis which assesses national access through Internet penetration rates.The futureOperators in developing markets are beginning to offer services at affordable prices through pre-paydeals. The infrastructure demands of mobile are far lower than fixed-line, and in most regions –even in developing markets – mobile enjoys near widespread service, although speeds do vary.All of this represents potential for increasing Internet access. Right now, though their ownership isincreasing, smartphones remain a niche that is not affordable to all. Android is helpingmanufacturers develop lower-priced yet sophisticated devices – which is likely to see the platformdominate in Asia – but a sizeable proportion of those people with mobile Internet access indeveloping areas are likely to also enjoy fixed-access at home.In Africa, for example, broadband is an alien concept to a great many in a region where mobileInternet-enabled smartphones remain unaffordable to the masses.The Akash is a government funded low-cost tablet with the potential to improve connectivity across India.For the time being, Internet penetration rate is a reasonable representation of those that havepersonal web access – be it mobile or PC-based. However, with large scale initiatives to providelow-price tablet computers in a number of developing markets – such as India and Thailand – underway, and smartphone ownership tipped to grow thanks to low-cost devices like Huawei’s $100IDEOS phone in Kenya, mobile is set to become a key platform to access the Internet. Given therigidity of current indicators, such as Internet penetration rate, little of the access and activity frommobile will be adequately reflected.Facebook in IndonesiaA good example of the shortcomings of current research is how Internet acess in Southeast Asia isanalysed. Reports and research frequently compare the use of services – such as total registrationsfor Facebook – against a country’s Internet penetration rate.The rate is used, alongside country population figures, to give an estimate of the number of citizenswith access to the web, a statistic that is referred to as the Internet user number, or ‘onlinepopulation’. With online population established, the number of users of a site – for exampleFacebook – can be compared to give an estimate of how popular it is in the country.There is one important factor missing from this equation…mobile. Southeast Asians, in particular,as passionate mobile social network users. For a great many Facebook users in Indonesia, for 46
  • 47. example, just being on Facebook does not guarantee that they also have Internet access at home asthe research assumes. Internet cafes are popular hang-outs in the country and it is likely – thoughthis figure cannot be proven – that a great many users access the web from cafes, other publicInternet access points and their mobile phone.These factors help explain why, in Malaysia, the shortcomings of the comScore measurementsystem leaves questions unanswered. Such as, how increased mobile Internet access affects howfixed-line Internet users spend time online.Analyze smarterThe real issue is that too many reports and analysis makes use of the wrong metrics. Analysing anation’s usage of Facebook by comparing it to Internet penetration is an indicator, but it is noreliable, factual piece of data. It does not mean that 68% of Indians with Internet access are onFacebook, because in today’s world access is wider than ever before.In reality, there is no silver bullet to measure Internet access. Instead there are a number of differingfactors and measurements which together can help provide an indication of how and where peopleare going online.As developing regions increase their presence online, with the benefits of the web spreading tomore people in the world, the need for strong analysis and reliable use of data will only increase.With mobile poised to play a key role in providing access, it is time for new thinking and newmeasurements to track the huge opportunity that Internet access can bring to the world. 47
  • 48. Why your computer is becoming more like your phone By Pete Cashmore, Special to CNN February 21, 2012 -- Updated 1256 GMT (2056 HKT) | Filed under: Mobile Retrieved from computer-like-phone/index.html?eref=rss_mostpopular on March 7, 2012A Macbook Air laptop, an iPad 2 and an iPhone sit on display in a store window.STORY HIGHLIGHTS 1 Desktop operating systems will merge with mobile OS in the coming years 2 Music, photos, calendars and emails now sync across your phone, tablet and Mac 3 But simple systems are often less "open" and provide less freedom to try new thingsEditors note: Pete Cashmore is founder and CEO of Mashable, a popular blog abouttech news and digital culture. He writes regular columns about social media and tech -- Apple released Mountain Lion to developers last week, a new operating systemthat will make your desktop computer work more like your phone than ever before.The trend is clear: The desktop operating system will merge with the mobile OS in thecoming years. The question is: Why?Lets start with the trend itself. First off, Apple is integrating cloud services much moredeeply in Mountain Lion than any previous operating system. That means your music,photos, calendars, contacts, emails and more can now stay in sync across your phone,tablet and Mac.Apple has also unified your messages across your devices: The Message app (formerlyiMessages) will replace iChat on the Mac. 48
  • 49. Pete Cashmore is the founder and CEO of not all: Mountain Lion also gets a notification center that works just like thenotifications you receive on your phone. Games Center is coming to the Mac as well,allowing you to play games against your friends who own iPhones and iPads.Apps like Reminders, Notes and Contacts are also all getting desktop versions -- and ofcourse these sync with your mobile devices so your data is always up to date.Most notable of all: Apple is now pushing software updates through the Mac App Store,hinting that the App Store may become the only way to get software on your Mac in thefuture.So what are the advantages of your desktop computer merging with your phonesfunctionality? And are there any downsides?SimplicityThe main reason Apple wants to make Macs work like the iPhone and iPad is simple. Orrather, simplicity.Despite decades of innovation and the invention of the graphical user interface, computersremain too confusing and complex for the majority of people.While more powerful software with complex functionality will continue to exist for highlytechnical users, most consumers want a device thats easy to use and intuitive.The rise of the iPad and iPhone prove that theres huge demand for such simplicity, andthat desktops too will need to become more streamlined.The downside of simplicity? Simple systems are often less "open" and provide lessfreedom to try new things: Tasks are either easy to complete (because the developersthought of that use case) or not possible at all.SecurityMobile operating systems could potentially be more secure than their desktopcounterparts. In particular, if Apple makes the App Store the only way to download apps toyour Mac, it would become more difficult for users to install malware (since Apple manuallyapproves every app in the store).Whats more, mobile features like tracking the location of your devices or wiping themremotely will make consumer desktops more secure.There are downsides to app stores, however.Not only would devices become less open -- the makers of operating systems becomegatekeepers -- but you could argue that Apple and its rivals simply want to force the use ofapp stores so that they make more money for themselves.SyncingPerhaps the most obvious benefit of making desktops work more like phones is unitybetween all your devices.With a similar (or single) operating system on all your gadgets, syncing apps, contacts andcalendars between them all becomes effortless. 49
  • 50. Theres a downside for users, however: Competing operating systems tend not to workwell together, and using one operating system across all devices means uses are "lockedin" more than ever before.So there you have it: Your desktop computer is becoming more and more like your phone-- and in fact the line between the two will one day disappear.If you think its just Apples devices that are headed toward a simpler operating system,however, youd be mistaken -- Apple is merely in the news because Mountain Lion becameavailable to developers last week.In fact, Microsofts Windows 8 takes its cues from Windows Phone, meaning that the twomajor desktop operating systems will mimic your mobile devices very soon. 50
  • 51. AUGUST 15, 2011GOOGLE, MOTOROLA, AND A PATENT WARPosted by Nicholas ThompsonRetrieved from on Marrch1, 2012A few years ago, Motorola was dying. Hoping to shake up the phone industry, Google created amobile operating system called Android and gave it away free. Motorola loved it, used it, madesome cool phones, and turned the company around. Now, today, we learn that Google is buyingMotorola Mobility for twelve and a half billion dollars.Google doesn’t want to do what Motorola Mobility does (sell phones); it wants the companybecause it’s got a big heap of patents—seventeen thousand, apparently, with seven thousand moreunder review. And this is why today’s news is profoundly depressing.Over the past several months, phone manufacturers have sued, sued, and sued some more. Androidis facing more than forty lawsuits. Last week, Apple—with a legal department as innovative as itsdesign department—got all of Samsung’s Galaxy Tabs pulled from stores in Europe. Motorola, lastweek, threatened to sue everyone else using Android. The mobile-computing industry resembles theBalkans in the nineties. Everyone has deep grievances against everyone else, the shifting alliancesare inscrutable, and the end results are likely to be bad. Meanwhile, patent trolls play the role offreelance snipers, firing totally unpredictable lawsuits at everyone.Much of the blame lies with our patent system. Companies should protect genuine innovation, ofcourse. But for years, the default of the United States Patent and Trademark Office has been to grantsoftware patents even when they are impossibly broad or utterly confusing. Listen to the “ThisAmerican Life” segment from July 22nd, in which an engineer admits to a culture so promiscuousthat he would submit patent applications that he didn’t understand himself.So, now, here we are. It’s not clear if Google will use these patents to attack other companies, orwhether it will only use them defensively. Surely, the next time that Apple sues Android, Googlewill dig through the Motorola archives and find some reason to countersue. It’s a grim reality, andone that Google hinted at a few weeks ago at the end of a blog post about the anti-Android suits.Meanwhile, customers and shareholders will pay for the lawyers. And engineers will spend toomuch time worrying about violating someone else’s patents, and not enough time figuring out howto build the next magical thing.Patents, as is often said, create a tax on innovation. And it’s a tax that Google has just paid heavily. 51
  • 52. Twine: Retrieved from on Marrch 1, 2012Twine: The Revolutionary Box That Can Make YourAppliances TweetThe day when your washer emails to say your clothes are clean and your basementtweets when it’s flooding is closer than we thought, and it doesn’t look at all as expected.Instead of multiple connected appliances, such a system relies on a tiny WiFi-connectedbox called Twine.Twine’s functionality is “programmed” through a website that allows users to composeaction rules in plain English. One might, for example, compose the rule, “WHEN moisturesensor gets wet THEN tweet, ‘The basement is flooding!’” Programming the device isabout as difficult as playing Mad Libs.Options are endless. The battery-powered box contains sensors for temperature andvibration, a magnetic switch and a moisture sensor. Pretty much anything else can also beadded to the contraption. One backer plans to outfit Twine with weight sensors and use itto notify him when the ice machines he operates need refills. Another will use a magneticdoor sensor to receive a message when UPS stops by. Others say they will keep track oftheir pets, heating systems and garage doors using the device.Twine’s creators, MIT Media Lab grads David Carr and John Kestner, consider the deviceto be the “first time that a connected object has managed to cross in to the world ofconsumer relevance.”If enthusiasm for their Kickstarter project is any indication, they’re right. The project hasraised more than $300,000. Units are scheduled to start shipping in March with a price tagof $99.Q&A With David Carr, Co-Creator of TwineWhere did the idea for Twine come from?We started with designing for a need that we ourselves have, to be able to easily try outnew interactions in the physical world. When we realized that the same repetitive parts thathave nothing to do with the core interaction take up 80% of the effort, an opportunity to 52
  • 53. optimize presented itself. And we also realized that we were not the only ones who wantedto bring a little bit of the future into our lives.What are some things that you’ve done using Twine?I think the most interesting applications are the ones that our users have come up with sofar. We’ve gotten dozens of emails from excited users, and our Kickstarter backers haveeven gone so far as to create a Google doc of their applications.One example that I liked was from a gentleman who operates ice machines around thecity. He plans to put weight sensors under the machines and then have Twine text himwhere there are only ten bags of ice left in the machine. That way he doesn’t have to drivearound all of the time to keep track of which machines need to be refilled.What is the problem that you overcame that has stopped others from making thisbefore you?From day one, Twine was designed with the user experience in mind. We wanted to createa product that appealed not just to technology enthusiasts, but to enthusiasts in general.Lots of people are excited about golf, improving their homes, streamlining their business,or just taking better care of their fish. In order to make Twine exciting and accessible forthese users, we started over at the beginning. We built a constantly connected cloudbased architecture, a novel sensing and processing paradigm, and put a lot of hard workinto the hardware to make it live up to our expectations.How long did it take to reach your $35,000 goal on Kickstarter?Kickstarter has been really amazing to us. I think we hit our original goal on the third day.Are you surprised how much beyond that you’ve raised [more than $300,000]? Whatdo you attribute this to?We are floored by how successful Twine has been on Kickstarter. I think that with Twinewe hit upon a previously unaddressed need for broadly accessible bits of technology thatend users can use to solve problems that they themselves care about. The last twodecades have shown that connecting virtually anything to a network (of people or things)greatly magnifies its relevance. We see Twine as the first time that essentially anyone cando that for themselves.How will this change the world?We see Twine as the first time that a connected object has managed to cross into theworld of consumer relevance. For many years people have been predicting the arrival of“the Internet of things,” but thus far not much has happened in spaces that most peoplecare about. I think our early success with Twine shows that we’ve hit upon a way to crossthat chasm, and I’m sure that now many others will try to follow. In the future, perhapsunconnected objects will seem as strange as unconnected cellphones do today. 53
  • 54. BUSINESS 54
  • 55. Let’s Talk Social Media For BusinessDownload PDF here:Retrieved from on March 1, 2012You May Enjoy reading this more by printing out the official free .pdf file available at: by John Jantsch of Duct Tape Marketing Sponsored byA note from the sponsor...When used properly, social media can be a great tool to help your business reach untapped,potential customers and stay connected to current ones. But there are a few things you’ll need toknow to help you get the most out of social media as well as your online presence in its entirety.Microsoft Office Live Small Business sponsored the creation of this eBook in an effort to helpbreak social media down into easy-to-understand pieces, so you can make sense of and make use ofthis powerful resource in a way that grows your business. Let’s talk.Small businesses:Feed the Social Media “Beast” and you’ll see it pay dividendsNot long ago, social media seemed so new and different that it was treated as an appendage of sorts—a kind of marketing that should be tried only by “experts.”While that view still exists to some degree today, it’s become clear to many that social media is nolonger marketing’s new thing. It’s now simply part of the way we do marketing today.I believe that the proper way to view social media from a small-business owner’s point of view is asmore of an evolution than a revolution. 55
  • 56. Traditional marketing tactics such as advertising, referrals, and public relations are still veryimportant, but social media tactics have now become a part of everyday marketing’s fabric and needto be considered at the strategic level of your marketing decision-making process.So, rather than asking yourself if you should or should not use Facebook or Twitter, the question is:“How can Facebook and Twitter help you achieve your marketing objectives?” It’s the same asasking how direct mail or having two more salespeople might fit into the plans.From this integrated viewpoint, social media participation can start to make more sense for eachindividual marketer’s needs and goals.Is social media simply today’s hot thing?Think you can sit the social networking craze out? Consider the following statistics.According to the online competitive intelligence service, social media growthcontinues to skyrocket. • The top three social networks—Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn—collectively received more than 2.5 billion visits in the month of September 2009 alone. Twitter grew by more than 600% in 2009, while Facebook grew by 210% and LinkedIn by 85%. • As of this writing, Google and Yahoo are the only websites that receive more daily traffic than Facebook. Current trends suggest that may not last much longer. • In fact, if Facebook were a country, it would be the world’s fourth largest. • The most recent count of blogs being indexed by Technorati currently stands at 133 million. The same report also revealed that, on average, 900,000 blog posts are created within a single 24-hour period. • It’s been reported that YouTube is likely to serve more than 75 billion video streams to around 375 million unique visitors during 2009. • The online photo sharing site Flickr now hosts more than 3.6 billion user images. • The online bookmarking service Delicious has more than 5 million users and more than 150 million unique bookmarked URLs. So, you see, perhaps this social media thing is going to catch on after all.How exactly do you define social media?Well, that’s a good question. And the complete answer could fill pages without really delivering theclarity that a small-business marketer might desire.So here’s the simple definition for the purpose of this document. Social media is the use oftechnology to co-create, know, like, and trust.Social media, and by that I’m lumping together blogs, social search, social networking, andbookmarking, presents the marketer with a rich set of new tools to help in the effort to generate newbusiness.What’s changed? 56
  • 57. Well, c’mon, just about everything, right?If you studied marketing in the textbook world, you likely covered the 4 Ps of marketing—yousimply created a product, figured out how to price it, got it placed in the market, and promoted theheck out it.Today’s approach to marketing, the approach infused with social media, leans much more heavilyon the 4 Cs of marketing. Tons of relevant, education-based, and perhaps user generated contentthat is filtered, aggregated, and delivered in a context that makes it useful for people who arestarving to make connections with people, products, and brands they can build a communityaround.Content + Context + Connection + Community = Social Media MarketingAn integrated social media strategyIt’s important to have a new media strategy attached to your new media tactics—or you’ll findyourself running around in circles and left with a sense that all this online networking stuff is a bigfat waste of time.Here are some worthy marketing objectives where new media tactics can excel: • Do you want to spread your content and expertise to new audiences? • Do you want to network with like-minded individuals and companies? • Do you want to build a community of evangelists? • Do you want to involve your customers and prospects in co-creation? • Do you want to automate the process of repurposing content? • Do you want to reach new audiences in the exact way they choose to communicate? • Do you want to be seen as a thought leader in your industry? • Do you want ways to aggregate and filter content so you and your people can digest it? • Do you want to easily hear literally everything that’s being said online about your brand, products, or industry in real time? • Do you want to be seen as a trusted source of information?I think the best way to look at social media is to view it as a way to open up new access points.These points can then be leveraged to create content, context, connection, and community. Do thatwell, and they can also add to lead generation, nurturing, and conversion. And that’s the payoff ofsocial media. But get the order wrong, get the interaction wrong, get the participation wrong—andyou may never see much return on the time you invest.Social media conversations are just that—open, honest, transparent conversations, not sales pitchesor shouting festivals.The online hub and spoke model 57
  • 58. Much of what this document deals with is creating outposts of content and connection on socialmedia sites. But, there is one element that pulls this strategy together and that’s your primary Webhub. You can’t depend on the contacts you make in most social media activity to serve as theprimary trust-building connection that ultimately leads to a sale.Your primary website or blog is the tool that ties all of your social media activity together. Youractivity on social media sites or spokes functions primarily as a way to lead prospects back to themuch more fully developed content that resides on your website.Your hub is the place where you can engage your prospect in a total education-based campaign thathelps them understand that you have the solutions they are seeking. In fact, you can think of a greatdeal of your social media activity as a way to create awareness and an initial level of trustsubstantial enough for someone to want to know more. Social media and social networking may bethe ultimate permission-based marketing tool when viewed in this light.The hierarchy of social marketingOne of the things that small-business marketers struggle with around the entire topic of socialmarketing is trying to jump into the next new thing without enough analysis of what they shouldfocus on. I happen to think this is an important, evolving, and essential area of marketing for smallbusinesses, but there’s a hierarchy to it. In other words, there is a logical progression of utilizationthat comes about much like Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Nature.As Maslow theorized, the ultimate potential of your marketing or human self-actualization couldn’tbe achieved until the most basic human psychological needs such as breathing, eating, sleeping, andsex were first met. In fact, safety, love, and esteem all come before transcendence. Now, before Iedge too close to the deep end here, I’m simply comparing what I think is a bit like progressing upthe social-marketing hierarchy.Most small-business owners should look at the following progression or hierarchy as they movedeeper into social-marketing tactics. So, jump in, but do it in this order and don’t move on until youhave the basics of each stage down and working for you.1) Blogging: The foundation of the pyramid. Read blogs, comment on blogs, and then blog. This isthe doorway to all other social marketing.2 RSS: Aggregate and filter content around subjects and use RSS technology as a tool to help yourepurpose, republish, and create content. 1. 3)  Social Search: This is often ignored in this discussion, but I think it’s become very important for small-business owners. You can participate and should stimulate and manage your reputation here. 2. 4)  Social Bookmarking: Tagging content to and participating in social bookmarking communities can be a great way to open up more channels to your business as well as generate extra search traffic. But it takes work.Delicious is a popular social bookmarking site 1. 5)  Social Networks: Branching out to take advantage of the numbers of potential prospects that you might find in sites such as Facebook or MySpace will frustrate, at least as a business tool, if you don’t have many of the above needs met. These networks take time to 58
  • 59. understand and thrive on ideas and content. You’ve got to have much to share if you wish to build a business case. 2. 6)  Micro: Platforms such as Twitter, Thwirl, Plurk, and FriendFeed have become a very important part of the social media mix as they allow for quick tracking, joining, and engagement. However, they still reside at the top of the pyramid because without content, such as that created on a blog, the engagement on Twitter may not go very deep.Another way to view the pyramidAs the actual social media tools, blogs, RSS, and social networks evolve over time. (Twitter is moreuseful when more people use it.) As this occurs it can also be helpful to view the same pyramid idealess from a tool standpoint and more from an objectives standpoint.Until you create a social media strategic plan based on marketing objectives, and find ways to usesocial media tools to listen and join the conversation going on in your markets, you may find itharder to engage and network and ultimately build relationships and sales through the use of socialmedia tools. 59
  • 60. I believe the process for meeting long-termmarketing objectives through social media isuniversal, but the tools needed to meet them arenot. Twitter may indeed be a primary social mediatool for some, while the Facebook platform or a blog is what allows another to progress throughthese stages. A third organization may find it can strategically move through the hierarchy byintegrating every tool in the toolbox with its offline initiatives.5 tips for getting more from social media marketingI think it’s helpful to finish the overview section of this guide with a few tips on using social mediastrategically. But don’t worry, we’ll get to the tactics as well. 1. 1)  Integrate: Don’t treat your social media activity as something separate from your other marketing initiatives. Feature links to your social media profiles in your email signature, on your business cards, in your ads, and as a standard block of copy in your weekly HTML email newsletter. In addition, make sure that links to your educational content are featured prominently in your social media profiles and that Facebook fan page visitors and blog subscribers are offered the opportunity to subscribe to your newsletter and attend your online and offline events. Make your social media profiles a part of your address copy block and you will soon see adding them to all that you do as an automatic action. 2. 2)  Amplify: Use your social media activity to create awareness for and amplify your content housed in other places. This can go for teasing some aspect of your latest blog post on Twitter or in your Facebook status, creating full-blown events on Eventful or Meetup, or pointing to mentions of your firm in the media. If you publish a biweekly newsletter, in addition to sending it to your subscribers, archive it online and Tweet about it too. You can also add social features to your newsletter to make it very easy for others to retweet (tweetmeme button) and share on social bookmark sites such as Delicious and digg. I would also add that filtering other people’s great content and pointing this out to your followers, fans, and subscribers fits into this category, as it builds your overall reputation for good content sharing and helps to buffer the notion that you are simply broadcasting your announcements. Quality over quantity always wins in social media marketing. 60
  • 61. 3) Repurpose: Taking content that appears in one form and twisting it in ways that make it moreavailable in another, or to another audience, is one of the secrets to success in the hyper info-drivenmarketing world in which we find ourselves. When you hold an event to present information, youcan promote the event in various social media networks and then capture that event and post theaudio to your podcast, slides to SlideShare, and transcript (I use CastingWords for this) as a freereport for download. You can string five blog posts together and make them available as a workshophandout or a bonus for your LinkedIn group. Never look at any content as a single use, singlemedium, single act.4) Generate leads: So many people want to generate leads in the wide world of social media, butcan’t seem to understand how or have met with downright hostile reactions when trying. Effectivelygenerating leads from social media marketing is really no different than effectively generating leadsanywhere—it’s just that the care you must take to doit right is amplified by the “no selling allowed” culture. No one likes to be sold to in anyenvironment—the trick is to let them buy—and this is even more important in social mediamarketing. So what this means is that your activity, much of what I’ve mentioned above, needs tofocus on creating awareness of your valuable, education-based content, housed on your main hubsite. You can gain permission to market to your social media network and contacts when you canbuild a level of trust through content sharing and engagement. It’s really the ultimate two-stepadvertising, only perhaps now it’s three- step—meet and engage in social media, lead to contentelsewhere, content elsewhere presents the opportunity to buy. To generate leads through socialmedia marketing, you need to view your activity on social sites like an effective headline for an ad—the purpose of the headline is not to sell, but to engage and build, know, like, and trust. It’s theultimate permission-based play when done correctly.One glaring exception to this softer approach for some folks is Twitter search. I believe you can useTwitter search to locate people in your area who are asking for solutions and complaining aboutproblems you can solve and reach out to them directly with a bit of a solution pitch. People who are 61
  • 62. talking publicly about needing something are offering a form of permission and can be approachedas more of a warmed lead. The same can also be said for LinkedIn Answers. If someone asks if“anyone knows a good WordPress designer,” I think you can move to convincing them that you areindeed a great WordPress designer.5) Learn: One of the hangups I frequently encounter from people just trying to get startedin social media marketing is the paralysis formed when they stare blankly at Twitter, wonderingwhat in the world to say. The pressure to fill the silence can be so overwhelming that theyeventually succumb and tweet what they had for lunch. If you find yourself in this camp, I’m goingto let you off the hook—you don’t have to say anything to get tremendous benefit from social mediaparticipation. If I did nothing more than listen and occasionally respond when directly engaged, Iwould derive tremendous benefit from that level of participation. In fact, if you are just gettingstarted, this is what you should do before you ever open your 140-character mouth. Set up an RSSreader and subscribe to blogs, visit social bookmarking sites such as BizSugar, and Delicious andread what’s popular. Create custom Twitter searches for your brand, your competitors, and yourindustry, and closely follow people on Twitter who have a reputation for putting out great content.And thenjust listen and learn. If you do only this, you will be much smarter about your business and industrythan most and you may eventually gain the knowledge and confidence to tap the full range of what’spossible in the wild and wacky world of social media marketing.They don’t use social media in my industryMany small-business owners still think they can takea pass on the power of online social media tools, particularly if they reside in seemingly low-techindustries such as plumbing, fishing, or lawyering. I want to share a quick interview I did withJason Brown, 23-year-old cofounder of Brown Lures. That’s right, they sell fishing lures to guysand gals that probably don’t call hanging out at Web 2.0 conferences a good time. (I’m just guessingon that though.)Brown credits his blog with changing the way people find him. He created a podcast that gives himgreat “fishing stories” and loyalty from guides up and down the Gulf Coast, he uses RSS andcontent tagging to automatically produce fresh blog content, and email marketing to blow hiscompetition away at trade shows.Using social media in industries that are still slow to adopt it is the killer competitive advantage. InBrown’s words:“We have been running waiting lists for products for about a year now, and no one has any cluehow we are doing it without spending big advertising money. I love this stuff . . .”Alas, I can still hear the cries from the cynics: “We don’t need no stinkin’ social media, we just needmore sales.” 62
  • 63. The changing face of search engine optimizationSearch engine optimization has changed dramatically in recent years.The shift is from one of Web page optimization and link-hounding to content and engagementoptimization. In short, search engine optimization and social media are now undeniably intertwined.It has become extremely difficult to achieve any measureof success for important keyword phrases without the use of social media. (Of course, the flip sideto that is organizations that take advantage of social media can dominate, particularly withinindustries slow to adapt.)I’m not suggesting that Web page optimization and inbound links are no longer important, they are,they just might not be enough anymore. It is rare these days to do any kind of normal search thatdoes not return results from social media sites. Blog content dominates many question- relatedsearches and videos, audios, and images are routinely mixed in on page one searches on bothGoogle and Yahoo.What this means for the typical small business is that you must add a blog and podcast to the mix,upload, tag, and thoroughly describe images on sites like Flickr. Create customer testimonial videoshoused on YouTube. Write articles and press releases to submit to EzineArticles and PitchEngine.Create and brand optimize profiles on Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, Google Maps,and industry-related social networking sites. And, get very proactive about generating positivereviews on sites such as Yelp, Google Maps, and Insider Pages, or you’re not really online anymore.Any attempt to garner positive search results for your primary website must be accompanied bya strategy to optimize your entire Web presence through the effective use of social media. Wecan have another conversation altogether about the effective use of social media for engagement,but the first step is getting immersed in the content creation and optimization game. 63
  • 64. Blogging: The front door to social mediaDo I really still need a blog? This is a question that still comes up these days, in fact, with all thetalk of Twitter and social media, blogs may have seemed to fall out of favor.What’s really happened is that they have worked themselves into the fabric of everyday marketing.People don’t fire up their browser because they want to read your blog, but they do go to Bing andother search engines to find answers to questions and challenges and to find local suppliers. Blogcontent is what they are finding.A blog primerIn simplest terms, a blog is software that allows anyone who can type to post content to a website orblog home page. The content is generally displayed much like a journal might be written, in reversechronological fashion.This content can be anything the author chooses to write, or post, as it is referred to in bloggingterms.Now, on the surface, what this means is that anyone can update a website that has this bloggingsoftware installed and that’s a great thing. Websites benefit from change and blogs make it easy tochange, update, and add content.But, there’s much more. Blog software also allows: • Readers of the blog pages to make comments and add their own content. • Readers of the blog to subscribe to the content so that they are automatically notified whenever the content is updated. 64
  • 65. • Search engines to receive notice or pings whenever the content is updated. All of the above items happen automatically once the software is configured. Blogging is such a great tool because it allows you to more easily accomplish many of the marketing objectives that today’s small business must address. A blog is your ticket to creating: • Content • Context • Connection • Community And if that isn’t enough, know this—search engines love blogs! If for no other reason, consider creating and frequently posting relevant, keyword-rich content to a blog, hosted on your domain, because it will dramatically improve your changes of ranking well in the search engines.Chris Brogan writes a very popular social media blogThe best way to start bloggingIf this document has convinced you to jump in and start blogging, let me advise you that the bestway to start is not to start. I know that’s a little counterintuitive, so let me explain.Here’s the three-step process for getting started and note that step 3 is to start blogging.1) Monitor a group of relevant blogs: Use a blog search engine and RSS reader such or Google Reader/BlogSearch to locate and subscribe to a dozen or so relevant blogs 65
  • 66. —blogs in your industry, competitors, experts, etc. Learn how people blog, what they write aboutand how they engage their readers.2) Comment on a group of relevant blogs: Visit some of your chosen blogs and add relevantcomments. Engage in the conversation going on inside these blogs. This, by the way, is animportant part of online networking and may help get your blog noticed down the road.3) Create your own blog and start posting content: Only after you’ve engaged in steps 1 and 2for a couple weeks do I advise entering the blogging pool.Blogging softwareAs mentioned previously, blogs are run by software, so one of your first chores is to determine whatsoftware you want to use and get it set up.A quick search for blog software will turn up dozens of options. But for the sake of this publication,we are going to focus on just a few of the leading offers a free, open-source blogging tool that has many things goingfor it. This is the tool I use on my blog and it’s hard to imagine going wrong with this tool. This issoftware that you download, configure, and upload to your Web host. Because it is open sourcethere are also many beneficial add-ons and plug-ins that can add even more power to the software.The downside, if there is one, is that you must be able to get through a bit of technical tinkering tomake it work, but it’s very This is a hosted version of the WordPress software that allows you to easily createa blog that is hosted by WordPress. The benefit of this approach is that there is no real setup, yousimply sign up (it’s free), choose a theme, and start blogging.The downside with hosted blogging platforms is that they are not as flexible and might not deliveras much search engine benefit because the content does not reside on your website TypePad is another great hosted service with many features and a simple startupprocess.Compendium Blogware: Business-targeted blog system that works around targeting keywords andphrases.Windows Live Spaces: Based on simplicity and familiarity, Windows Live Spaces offers users afree, quick, and easy way to get started blogging. 66
  • 67. 5 tips for getting more from your blog 1. 1)  Read, follow, and listen. You probably won’t get much in the way of results from blogging until you know what and how to write. The best way to do that, and by the way something I’ve done and continue to do daily, is read lots of blogs. Follow lots of people who point out interesting reads, listen using RSS and bookmarking sites like Delicious, and read every question your prospects and customers voice. Use an RSS reader such as Google Reader to make it very easy to listen to lots of content and then get a little notebook and carry it with you at all times so you can jot down every question customers and prospects ask. 2. 2)  Write what people search. If you’re one of those folks who has resisted blogging because you don’t think anyone would read your blog, don’t worry; they probably won’t. Most blogs aren’t read like a magazine, or like you might view it. They are found. In other words, post the answers to the questions, problems, and challenges that you know your market is asking and seeking and your blog content will become the single greatest online lead generation tool in your mix. Discover the exact phrases people in your market are using when they search and write valuable content around that and people will find your blog before they know your competitors exist. 3. 3)  Ask for participation. Blogging is one of the first ways to build an engaged community. People talk about building community on Twitter and other social sites, but few things can compare to the engagement that can surround healthy debates, reader-generated content, and suggestions in blog comments. Write your blog posts in ways that invite people to comment. Ask for their ideas, and even ask them to give their opinions. Often, some of my points are amplified and made better through the comment stream that can surround them. Over time, you will build community participation and you may find that blogging is more fun when it becomes a conversation. 67
  • 68. 4. 4)  engage your comment community. When people take the time to offer thoughtful comments you should take the time to respond when appropriate. If a debate is in order, it’s OK to start one. Visit the sites of your comment community and engage in their writing. Link to their content in your blog posts and on Twitter. You might also find that using comment enhancing plug-ins such as Disqus, the commenting system I use, or Top Commentators, which shows a list of the people who comment the most, can make your comment community more active. 5. 5)  Amplify your message. One obvious way to get more exposure for your blog is to post links to Twitter, Facebook, and LinkedIn with each new post. As long as that’s not all you do, this can be an effective traffic strategy. Another great way to amplify and broaden the exposure for your blog is to guest blog. Many, sometimes high traffic, blogs welcome well- written content from guests. Look for blogs that should have your same type of reader and offer samples of your writing. Be sure that your posts will receive a byline and link back to your blog and then also promote the heck out your guest appearance.15My blog must-have plug-in listHow to get more blog commentsOne of the best reasons to blog is to open up anprospects, and contacts. The fact that your readers can comment and add relevant content to yoursite via blog comments is a major breakthrough in the communication process. It’s why everyone istalking about social media these days. Blog commenting was one of the first mass, one-to-oneconversation starters, and made people hungry for even more advanced forms of social interaction.Active commenting is one of the first signs that a blog has some real life—with it comes morereaders, so put in the work it takes to grow this important tool.Small business owners can easily take advantage of this tool now that so many people know what itis and know how to interact, can do a few things to stimulate this interaction and drawmore conversation.1) Ask for comments. Sometimes just creating a post and inviting your readers to add commentscan be just what you need to get them flowing. Commenting is a habit that you need to help build inyour readership.2) Ask questions and seek opinions. From time to time, ask your readers what they think ofsomething or what they have done that works or how they have addressed a particularly challengingsituation. You don’t need to have all the answers.3) Comment on comments. When readers comment, you can encourage additional conversation byresponding and showing that comments are welcome, even if the comment calls something you saidinto question. I’m guilty of ignoring this far too often. I’ll get better, I swear!Add to Any: a tool that makes it very easy for people to subscribe to your blog.Disqus: interactive commenting system. Twittertools: automatically adds your new blog 68
  • 69. posts to Twitter.Google Sitemaps Generator: creates a sitemap of your blog in XML format and pings searchengines.Akismet: helps fight comment spam.Related Entries: creates a list of blog posts related to your current one and inserts the list into yourpost.All in One SEO: adds features that allow you to make each blog post even more SEO friendly.interaction channel with your customers,4) Show some humanness. No matter what your blog topic is, readers like to know that the authoris a human being. It’s OK to let that show and to add personal thoughts. Only you can determinehow far to go with this, but I know that your readers will connect the more they know your story5) Stir the pot from time to time. You don’t have to be a celebrity gossip blogger to stir up a littlecontroversy. Often some of my best interactions come from topics that people are decidedlypassionate about.6) Make comment participation a game. Keep score and reward your most active commentators.I have installed the WP Top Commentators plug-in that keeps track of how many comments aparticular reader makes and rewards them with a link. You can see it in the left sidebar.7) Make sure commenting is easy. Publish your comment feed and consider adding a Subscribe toComments plug-in so that people get a notice when someone else comments on a post they areactive on.Social searchOne of my favorite small-business search topics is something called “social search.” A social searchengine is one that lists small businesses and allows people to rate and review them. 69
  • 70. I guess we can call these types of sites “directories,” but what is clear from the discussion is thatpeople aren’t really looking for directories; they are looking for answers, recommendations, anduser experiences. Social sites ask members and visitors to rate their experience, good and bad, witha business and post that information for others to view. Depending upon who you listen to, actualpurchases made over the Web only make up about 3% of all commerce, but buying decisions aremade every day through research on the Web.Prospects are turning to sites such as Insider Pages to find sources for everything from plumbers topiano tuners in almost every community in America. Highly rated small businesses appearing onsocial sites are starting to get noticed! This is a great new medium. There is no cost involved andthe benefits far outweigh the little bit of work you may put in to start building your onlinereputation. Smart small businesses are starting to encourage online reviews. (Merely point out toyour happy customers that they might want to share the love.) Other businesses are printing andusing their online reviews offline. Businesses with the most ratings and reviews seem to do the best.Coupons and offers are a great way to get noticed too!You need to start exploring this avenue now, if for no other reason than to manage your onlinereputation. Some businesses fear the impact of a negative review. I mean, you can’t make everycustomer happy, right? Most of the social directories have processes in place to fight spam andcompetitive revenge type reviews, but nothing works like a good offense. Make sure you arebuilding reviews from happy clients. Send offline customers online and teach them how to use a sitesuch as Judy’s Book.Some•••••of the more popular social/local directories include: 70
  • 71. Craigslist Judy’s Book Insider Pages YelpMy advice: Get proactive with social search 1. 1)  Make sure you are listed on the major social media sites and that your profile and business information is up to date and as accurate as possible. 2. 2)  Make note of the URL for your listings and start promoting these sites and stimulating positive reviews from some of your most loyal customers to get the ball rolling in your favor. (Some of the review sites appear to list businesses with more reviews above others when people do local searches.) 3. 3)  Start publishing your positive reviews in other forms of communication (maybe a T- shirt!). These testimonials can add to your marketing message and act as subtle reminders to other happy customers that they might want to post reviews as well.4) Add a few reviews of your favorite local businesses, particularly those you may have strategicrelationships with.Social networksFacebookFacebook for businessFacebook has become the most widely recognized name in social networks. Social networks allowpeople to join, and “friend” members or invite others to join and then share and exchangeinformation.The tools that run social networks have some tremendous business applications when youunderstand what’s behind them.Networking has always been an important marketing skill and online networking bares somesimilarities with a set of power tools. A lot has been publicized about social networks used by teensand dating services, but it’s the application of the tools that you need to focus on to understand thebusiness value of participating in a network such as Facebook.3 ways for businesses to get a return from FacebookFacebook continues to grow in popularity with small businesses to the point where it’s no longer amatter of “if” you should be utilizing this platform as “how.” It’s really no surprise to me thatFacebook is generally deemed more useful for the small business than other social media tools,such as Twitter. The Facebook platform and applications are such that a business could feasiblybuild its entire Web presence there—particularly now that Fan pages can be viewed publicly bynon-Facebook users.So, the question I want to dive into today is this: What’s the best way to approach Facebook foryour business? 71
  • 72. Of course, I’m not entirely sure there’s one correct answer, so I’ll outline three approaches thatmight make sense.1) Facebook business account onlyBusiness accounts are designed for individuals who only want to use the site to administer pagesand their ad campaigns. A Facebook business account allows you to build a simple businesspresence by creating public business pages, but you have limited access to the profiles of peoplewho interact with or “fan” your page, as well as little access to other features on the site. (Note: Ifyou already have a personal profile account, this option is not available.)Here’s the Help Center FAQs on business accounts. This can be a decent option for people whodon’t want to do anything more than create a presence on Facebook. If you do not already have aFacebook personal profile you simply create a page or ad here. Once you create a Facebook pagevia business account you will always have the opportunity to convert it and create a personalprofile.2) Personal profile for personal use, and business fan page for business useSome people created a personal profile because they realized what a great tool Facebookis for keeping up with college and high school friends or sharing details about life with family andfriends. When these same folks started realizing what a nice tool Facebook is for business, theyfaced the issue of mixing too much personal with business and vice versa.For these folks, the addition of a Facebook Fan Page is the most obvious solution. Thefan page allows you to create a business only page with a great deal of functionalityand settings that allow you to open your page up to the world far beyond your current Facebookfriends. In addition, your updates and posts on your fan page spread to the wall of all those whobecome a fan on your page making your business presence even greater.Of course, the way Facebook is set up there is still a very close relationship between your personalprofile and the fan pages you administer. In this case, privacy settings on your personal profileprobably become very important. You can visit your Facebook Profile Privacy Settings to makeupdates.Consider these privacy tips for business use:a) use the “Friend List” feature. This feature allows you to make lists to group people based onhow or why you know them—family in one group, business contacts in another, cooking club inanother, etc. The main reason this is so important is that you can issue different privacy settings perlist and therefore be very selective about, for instance, what your business-related contact might see.b) Turn off photo tagging. An often-used feature on Facebook is to tag photos with the people inthem. If you don’t want all your business contacts to see you kicking back with a few beers, thanmake sure photo tagging is limited in your privacy settings.c) Protect your photos. Change the settings on your photo privacy (a separate page) so that yourdarling two-year-old’s birthday pics are kept in the family—unless of course you want to sharethem with business contacts.d) don’t share who your friends are. Even before someone becomes a friend they can, by default,see who you are friends with, just without any details. You don’t have to make this information 72
  • 73. public and there might be some good reasons in this case not to. You can change your profile settingcalled “Friends” to show select groups of none at all. 1. e)  Choose who can see contact info. Many people put personal contact details in their personal profile, and as your business use increases and your start approving people you don’t know, you may not want them to have your personal email address and mobile number. 2. f)  Control your wall settings. It’s a good idea to control who can view posts to your personal wall. If you allow your good friends to add comments, photos, and updates, you may not want the business contacts to view this—change who can see wall posts from friends using the lists you build by visiting your profile settings page. You can also control who can post to your wall page, but this shouldn’t be a big issue if you control who can see posts. Of course, you can also ban individuals from posting.3) Personal profile for business and Fan Page for businessWhen I started using Facebook, my intent was strictly for business. (To my knowledge there are nopictures of me in hula skirts on my personal profile.) When fan pages came along it became clearthat this was also a great business tool, so I added that as well.I think this approach of all business is a fine way to take advantage of all that Facebook offers tothose who choose to use this platform.My personal profile is open and public and I welcome friend requests from people whosee this as a business page. I don’t reach out to family members and don’t have friend requestssitting in my daughters’ inboxes. I business-stream content into my personal page, including myTwitter, FriendFeed, and blog posts. These streams create a fair amount of interaction with friends,which I try to participate in.I use the fan page to create additional awareness, answer questions, post video, and publish events,including audio and video archives from those events.Here’s the link to my Personal Profile and here’s the link to the Duct Tape Marketing Fan Page(consider becoming a fan!).The interaction and crossover of friends versus fans is likely pretty high, although I’ve never triedto gauge it. This all-business approach allows me to continue to participate and build a strongerFacebook foundation as this platform continues to evolve.Intro to the personal profileYour profile is the starting point for Facebook. Think of it as your front door. It’s very importantthat your front door on Facebook be in sync with the front door of your brand. Just because you canput all kinds of cute things on your Facebook profile, you still must ask yourself what makes sensein terms of your business and your business objectives. It’s common sense really, but it’s easy totake your eye off the ball with all the toys and applications available once you learn how to navigateFacebook.Create a profile that helps tell your business story and then enhance it with tools and applicationsthat allow you to branch out and connect with like-minded individuals. 73
  • 74. FriendsFriends in the world of Facebook are simply people who are also members who grant youpermission to view their profile and contact them directly. This is really at the heart of thenetworking aspect of Facebook. Without any friends, your Facebook efforts won’t be as useful.The first step is to connect with people who already know you and then you can start to connectwith friends of friends and other recognized thought leaders in your industry.Don’t forget to send friend requests to journalists in your industry as well.Once someone accepts a friend request you can begin to share information with them and view theinformation they make available. A word of warning here: The Facebook culture, as is the case inmany social network environments, frowns on direct promotion. The connections you make shouldbe much more about networking and building trust.Creating your Facebook Fan PageAnyone with a Facebook profile has the ability to add something called a Fan Page to extend somecontent beyond the profile page. Creating a Facebook Fan Page has become a very smart practicefor business owners as it allows you to create a flexible business outpost on Facebook.Fans and non-fans alike can view and join the conversation by commenting on activity and creatingactivity on your page’s wall. I believe this level of engagement gives pages much more dynamiccommunity-building functionality and helps your fan page behave much like the rest of Facebook.Facebook, in general, has taken on a Twitter-like feel to the status update. But, the new statusupdate being added to fan pages gives businesses the ability to put updated content out and on to theprofile pages of fans. This alone should get your attention. If used properly this should givebusinesses the ability to more effectively, yet still gently, promote within Facebook. 74
  • 75. Custom tabs mean custom landing pagesAnother significant feature is the tabbed interface that can be lined up to focus attention onimportant elements of your page. You can create tabs for things like videos, photos, discussion, andevents. By doing so you can build out subpages with a specific focus. These tabs use commonFacebook applications, such as Events, to drive the page content and are simple to set up and edit.Each tab has a unique URL giving you the ability to promote particular events or photos as well ascreate some custom landing page functionality.Tricking out Boxes with FBML appA default tab called Boxes holds lots of potential for businesses as well. Think of a box pageas a free-form scratch pad. You can add up to 10 of what Facebook calls FBML elements (you mustadd the Facebook Static FBML application to your apps to edit these). FBML is Facebook’s mark-up language but these elements will take any HTML as well. So you have the ability to addnewsletter sign-up forms, eBook downloads, and other HTML-based elements. (You can add any ofthe default elements such as video or discussions as well.)Once you create the elements you can slide them around the page to get them to display as you like.Here’s a quick example Facebook Fan Page with Boxes.Note: If you clicked on the example link I just gave you, it took you directly to the tab page Iwanted you to go to. So, in effect, you can create and promote custom landing pages inside of yourFacebook Fan Page and promote them as entry points. Great place to offer non-fans a reason tobecome a fan. (Tech note: You can edit the Boxes page by dragging the elements around, but youmust go to the wall page and hit Edit in the page to edit an individual FBML element.)Facebook applications for business professionals • Telephone: With Telephone you can call, send, and receive voice messages through Facebook, just like having voice mail on your phone. All you need is the application and a microphone and you can start sending messages to your friends. 75
  • 76. • CircleUp: This is a lightweight collaboration app for groups and events. This tool facilitates some of the communication needed to promote your group activity and events on Facebook and elsewhere. This is particularly useful if you’ve created and maintain your own group on Facebook or often promote teleseminars and workshops.• Free Conference Calls: Use Free Conference Calls to organize a business meeting on the fly. With a free conference call, you can call in from anywhere; your home, mobile, Skype, or any VoIP service. Using this app inside of Facebook can help make some immediate connections a little deeper.• Facebook Video: Facebook Video provides a high-quality video platform for people and pages on Facebook. With Video, you can upload video files, send video from your mobile phone, and record video messages to your friends. This application is so easy to use that it makes sending video introductions or messages a powerful way to network on Facebook.• Testimonials: Use Testimonials to gather your personal and professional references in one place. Encouraging customers and contacts to post testimonials about your work and expertise adds great marketing content to your profile.• Introductions: Introduce your friends to each other and make new ones. Ask for an introduction to a Web programmer or good lawyer. Then make introductions for your friends. This application speeds the process of effective networking by helping focus on giving and receiving introductions in a systematic way.• Business Cards: Business Cards helps you network better on Facebook. Personalize your card and attach it to your Facebook messages! View postings and network with others! This application is much like the signature common in email messages. It’s just one more way to say business when using Facebook.• My LinkedIn Profile: Makes it easy to promote your LinkedIn account with a badge on your Facebook profile. Cross-promoting social network activity is a great way to extend your reach.• What I Do: Allows you to promote your services/products to your Facebook network. Display your skills/wares on your profile box and list yourself in a business directory. Recommend your colleagues services and products too. using Facebook’s Twitter-like tagging feature Tagging or bookmarking websites, images, and people is a tactic that is somewhat synonymous with social media. When you send an @reply through Twitter you are effectively tagging that person and linking to them in your tweet. It’s an effective tool on Twitter and allows the Twitterverse to see your link to that person as well. An effective way to draw some attention to your Facebook activity is to tag people in your images. The act of tagging puts it on their wall, your wall, and sends a notice to the person being tagged. Some folks use this very effectively as an awareness activity. Hint: take pictures with well-known folks you meet at conferences and then upload and tag them and you might draw some attention from the wall of your taggee. Facebook has added tagging in a way that I believe will be very useful for business purposes. When you update your status on your personal page, business page, or on any business page where you share information, you can tag any of your followers in your update and it will automatically create a link to your follower’s page, publish the status 76
  • 77. update to that person’s wall, and send them a notice that they were tagged. Do you see how that might be useful?A couple rules: The folks you tag must be following you and a tagged person has the option todelete the tag. Try this out, but don’t overdo it!The way you invoke the tag is where the Twitter-like comparisons really come into play. You starttyping your status update and then add the “@” and the Facebook system will drop down a list ofpossible people to tag as you start typing that person’s name. The @ sign does not appear in theupdate like on Twitter but it signals Facebook that you are trying to use the tagging feature.using Facebook ads for content awarenessAds on Facebook have been around for a while now and based on reviews coming out from someusers, results using Facebook ads are mixed. I personally find them to be an effective and intriguingoption for many small businesses.Here’s whyYou have a very large universe on Facebook, but you can target your ad to be shown based on thelocation, sex, age, education, and keyword interests of the Facebook user, making this a potentiallynarrow ad buy, particularly for the local business. If you want to show your ad to business typefolks only in Denver, Colorado, so be it.Some detractors claim that Facebook ads don’t convert to sales, but I would suggest that is thewrong way to think about it and to use this tool. Think of your Facebook ads, or ads in any socialmedia space, as content that is intended to create further awareness about more content. See, 77
  • 78. Facebook ads don’t have to link out to your sales page, they can be associated with content rightthere on Facebook. For instance, if you use the events application to promote an event you arehosting, such as a webinar, you can associate ads with that event and drive targeted people to findout about or even directly RSVP to your event on Facebook. The same is true for the videoapplication. Use Facebook ads to drive people to a video on Facebook that gives great content andinvites them to learn more at your primary Web hub.You can also tightly integrate your ad campaigns with the largely revamped fan or business pagesoptions to create outposts for your fan pages and invite narrowly defined target audiences to becomea fan on Facebook.When you use these internal ad plays, your ads, complete with social features, become more liketiny bites of content instead of sales pitches and help prospective customers get to know, like, andtrust you a bit more before you ever ask for business.Facebook allows you to buy your ads on a cost-per-click or cost-per-thousand impressions basis andprovides decent real-time reporting so you can adjust your ads as needed.If you already have a Facebook profile and/or fan page you can start running ads today from theFacebook Ads page.5 tips for getting more from Facebook 1. 1)  Fan page. Facebook had personal profiles and groups from the start, but a few months ago they added to the function called fan pages and made them more business friendly. Any business on Facebook should create a fan page for their business and start optimizing additional content there. The cool thing about fan pages is that it’s now a lot like having another website. You can add applications, newsletter sign-up pages, and events, and promote them to your friends on Facebook. When someone becomes a fan of your page, your updates on the page show up on their wall giving additional exposure. 2. 2)  Custom HTML. This one’s a little more technical but when you create a fan page you will see that your page comes with tabs for various categories of content you create (each tab has its own URL so you can promote each section on your fan page around the Web). Using the Facebook Mark-up Language (FBML), you can create custom boxes of HTML content, like newsletter sign-up pages, blog RSS feeds, and white paper downloads just like you might on your website. FBML is a Facebook application you can get here. I’ve also done a quick little video showing you how to add FBML custom HTML here. 3. 3)  Special content. Give your Facebook fans a little something extra they might not find on your blog or website. Upload images from your PowerPoint presentations, articles from the local publication you contribute to, or on-the-fly videos created using the Facebook video application. You’re bound to find some crossover from other social networks like Twitter, so give the Facebook users something unique. I know some people caution about reposting Twitter here, but I think it’s perfectly fine. I get lots of comments from people who just happen to like to use Facebook more than Twitter and this way they still get updates. 78
  • 79. 4) events, videos, and apps. Use the heck out of all of the Facebook applications. Promote events,upload or record video, hold contests and polls. All of this extra engagement is so easy to do usingpre-built tools. And don’t forget to integrate your Facebook activity back to your website and blogusing a Facebook Fan Box—I wrote about the Facebook FanBox tool here.5) Ads for awareness. I think that Facebook has built one of the better ad targeting tools going. Youcan target ads to Facebook members on all kinds of criteria and run pretty low cost campaigns. Thetrick though is to run campaigns that are compelling and promote your Facebook Fan Page insteadof trying to sell something. Promote your white paper, events, and educational content—createawareness about your great content and youwill get the chance to earn the trust it takes to actually sell something to someone. Here’s where yougo to find more info about Facebook ads.LinkedInLinkedIn for connectingLinkedIn is often billed as the largest network of business professionals. It certainly has a muchmore focused business participation than many social networks and is a great place to network anddo research on specific organizations and opportunities.Probably the biggest difference between Facebook and LinkedIn is the focus on introductions.Ingrained in the LinkedIn culture is the ability to see who knows whom and who can make anintroduction.As is the case with any social network, it’s important that you take a little time and get to know theculture and the accepted norms. This is often done by lurking a bit. Use the time to build yourprofile and your network of current friends so you can see firsthand some examples of how peopleconnect and reach out on your chosen network. From there you can begin to contribute and seek outconnections with demonstrated leaders within the network.For the business professional there are some pretty good reasons to make LinkedIn a part of youroverall social media outreach:1) Find clients, help, and deals. For some industries LinkedIn is a great place to locate prospectsand network partners. Many individuals openly promote relationships and deals that they are in themarket for.2) Build up buzz. Once you’ve established a following within LinkedIn you can begin to promotespecific happenings around your organization. 79
  • 80. 3) Hire professionals. Often people think of social networking only in terms of making marketingconnections. LinkedIn has become a great place to network and find great associates, partners, andvendors.4) Get feedback and research. One of the most effective ways to tap your newly built socialnetworks is to use them as a resource for research and feedback. Simply putting questions out toyour group is a great way to get a feel for areas where you want input.5 tips for getting more from LinkedInA pretty common question these days is: “Which social network is the best?” And to that I usuallysay, “The one that helps you meet your marketing objectives.” And in that regard, many are great,but for different reasons.LinkedIn: I really like some things about LinkedIn. It has always tended toward the service-oriented professional, in my opinion, but it has plenty to like in the brand asset optimization worldthat all businesses live in as well. My advice for most business owners is to find a social network orplatform that seems most suited to your business objectives and dive in pretty deep, focusing morecasual attention on the others, at least initially. Going hard and deep into one network, likeLinkedIn, is the only way to gain the momentum delivered by consistent work and engagement.So, when it comes to LinkedIn, here are five tips to get more:1) your profileThis is a great brand asset so don’t waste it. Make it informative and optimized for search. • Add a photo: Nothing says nobody’s home faster than the default icon. • Get the branded uRL: Something like this is what you want in/ducttapemarketing—it’s something you pick during editing. • use links with Anchor text: Link to your blog, products, workshops, etc., through the “other” tab and you can add anchor text for the link. • Be descriptive: Use the “Summary” to tell your story in a compelling way and add lots of keywords in the “specialty” section. 80
  • 81. • Keep it active: LinkedIn has a status update feature, much like Facebook and Twitter, that you should update routinely. • Link to it: Put links to your profile in your email signature and other online pages. Optimization is a two-way street. The image above shows the links on my profile with carefully selected anchor text that links to pages on my site. LinkedIn is one of the few social profiles sites that allows this. 2) Give to get When people view profiles one of the top features is something called recommendations. While these may feel a little fluffy when you read them, lack of them can be a competitive issue. You should acquire some recommendations and I find the best way to get them is to give them. Choose people in your network that you’ve worked with and write an honest statement of recommendation. Don’t be surprised if you receive some in return.3) Show what you’ve gotAn overlooked feature on LinkedIn, in my opinion, is the Question and Answer function. Byjumping in and answering questions thoughtfully you can demonstrate a given expertise whilepotentially engaging contacts that are drawn to your knowledge. The key phrase is thoughtfullyanswering. LinkedIn even has a rating system to reward people who give the best answers withsome added exposure.The flip side of this tip is to ask thoughtful questions. This can be a great way to get usefulinformation, but it’s equally powerful as a tool to create conversations, discussion, and engagementwith like-minded connections. 1. 4)  Lead a group Anyone can launch a group on LinkedIn and lead discussions and networking on a specific topic of interest. If you take this tip to heart and put some effort into a niche group you can gain added influence with your network, but groups are also open to the LinkedIn universe as a whole and some folks find that this is one of the strongest ways to build their network. Building a group around an established brand is also a great way to bring users or customers together. 2. 5)  Repurpose content Since members of your network, and those of the larger LinkedIn community, may only experience your brand on the LinkedIn platform, it’s a great idea to enhance your profile with educational information. This is best done using some of the third-party applications that LinkedIn has collected for this purpose. • Blog Link: displays your latest blog posts on your profile 81
  • 82. • allows you to create links to files such as resumes and marketing kits • SlideShare: embeds slideshow presentations and demos • Company Buzz: scrapes Twitter for mentions of your brand or other topics you assign Premium feature makes LinkedIn more like a CRM tool LinkedIn has an upgraded feature that makes it a much more powerful small business prospecting and relationship tool, in my book. When prospecting on LinkedIn in the past you could type in a keyword or specific company search and locate people you might want to reach out to. For many folks this is the greatest benefit of LinkedIn participation. The tough thing was you had to look at the details of each profile you might find and make a decision about contacting them right then as there wasn’t a convenient way to save or group your chosen profiles for future use. LinkedIn added a tool in the paid version that allows you to create searches and then save the profiles that look interesting to folders in what it’s calling your Profile Organizer. So, let’s say you are scouting out journalists at a certain publication. You can do a search, set up a folder, and save all the profiles you like in that folder for later contact. LinkedIn also added a “note” feature so you can jot something of interest to yourself or even something that was said when you contactedthem last. I think this feature makes the paid version worth a look. Of course, they’ve also made itfree for 30 days. You activate the free trial by simply using the save profile feature.Search on the term marketing—hover over a profile and save it to your marketing folder (clickimage to enlarge).In profile organizer you can make notes on any saved profile (click image to enlarge).The Profile Organizer shows up as a workspace under the contact tab and once active you’ll see“save profile” as an option any time you are looking at an individual or group of profiles.The thing I like most is that this allows you to work in LinkedIn any time you have 10 minutes andmakes that 10 minutes much more efficient. For me, researching and contacting are two verydifferent activities and take different frames of mind when doing them. I like that fact that I canorganize all the profiles as I feel like it and then come back and do laser-focused reaching out whenI’m in that mood. The note-taking field is what makes this CRM like to me. (Note: You don’t haveto be connected to someone to save and note their profile either.) 82
  • 83. Twitterusing Twitter for businessMaybe you’re sick of hearing about Twitter. But there’s no denying it’s become a hot business tooland with some pretty good reasons—as long as you think about how it will help you achieve yourobjectives!What is it?In simplest terms, Twitter is a free service that allows anyone to say anything to anybody in 140characters or less—it’s the “what are you doing right now” kind of micro-blogging that permeatesonline social communication.So, now the question is—is that all? Well, no, not exactly. While people are using it to tell noone in particular what they had for lunch, millions are leaning on Twitter pretty hard as a way tonetwork and communicate with contacts new and old. Twitter is outfitted, like most social mediatools with the ability to subscribe, share, friend, or follow as many Twitter feeds as you like. Inaddition, developers are swiftly creating tools that allow users to bend and twist the feeds increative ways. More on that shortly.How do I use it?First thing, sign up for an account. It’s very painless. See you create an account you will be given a home page and a profile page—i.e., my profile is So my Twitter handle is @ducttape. From these pages you can findother Twitter streams to follow, post your own messages, and even watch the entire public stream ofcomments flow by. (I don’t recommend that unless you are really, really bored.) 83
  • 84. It’s a good idea if you are going to jump into social media sites that allow you to build profiles tocreate a 100 x 100 px image, or avatar as they are called, to use on your profile and often with youractivity.Why would I use it?Now that is the real question isn’t it? Many people look at Twitter on the surface and conclude thatit’s just one big waste of time. I can’t say I disagree completely, but like all social media andmarketing tactics, before you can determine if something makes sense you need to analyze yourobjectives. So, instead of asking why you would use it, ask how it might help you achieve someother already stated objectives. 1. 1)  Would you like a way to connect and network with others in your industry or others who share you views? It’s a good a tool for that. 2. 2)  Would you like a way to get instant access to what’s being said, this minute, about your organization, people, products, or brand? It’s a good tool for that. 3. 3)  Would you like a steady stream of ideas, content, links, resources, and tips focused on your area of expertise or interest? It’s a good tool for that. 4. 4)  Would you like to monitor what’s being said about your customers to help them protect their brands? It’s a good tool for that. 5. 5)  Would you like to extend the reach of your thought leadership—blog posts and other content? It can be a good tool for that. 6. 6)  Would you like to promote your products and services directly to a target audience? Not such a good tool for that.Before you really jump into a service like Twitter, it’s important that you identify at least, andinitially only, one objective from the list above and focus your efforts on learning how to use thetool to that end.See this great article from Chris Brogan for more ideas: 50 Ways to Use Twitter for Business. Also,see “8 Tips for Using Twitter for Your Business,” by Office Live Small Business Monte Enbysk.Before you really jump into a service like Twitter, it’s important that you identify at least, andinitially only, one objective from the list above and focus your efforts on learning how to use thetool to that end.Some basic Twitter terminologyTweet: When you post or write your 140 characters on Twitter andhit send it’s called a tweet or tweeting.Handle: That’s your Twitter name @ducttape—balance short with descriptive and no matter whatyour business handle is get your personal name if you can even if you don’t plan to use it right now.It’s like your URL and will have value someday. 84
  • 85. Follow: This is simply the act of adding someone to your list of people you are following— thismakes their tweets show up on your home page.Replies: This is what it is called when someone writes a tweet directly at your handle— @ducttapecool post today blah blah—this is often an invite to engage with a follower.Retweet: This is a tactic of republishing someone else’s tweet—the original tweet along withauthor stays intact, but you are basically showing someone’s tweet to your followers— many peoplefind this a great way to add content and acknowledge good stuff from the folks they follow.dM: This is a message that is sent directly to another user. They must be following you for you toDM them, but this is a very useful tool for private messages and generally a good choice when youstart going back and forth with someone on something your entire base of followers might not findinteresting.Hashtag: This is a way people categorize tweets so that others might use the same tag andeffectively create a way for people to view related tweets—it will look something like #marketing—more on this in search.Who do I follow?In Twitter terms, following someone simply means that their posts, or tweets as they are called,show up on your home page (or text messages via mobile phone option).To make Twitter more useful for many of the objectives aboveyou need to follow others and begin to have others followyou. Some people take very aggressive and, often, time-consuming leaps into to this and try to follow and be followedby everyone on Twitter. Again, back to the objectives, most often quality over quantity is best.While you can upload your current contacts (a good place to start) and search for people you knowon Twitter, I would suggest that you take a look at two sites that will help you locate people withfocused interest.Twellow is like a Twitter phone directory that sorts people by industry. This can be a great way tofind people in your industry.The profiles also tell you a little about each person, including how many followers they have.Sometimes following people with large followings can lead to people following you, but if yourgoal is networking, be realistic and find people who may also just be getting started. If your goal isto keeptabs of what industry leaders are saying, then focus on industry leaders. The Twellow site has a linkto each profile on Twitter so you can click on the link and go to a Twitter page to follow the 85
  • 86. 34person you have chosen and then jump back to Twellow to keep looking. If you want to get listedon Twellow, use this link: is an option as well and focuses on searching through Twitter bios and profiles to helpyou locate folks that might be of interest to follow.Another directory can be found here: The nice thing about thisdirectory is that you can also add your Twitter links if you aren’t afraid to edit a wiki.What do I say?Another tough question. Whatever your answer, it needs to be 140 characters or less. So, let’s goback to the objectives, shall we?If, for instance, you want some immediate feedback on things, you may choose to pose somequestions. This often stimulates conversation but it can also do a great deal in terms of helping yourmake a decision—a bit like a poll. I have received some great ideas for blog content and oftencross-post a response or two from Twitter in a blog post.If you want to promote an event or post or idea don’t simply link to it, add a twist, ask if peoplehave any thoughts, pose an interesting thought.Filtering Twitter to make it make senseOne of the most important and frequently underutilized objectives for Twitter is as a way to monitoryour brand and reputation. Anytime anything is being said about your company, products, people,or services you can track it and respond instantly. You can also use a set of readily available tools totrack what’s being said about any search term you like. This is another way to find people withshared interests.Twitter Search: This little tool allows you to monitor anything you can search. I use it to see what’sbeing said back to me @ducttape and then do searches like “duct tape marketing” or “john 86
  • 87. jantsch”—now for some this may feel a little vain, but this is a great way to stay in touch and evennetwork with folks who have an interest in your products and services.Some large organizations such asDell use Twitter very effectively to communicate with customers—happy and sad alike. This hasbecome a major customer communication tool for them because they can respond immediately.35Lastly, Twitter search allows you to create RSS feeds from your searches so you can have them sentdirectly to your RSS reader or you can republish a stream of content on your website or blog andadd the collective Twitterverse to your content creation.Mining Twitter for leadsGetting leads and business by participating on sites like Twitter is a very intriguing notion. Now I’mnot talking about barging in and hocking your wares to anyone with an @—you wouldn’tdo that in an offline setting, say at a cocktail party, would you? But, think of that same cocktailparty, you’re having a chat with someone who is going on about how they can’t get good help tostaff their business, and you just happen to have the answer for them. You might suggest a greatsolution and voila, land a nice piece of business.Well, that virtual cocktail party is going on all day long on Twitter. The problem is, it’s a bit like aparty held in the Rose Bowl, if somebody in section 101 needs what you do, but you’re in section334, you’ll never meet each other.This is where some powerful Twitter and third-party tools can come to help you make sense of itall.Meet Twitter Advanced Search—the basic Twitter search function is a great time-saving filter andallows you to set up searches on your name, company name, brands, competitors, all the basic stuff, 87
  • 88. so you can monitor your business and reputation and even know when people are replying to yourtweets.Advanced search, however, is where the real data mining comes to life.Advanced search allows you to filter everything that’s being said for your keyword phases in yourtown, for example. Think that might be useful? Let’s say you are a network server specialist inTucson, Arizona. If you set up an advanced search for people in Tucson, Arizona, complainingabout their server, and you got those complaints in real time, could you develop some hot leads?Here’s the search for that.36Creating advanced searches around topics that would identify someone as a hot lead is really prettyeasy using the form on the advanced search page. Or, you can use a host of operators in the basicsearch page to create some interesting searches. For example, want to know if anyone in Detroit isasking about marketing—your search would look like this: near:Detroit within:50mi marketing?Note the question mark after the word “marketing.”People are asking questions, complaining, and searching for stuff in every corner of the world onTwitter and these people are often more than happy to hear from someone who can provide ananswer locally. With a little practice you can set up a series of tweets that might turn up leads foryour business every single day.Again, this is not an invitation to spam people, but with a little care and the fact that you canidentify people through the flood of tweets, people expressing needs and wants, you can proceed totarget and educate these folks by starting a conversation and answering their questions thoughtfully.Managing your Twitter activityOnce you start using Twitter, you’ll want to explore ways to make it easier to follow what’s goingon and respond to @replies and searches you’ve set up.There are a number of third-party desktop and mobile applications that make this a snap. 88
  • 89. TweetDeck: This is a piece of software that you run on your desktop. You can post tweets from it,respond to replies from others and, this is what I really like, set up various searches and get updatesin real time when someone tweets on a subject or phrase youare following.This is a great way to monitor your brand or jump on opportunities connected to your specific topicsof choice without having to hang out on Twitter all day.Tweetie 2: This mobile application allows you to do much of what you might on a desktop but fromyour iPhone.TwitterBerry: This is the mobile app of choice for BlackBerry users. 89
  • 90. Hashtag useThere is a pretty useful trick that Twitter insiders use all the time called a hashtag. The roots of the#tag are buried somewhere in IM coding, but it’s what you can do with it using Twitter that matters.(More on hashtags, if you want some techie stuff on this.)The hashtag or #tag added to a tweet acts as way to create categories, groups, or topics for tweetsthat others can use as well. This way, tweets can easily be grouped together using feature.Let me give you a very commonly used tactic for this. Let’s say a group of folks are attending aworkshop and tweeting their notes in real time. If everyone at that workshop were asked to addsomething like #mkt101 to their tweets, everyone present or not can see and share all the notes inone place.During earthquakes and fires hashtags are a great way for people to get news. Promoting events andproduct launches via a hashtag helps keep the word in context.Companies often use hashtags as a way for remote employees to use Twitter as a communicationtool for all the stuff people should stay on top of. 90
  • 91. I use a hashtag for each of my live webinars and then people tweet and ask questions via Twitterand I have a back channel of conversation and notes and another source of relevant content tosupport the webinar.You can also find hot trends via hashtag at The homepage lists the trendingtags. More than one Twitter user has found that jumping into a hot trend conversation is a great wayto connect with folks on something of shared interest.Anyone can create a hashtag by putting # in front of anything. Keep it short so you don’t use upyour 140 and try for something unique. If you use a tag that others are using you will mingle yourresults with others.Popular third-party Twitter tools • TweetDeck: desktop Twitter client • Seesmic Desktop: another desktop Twitter client • Tweetie 2: iPhone app • TwitPic: share images in tweets • TweetStats: analyze your Twitter activity • Hootsuite: business oriented • CoTweet: multiple accounts • Objective Marketer: advanced analyticsManaging the Social Media Beast: The system is the solutionOne of the hardest challenges for many people just entering the world of social media is todetermine how to accomplish the seemingly endless list of new tasks that they find themselvesasked to complete.Participating fully in social media as a business and marketing strategy requires discipline,automation routines, and a daily commitment. Now, you’ve got to balance that with the fact thatmuch of your activity is about building long-term momentum and deeper networks, and that doesn’talways make the cash register ring today.The following is an example of such an automated routine and may provide some insight into howyou can best integrate your social media activity into your overall marketing plan.Twice daily • Check Twitter via TweetDeck—preset searches for @ducttape, john jantsch, and duct tape marketing—respond as I see fit, follow some @replies that seem appropriate. • Scan MyBlogLog—I obsess over traffic, but this reveals trending links and stumble surges in real time so I can react if appropriate. • Respond to comments on my blog. Daily 91
  • 92. • Write a blog post—RSS subs get it, Twitter tools sends to Twitter, Facebook gets it, FriendFeed updates • Scan Twitter followers for relevant conversations to join • Scan Google Reader subscriptions to read and stimulate ideas • Share Google Reader faves—these publish to Facebook and you can subscribe • FleckTweet any blog pages from my subscriptions that I love—this goes to Twitter • Bookmark any blog pages from my subscriptions that I love—delicious using Firefox plug- in for right-click posting—this goes to FriendFeed • Stumble any blog pages from my subscriptions that I love—this goes to Facebook and FriendFeed • Scan Google Alerts for my name, brand, and products—in Google Reader as RSS feed— respond as appropriate • Add comments to blogs as appropriate—mostly response types—Google Reader and BackTypeWeekly (end) • Scan LinkedIn Questions from my network and respond when appropriate • Scan delicious, digg, and mixx popular and select bookmarks for content ideas and trending topics • Consciously add comments to conversations I want to join—hot topic focused • Join one Twitter hot trend conversation if appropriate— shows these in real time Set your system up and work it, day in and day out—whatever that means for you. You will then start to understand the vital role that social media can play in your overall marketing strategy. Good luck managing the beast! Let’s get social If you would like to connect with me on one of the following social networks, here are my profiles. Plurk: LinkedIn: Facebook: http:// Stumbleupon: Flickr: Twitter: ducttape youTube: Slideshare: digg: FriendFeed: 92
  • 93. In the endAs you can see, when technology is leveraged to facilitate and enhance social interaction, a greatdeal of value can be created. But tread carefully. This savvy audience can be turned off ifapproached in the wrong way. Use these new tools properly and they’ll prove to be invaluable inyour effort to strengthen existing customer relationships and capture the hearts and minds of newconsumers.About the AuthorJohn Jantsch is a marketing and digital technology coach, award- winning social media publisherand author of Duct Tape Marketing—The World’s Most Practical Small Business Marketing Guide published by Thomas Nelson, withforeword by Michael Gerber, author of The E-Myth, and afterword by Guy Kawasaki.He is the creator of the Duct Tape Marketing small business marketing system and Duct TapeMarketing Authorized Coach Network.His Duct Tape Marketing Blog was chosen as a Forbes favorite for small business and marketingand is a Harvard Business School featured marketing site. His blog was also chosen as “Best SmallBusiness Marketing Blog” in 2004, 2005, and 2006 by the readers of Marketing Sherpa.His “Hype” column can be found monthly in Entrepreneur magazine along with his podcast is a presenter of popular marketing workshops for organizations such as the Small BusinessAdministration, American Marketing Association, Kauffman Foundation, Painting and DecoratingContractors of America, Associated Builders and Contractors, National Association of theRemodeling Industry, and the National Association of Tax Professionals. 93
  • 94. 94
  • 95. Written on 2/14/2012 at 12:00 am by Guest BloggerHow to Systematically Build a Mountain of LinksRetrieved from on March 11, 2012This guest post is by Neil Patel of Quick Sprout.We’ve all been taught to create high-quality content to attract links. This argument isusually stated in the context of a blog that basically becomes an authority where you startto build a following around consistent, fresh content—think big sites like Problogger orBoing Boing.This is not the technique I’m talking about.Today, I’m talking about a link-building technique that’s bigger, better and quite possiblyable to put you on the map faster than you would ever imagine. I’m talking about building alinkable asset—something you do by following the steps I’m about to describe.First, let’s define “linkable asset.”What is a linkable asset?A linkable asset is a piece of content that is responsible for driving lots of links to your site.It could be an infographic that you update every year, but it’s usually much bigger andcomplex.The Feltron Report is an annual report that’s like an infographic on steroids. It’s more thanlikely you’ve heard of the Felton Report. Its personal data from the life of Nicholas Felton,a designer and data guy, who’s been cranking out these reports since 2005.SEOmoz’s Annual Ranking Report is another annual report that is a linkable asset.Distilled’s SEO Guide to Creating Viral Linkbait and Infographics and SmashingMagazine’s The Death of the Boring Blog Postare also linkable assets.Sometimes these assets are a simple widget like Bankrate’s millionaire calculator oregobait like the Ad Age Power150.What’s in a linkable asset?These assets create a mountain of links back to the site, which means more traffic and joltof exposure to your brand or blog that never dies. But they aren’t easy to create. They takeplanning, time and at least four or five of the following elements.It targets a broad marketThe first step in creating a linkable asset is to identify your audience. It must be massivebecause small, niche markets will cause your asset to fail.You don’t have to think about your general customers. When I’ve worked on theseprojects, here’s how I’ve thought through the massive audience I need: 1. Human beings. 2. Men and woman. 3. Men in the United States. 4. Men in the United States who like movies.You don’t need to get any narrower than that. In fact, “men in the U.S. who like movies” isprobably a little narrow. So I might try a small test on an audience made up of “men andwomen in the U.S. who like movies.”Here are other ideas you could target: • Special interest groups: Republicans, Australians, gun owners or commuters all share a common pain point that you could address in a linkable asset. • One-time events: Think 9/11 or the historic significance of Obama’s election. • Holidays: Linkable assets tied into holidays like Easter or Hanukah seem to work pretty well. 95
  • 96. • Basic survival stuff: Anything that impacts water, safety, food, or gas consumption. • Predictions: Using data that points to a credible conclusion about a possibly good or bad outcome is good linkable content.It addresses a pain point in a vacuumWhat I mean by “addresses a pain point in a vacuum” is that your linkable asset will trulytake off if you hit upon a topic that nobody else is addressing.Beginner guides in new and emerging fields are good examples of this, as are “ultimateguides” that fill a space that is empty. The Authority Rules guide put up by Copyblogger isa free resource that filled an empty pain point, especially in a way that people weren’tentirely clear they even had.You can hunt down some great data for linkable asset idea if you monitor these three sites: • Google Internet Stats • Google Public Data • Data | World BankKeep in mind that addressing a pain point is not an easy task to pull off because theretends to be a lot of competition in a given field to meet a pain point. That’s why you’ll seerushes to create the ultimate guide when the latest social media tools are released.Mashable created an infographic called Global Internet Traffic Is Expected to Quadruple bythe Year 2015:This piece addresses an obvious need of companies looking to expand and grow—theinfographic gives them they have some ammunition to justify their decisions.We could learn a lesson from this infographic, since it is prediction-based. Even thoughthat prediction is a few years out, the data is truly what is really important, but that is likelyto change over time. The market may actually grow even larger, or shrink for someunexpected reason. You just don’t know with predictions, but in general they make forgood social sharing.It delivers evergreen contentIn order to ensure that your linkable asset delivers content day in and day out, every year,make sure you choose a topic that will not go out of fashion in a couple of months.For example, a prediction-style linkable asset usually doesn’t make the best example,because that content will go out of date eventually. Or they may even backfire if yourprediction doesn’t come true. It will work well, however, if your prediction comes true, or ifyou can continue to update it every year.Here are some examples for evergreen content: 96
  • 97. • Annual report: The reason the Feltron report works even though it is not evergreen content is that it is updated every year and placed upon the same link as the other reports. The same is true about SEOmoz’s annual ranking reports. • Guides: The guides that I mention above by Distilled and Smashing Magazine provide evergreen content in the form of “how-to” guides. Everybody needs this information and will for a long time. • Widgets: Pretty much as long as there are human beings there will be a desire to be rich…or at least to know how long it would take you to become a millionaire. That’s why the Bankrate calculator has been around for a while and will continue to generate traffic. • Tools: The classic example for a broad tool that is evergreen is Google’s keyword research tool.It must be brandedAt the end of the day, your linkable content must be about your brand. But more than justannouncing your brand, it must be done in such a way that promotes adoption aftersomeone reads, watches or uses it.For example, my company announces that our survey tool is “Powered by KISSinsights.”That’s the exchange we make for allowing someone to use the tool for free. You’ll also seecopy that reads “Get this widget,” which helps promote the adoption and spread of the toolby encouraging people to embed it in their site.This is what standard infographic branding element looks like:But as you probably know, branding doesn’t end with a simple tag line that lets theconsumer know the linkable asset is from you. You also have to make the design stunning.Good graphics matter! Here are some simple tips to help your linkable asset great-looking: • Create a seductive headline combined with a graphic above the fold that stops the reader cold. 97
  • 98. • Put custom-made graphics throughout the linkable asset that are special to it. This will carry the eye of the reader down the page and further brand it. • Use graphics-based headers. • Break out of the typical blog template and use a format that is shocking or unexpected. Boston Globe shares pictures that are at 900 pixels wide.It’s promotable to webmastersWhen you create that linkable asset, you have to market it. It’s not true that if you build itthey will come. Successful assets are given a big push by their creators, namely throughemails asking if you will share the content.That means that content must have zero commercial value, and a positive upside for you.I’ve gotten requests from asset creators letting me know that they are about to let a pieceof content “go live” and I and a select few have a privilege of leaking it early.This strategy works because I like the idea of getting in front of the flood, because if youare viewed as one of the original promoters, you are likely to get a lot of the early links toyour site via “hat tips.”By the way, when you are pitching to webmasters, create a headline that is newsworthy.Webmasters love content that carries a feeling of cutting-edge news.It’s easy to shareNowadays most everything is pretty easy to share because you can build sharing into theassets—like buttons, for example, that share the content immediately.What truly creates a linkable asset that’s easy to share is allowing the content to beembedded so people can share it on their own site, rather than just linking to it.Creating a badge for accomplishing some sort of task is another great example of linkableasset that is spread by embedding the code. For instance, once you “finish” Distilled’s linkbait guide, you can grab a badge that shows off your new knowledge:Monitoring your linkable assetThe wonderful thing with these assets is that you can leverage their appeal throughout theyear, or even over years. But you can’t know how they’re doing if you don’t monitor them.Follow the progress of your asset by using these tools: • Blog search • Social mentions search • Google alertsWith these tools, you can keep tabs on where your asset is traveling across the web, andthen make sure it’s linked correctly. If the link is broken, follow up with the webmaster toask to have it fixed.At some point you can re-purpose and re-introduce the content to get a fresh boost ofeyeballs. But if you are not keeping track of all the mentions and links, then you won’t beable to find fresh places to promote it.Start todayCan you see now how the linkable asset is a pretty big task? It takes time to create, andyou may not succeed on your first try. In fact, the odds are that you will probably fail. But 98
  • 99. that’s why it’s important to share a prototype to a small audience to help you work out thekinks and see if it will have a wider adoption.Have you created a linkable asset? Share your tips and advice with us in the comments.Neil Patel is an online marketing consultant and the co-founder of KISSmetrics. Healso blogs at Quick Sprout.Like 18 people like this.About Guest BloggerThis post was written by a guest contributor. Please see their details in the post above. Ifyoud like to guest post for ProBlogger check out our Write for ProBlogger page for detailsabout how YOU can share your tips with our community. 99
  • 100. EDUCATION 100
  • 101. New Media Literacy In Education: Learning Media UseWhile Developing Critical Thinking SkillsRetrieved from on Marrch 1, 2012"When it comes to helping them learn how to be citizens in a democracy,media literacy education is central to 21st century civic education."Learning to use participatory media technologies, refining ones own ability tospeak, present and communicate visually may indeed be among the mostprecious skills that the young generations of digital natives need to learn if youwant them to be able to affect sensible change in the future.The following two-part essay is the basic script for a keynote presentation thatHoward Rheingold delivered a couple of weeks ago to Itintroduces the foundations for understanding media literacy role in todays 101
  • 102. education and its critical importance in providing the intellectual assetsrequired to face todays highly complex information-based realities.Intro by Robin GoodVision of the Future - Part 1by Howard RheingoldMy interest in this subject has always been very personal. And I want tostart by emphasizing that the use of online communication for socializing byyoung people is nothing new.Certainly, the amount of access and the power of the tools available now issignificant, but today’s online social networks have evolved from the BBSs inteenager’s rooms that I started accessing in the 1980s when I first startedexploring the online world.Twenty years ago, I discovered social cyberspace when I was looking for newways to connect with other people. It took me several years to begin writing,studying, and speaking about the phenomenon. I’ve been a participant,observer, instigator, and entrepreneur.What I have to say comes from what I’ve learned as a student of socialcyberspace, and as a Netizen.Virtual communities are more than an area of expertise for me. They areplaces where I live a great deal of the time.My interest in new media literacies was kindled more than ten years ago, whenmy daughter was in middle school. 102
  • 103. Two phenomena in the early 1990s drew my attention: • a) a new kind of critical reading skill was necessary in the era of the search engine, and • • b) an education-based rather than a regulatory-based response to the moral panics that break out over young people online is badly needed.My daughter started writing research papers at the same time that Altavistabecame available in the mid 1990s. When she started using web search forresearch, I talked with her about about the way the Internet had changedcertainty about authority.Unlike the vast majority of library books, when you enter a term into asearch engine, I explained to my daughter, there is no guarantee that whatyou will find is authoritative, accurate, or even vaguely true.The locus of responsibility for determining the accuracy of texts shifted fromthe publisher to the reader when one of the functions of libraries shifted tosearch engines.That meant my daughter had to learn to ask questions about everythingshe finds in one of those searches.Who is the author?What do others say about the author?What are the authors sources?Can any truth claims be tested independently?What sources does the author cite, and what do others say about thosesources?Talking to my daughter about search engines and the necessity for a ten yearold to question texts online led me to think that computer literacy programsthat left out critical thinking were missing an important point. 103
  • 104. But, when I talked to teachers in my local schools, I discovered that "criticalthinking" is regarded by some as a plot to incite children to question authority.At that point, I saw education – the means by which young people learn theskills necessary to succeed in their place and time – as diverging fromschooling.Education, media-literacy-wise, is happening now after school and onweekends and when the teacher isnt looking, in the SMS messages, MySpacepages, blog posts, podcasts, videoblogs that technology-equipped digitalnatives exchange among themselves.Schools will remain places for parents to put their kids while they go to work,and for society to train a fresh supply of citizen-worker-consumers to beemployed by the industries of their time.But the kind of questioning, collaborative, active, lateral rather thanhierarchical pedagogy that participatory media both forces and enables is notthe kind of change that takes place quickly or at all in public schools.The second phenomenon that impressed me when my daughter was inmiddle-school, when the pre-web Internet was beginning to make news in themid-1990s, was the big fuss about pornography on the Internet (at the sametime that the Telecommunication Act of 1996 was divvying up the trillion dollarnew media economy in ways very few people were told about).The moral panic over Internet sexual predators led to legislation that, ifenforced, could well have led to reducing all public online discourse to whatyou would say in front of a 12 year old.I wrote columns about the rush to stupid legislation in 1994, and myconclusion back then was that no laws or technical barriers can preventdamaging or offensive material from being available without destroying thevalue of the Internet in the process. I testified as such in ACLU vs Reno, my 104
  • 105. daughter offered an affidavit about using good sense online, and theCommunications Decency Act went by the wayside.The judges in that case sat up and paid close attention when I mentioned thatpeople in some virtual communities make rules for themselves, and the courtrecognized that the sometimes messy and unattractive discourse taking placeonline back then was the very kind of speech that the First Amendment wasdevised to protect. Now we have DOPA.The answer now is the same as the answer then:someone needs to educate children about the necessity for critical thinking and encourage them to exercise their own knowledge of how to make moral choices.Part of that education – the basic moral values – is supposed to be whattheir parents and their religions are responsible for.But the teachable skill of knowing how to make decisions based on thosevalues has become particularly important now that a new medium suddenlyconnects young people to each other and to the worlds knowledge in ways noprevious generation experienced.We teach our kids how to cross the street and what to be careful about in thephysical world. And now parents need to teach their kids how to exercise goodsense online. Its really no more technical than reminding your children not togive out their personal information to strangers on the telephone or the street.When it comes to helping them learn how to be citizens in a democracy, medialiteracy education is central to 21st century civic education.At the same time that emerging media challenge the ability of old institutionsto change, I think we have an opportunity today to make use of the naturalenthusiasm of todays young digital natives for cultural production as well as 105
  • 106. consumption, to help them learn to use the media production and distributiontechnologies now available to them to develop a public voice about issues theycare about.Learning to use participatory media to speak and organize about issuesmight well be the most important citizenship skill that digital natives need tolearn if they are going to maintain or revive democratic governance.The media available to adolescents today, from videocameraphones to theirown websites, to laptop computers, to participatory media communities likeMySpace and Youtube, are orders of magnitude more powerful than thoseavailable in the age of the deskbound, text-only Internet and dial-up speeds.Those young people who can afford an Internet-connected phone or laptop aretaking to the multimedia web on their own accord by the millions– MySpacegets Google-scale traffic and Youtube serves one hundred million videos a day.Although the price of entry is dropping, there is still an economic divide;nevertheless, the online population under the age of 20 is significant enoughfor Rupert Murdoch to spend a quarter billion dollars to buy MySpace.And the fast-growing economic power of user-created -- and largely youth-created -- video was punctuated by Google’s 1.6 billion dollar purchase ofYouTube.Cultural and economic power is not the only sphere where participatorymedia are having an impact. A significant number of texters, bloggers, andsocial networkers have organized collective action in the physical world, aswell.In Madrid, texters defied the government and tipped an election.President Roh of Korea, who had been losing in the polls, was elected when alast-minute get-out-the-vote campaign was organized by the mostly youngreaders and writers of a website named OhMyNews. When the citizen-reporters 106
  • 107. for Korea’s OhMyNews called for street demonstrations to protest the attemptto impeach President Roh, tens of thousands of people hit the streets.Once again: When it comes to help new generations learn how to be citizensin a democracy, media literacy education is central to 21st century civiceducation, while critical thinking and learning to use participatory media tospeak and organize about issues might well be the most important citizenshipskills that digital natives need to learn if they are going to maintain or revivedemocratic governance.End of Part 1Howard Rheingold was the keynote speaker for education.aus final seminar for2007, when this presentation was held.Additional ResourcesHoward Rheingolds keynote presentation - This presentation focusses onvirtual communities and the need for new literacies to effectively engage withthe new media. 2 October 2007Question and answer session with Howard Rheingold - This audio file featuresthe question and answer session which followed the keynote presentation.October 2, 2007 • Howard Rheingolds personal website • The NMC Campus where Howards lecture took place. • Smart Mobs, the accompanying website to Rheingolds book of the same name • Henry Jenkins on Participatory Culture. • The MacArthur Foundation on digital media and learning.About the author 107
  • 108. Howard Rheingold is a critic and writer.His specialties are on the cultural, social and political implications of moderncommunication media such as the Internet, mobile telephony and virtualcommunities (a term he is credited with inventing). In 2002, Rheingoldpublished Smart Mobs, exploring the potential for technology to augmentcollective intelligence. Shortly thereafter, in conjunction with the Institute forthe Future, Rheingold launched an effort to develop a broad-based literacy ofcooperation.Howard Rheingold -Link: 108
  • 109. Oct. 12, 2011College students limit technology use during crunchtimeBy Catherine ODonnellNews and InformationRetrieved from on Marrch 1, 2012Video with overview of findings (2:50 minutes): new University of Washington study found college students – only weeks away fromfinal exams and in the library – tend to pare use of electronics. It’s their way to managetechnology that permeates their lives.Project Information LiteracyA student studying in one of the college libraries where Project Information Literacy conducted itssurvey.Today’s students may often be considered “heavy multitaskers” who are unable toconcentrate on one activity at a time.  However, based on 560 interviews in 11 collegelibraries around the country near exam time last spring, researchers found most studentsusing only one or two technology devices to support only one or two activities at a time— coursework and to a lesser extent, communication.“Our findings belie conventional wisdom about the multitasking generation – alwaysonline, always using a variety of IT devices to communicate, game and do theirhomework,” said Alison Head, a research scientist at the UW Information School who co- 109
  • 110. directed the study. “Our findings suggest students may be applying self-styled strategiesfor dialing down technology when the pressure is most on them.”Many students were using the library as a refuge and to limit technology-baseddistractions, such as Facebook. Few had used books, electronic or print resources, orlibrarians in the previous hour.Most said they were in the library because it was the best place they could concentrate,feel more studious and take advantage of library equipment, such as computers andprinters. Almost 40 percent had used the library’s computers or printers; the restdepended on materials and devices brought with them.The researchers also found that students use Facebook as a reward after 15, 30 or 60minutes of study. During the interviews, one student said, “If I get done reading a chapter,then I get on Facebook as a reward.”Project Information LiteracyA group of students in a college library Project Information Literacy visited in the last few weeks ofa term.But while students pare down to essential technology at crunch time, some wereinventive in the way they had used it earlier. Two thirds said they had used social mediafor coursework during the term. In post-interview discussions, students mentionedFacebook for coordinating meetings with classmates, and to a lesser extent, YouTubetutorials to understand material not clear in either textbooks or classroom instruction.“I am no longer bound by what the professor gives me in a class, and his perspective onsomething,” said one student. “There are lots of engineering forums that I can justGoogle.”Students were inventive in other ways as well. One said she used her smart phone torecord lecture notes so she could listen again and again. Another student said hephotographed problem sets from a library-reserve copy of a math book he couldn’tafford. He planned to study the problem sets while riding a bus. Yet another used awebsite, StudyBlue, to create flashcards to review on her smart phone.“The means by which students learn is fundamentally changing,” Head said, "andeducators from kindergarten all the way through graduate school must recognize it."In some cases, students said they left laptops at home to avoid temptation, and relied onlibrary equipment to write papers or study. And again, despite the vast amount ofinformation available on the Web, 61 percent of students had only one or two websitesopen.Researchers observed and interviewed students rather than merely rely on self-reporting.The 10 colleges where data was gathered included the UW, the University of PugetSound, Northern Kentucky University, the City College of San Francisco, Ohio StateUniversity and Tufts University. 110
  • 111. In addition to being a research scientist at the UW, Head is a fellow this year at theBerkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard University. Head’s co-researcher is MikeEisenberg, professor and dean emeritus at the UW Information School, and an expert ininformation and technology literacy. Together, they lead Project Information Literacy, anational and ongoing research study at the UW.Cengage Learning, a commercial information publisher, and Cable in the Classroom, anational education foundation, funded the study.The full report (72 pages, 6.1 MB) is also available at: photo illustrations, go to: 111
  • 112. THOUGHT LEADERS 112
  • 113. Tim CookBiography :Retrieved from on Marrch 1, 2012Tim Cook is the CEO of Apple and serves on its Board of Directors.Before being named CEO in August 2011, Tim was Apples Chief Operating Officer andwas responsible for all of the company’s worldwide sales and operations, including end-to-end management of Apple’s supply chain, sales activities, and service and support in allmarkets and countries. He also headed Apple’s Macintosh division and played a key rolein the continued development of strategic reseller and supplier relationships, ensuringflexibility in response to an increasingly demanding marketplace.Prior to joining Apple, Tim was vice president of Corporate Materials for Compaq and wasresponsible for procuring and managing all of Compaq’s product inventory. Previous to hiswork at Compaq, Tim was the chief operating officer of the Reseller Division at IntelligentElectronics.Tim also spent 12 years with IBM, most recently as director of North American Fulfillmentwhere he led manufacturing and distribution functions for IBM’s Personal ComputerCompany in North and Latin America.Tim earned an M.B.A. from Duke University, where he was a Fuqua Scholar, and aBachelor of Science degree in Industrial Engineering from Auburn University.Theory/Contributions:Ken’s Note: He helped build Apple’s recent success. Steve Jobs trusted him forsome of his biggest projects 113
  • 114. Video :Length: (2 videos) about 12 minutes totalRetrieved from Marrch 1, 2012 114
  • 115. Mark ZuckerbergBiography :Retrieved from on Marrch 1, 2012Theory/Contributions:The Evolution of Facebook’s Mission Statement By Gillian Reagan 7/13/09 9:32pmRetrieved from on Marrch 1, 2012Facebook’s mission statement seems simple: “Facebook’s mission is to give people thepower to share and make the world more open and connected.”But examine the changes in language from their slightly more subtle tagline, before theyedited it in 2008: “Facebook helps you connect and share with the people in your life.”Facebook, now at a $6.5 billion valuation according to The New York Times‘ Brad Stone,seems to be trying to reshape itself. No longer for merely posting pictures of drunk peoplefrom the holiday party, Facebook now empowers users to change the world by postinglinks, connecting with other influencers, sharing stories, and donating and buyingproducts. Facebook shifted their own power status by being more open—allowing peoplebeyond the Ivy Leagues to join the site and allow developers to build applications on theplatform. Since everyone seems to be on Facebook (even our dads!), every brand, mediacompany, gamer, author and Sal and Susie feel like they have to join so they can engagewith the rest of the world. It’s Mark Zuckerberg’s “portal for the masses,” as CNET’s DanBarber put it.Michael Galpert, co-founder of the Web-based creative application suite at, puttogether a blog post and a slideshow this morning, displaying how Facebook’s tagline haschanged since it was founded. He used “the way back machine and Chris Messina’s Flickrpage,” to create it, Mr. Galpert wrote. Here’s an outline: 115
  • 116. –Thefacebook is an online directory that connects people through social networksat colleges [Harvard only][2004]–Thefacebook is an online directory that connects people through social networks atcolleges [Limited to your own College or University][2004]–The Facebook is an online directory that connects people through social networks atschools [Now there are two Facebooks: one for people in college and one for peoplein high school] [2005]–Facebook is an online directory that connects people through social networks at schools[2006]–Facebook is a social utility that connects you with the people around you[Facebook is made up of lots of separate networks - things like schools, companies,and regions] [2006]–Facebook is a social utility that connects you with the people around you. [upload photosor publish notes - get the latest news from your friends - post videos on your profile - tagyour friends - use privacy settings to control who sees your info - join a network to seepeople who live, study, or work around you] [2007]–Facebook is a social utility that connects you with the people around you. [UseFacebook to… keep up with friends and family, share photos and videos, control privacyonline , reconnect with old classmates] [2008]–Facebook helps you connect and share with the people in your life. [2008]–Facebook gives people the power to share and make the world more open andconnected.[2009]Facebook representatives did not return messages for comment about this evolution oftheir mission statement, the process of each tagline’s creation and how it influences thecompany.But Mr. Galpert gave The Observer his own take: “Facebook in the early days strived tomake everyone connected via their social network,” he wrote in an email. “Now thateveryone is connected they have to show the world how this connectedness becomes morepowerful by being open. It took them 5 years to do and will probably take another 5 toevolve into something else while staying true to Mark Zuckerberg’s ideal of connectingones social graph.”Looking at Facebook’s mission statement also had Mr. Galpert considering his owncompany’s purpose—to make creative digital editing software accessible to everyone (likethose who don’t have a fancy Adobe Photoshop package) and every type of artist. “We 116
  • 117. continue to strive toward our mission of making creation accessible to artists of all genres,”Mr. Galpert wrote to The Observer. “As this becomes more of a reality the way peoplecreate content will be different and therefore our mission will evolve but still keep itsunderlying principles.”Is Mr. Zuckerberg’s principles for his “people,” or Facebook’s advertisers? Or both? Youdecide.--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Facebook -A fistful of dollarsFacebook may be a good bet for investors now; but regulatoryproblems lie aheadFeb 4th 2012 | from the print editionRetrieved from on Marrch 1, 2012IT ALL began as a lark. Mark Zuckerberg posted pictures of his fellow Harvard students online tolet viewers comment on who was hot and who was not. Eight years later, Facebook is one of thehottest companies in the world. On February 1st the social network announced plans for an initialpublic offering (IPO) that could value it at between $75 billion and $100 billion (see article). This isextraordinary. Investors believe that a start-up run by a cocky 27-year-old is more valuable thanBoeing, the world’s largest aircraftmaker. Are they nuts?Not necessarily. Facebook could soon boast one billion users, or one in seven of the world’spopulation. Last year it generated $3.7 billion in revenue and $1 billion in net profits. That isnowhere near enough to justify its price tag. But there are reasons to bet Facebook will justify thehype, for it has found a new way to harness a prehistoric instinct. People love to socialise, andFacebook makes it easier. The shy become more outgoing online. The young, the mobile and thebusy find that Facebook is an efficient way of staying in touch. You can do it via laptop or 117
  • 118. smartphone, while lying in bed, waiting for a bus or pretending to work. You can look up oldfriends, make new ones, share photos, arrange parties and tell each other what you thought of thelatest George Clooney film.In this sectionAs more people join Facebook, its appeal grows. Those who sign up (and it’s free) have access to awider circle. Those who don’t can feel excluded. This powerful feedback loop has already madeFacebook the biggest social-networking site in many countries. It accounts for one in seven minutesspent online worldwide. Its growth may be slowing in some rich countries—unsurprisingly, givenhow enormous it already is. And it is in effect blocked in China. But it is still growing fast in bigemerging markets such as Brazil and India.With a little help from my friendsA $100 billion price tag would hardly be cheap, but other tech giants are worth more: Google’smarket capitalisation is $190 billion, Microsoft’s $250 billion and Apple’s $425 billion. And thecommercial possibilities are immense, for three reasons.First, Facebook knows a staggering amount about its users. It is also constantly devising ways tofind out more, such as Timeline, a new profile page that encourages people to create an onlinearchive of their lives. The company mines users’ data to work out what they like and then hits theireyeballs with spookily well-targeted ads. Last year it overtook Yahoo! to become the leading sellerof online display ads in America.Second, Facebook is the most powerful platform for social marketing. Few sales pitches are aspersuasive as a recommendation from a friend, so the billions of interactions on Facebook nowinfluence everything from the music that people buy to the politicians they vote for. Companies, liketeenagers, are discovering that if they are not on Facebook, they are left out. Social commerce (or“s-commerce”) is still in its infancy, but a study by Booz & Company reckons that $5 billion-worthof goods were sold in this way last year.Finally, Facebook is becoming the world’s de facto online passport. Since so many people have aFacebook account under their real name, other companies are starting to use a Facebook login as ameans of identifying people online. It has even created its own online currency, the FacebookCredit.That is the case for Facebullishness. But there are also two sets of reasons to worry. The first is themanagerial challenge of jumping from start-up to giant. Facebook has only 3,200 employees, manyof whom will now become paper millionaires. The prospect of having to motivate VIP employees—Silicon Valley shorthand for workers “vesting in peace”—may explain why Mr Zuckerberg delayeda flotation so long. With the billions of dollars that the IPO will bring in, the firm will add morepeople and services. It has already rolled out an e-mail service and persuaded millions of otherwebsites to add buttons and links that enable Facebook users to share material. It is bound to add anonline-search function that will heat up its battle with Google, which is including information fromits Google+ social network in its own search results.Google has made the jump from popularity to profitability. For all its talk of new revenue streams,Facebook is still dangerously dependent on display ads. And there is a tension between attractingusers and squeezing money out of them. Facebook’s greatest asset is the information that its users 118
  • 119. willingly surrender to it. Turning such data into cash, however, will inevitably raise privacyconcerns. Most users don’t realise how much Facebook knows about them. If they start to feel thatit is abusing their trust, they will clam up and log out.What Rockefeller was to oil...This is where the other set of worries emerges—and these should concern more than just investors.America’s Federal Trade Commission has already forced Facebook to submit to a biennial externalaudit of its privacy policy and procedures. As this newspaper has argued before, it would be better ifFacebook, Google and other web giants switched their default settings from “opt-out” to “opt-in” (so that users had to give permission for the companies to use their data).Further down the line there is antitrust. Technology is fiendishly hard for competition tsars. On theone hand, it creates competitors quicker than any other industry (remember AltaVista, orMyspace?). On the other, network effects help to create monopolies. No other social network isnearly as big as Facebook, and it will soon be rich enough to buy up potential rivals. Many firmsfeel they have no choice but to deal with it, and some already resent its clout.For the moment, leaving Facebook alone makes sense. Its users can switch if something bettercomes along and its war with Google is only just beginning. If either firm behaves in a predatoryway, it should be punished. But just as Microsoft once fell foul of trustbusters, so the new webgiants surely will—for good and bad reasons. It seems likely that Google will soon face a probefrom the European authorities; Facebook will probably follow one day. The film has already beenmade, but the Facebook story is likely to get more intriguing.from the print edition | LeadersVideo :Length: 50 minutesRetrieved from Marrch 1, 2012 119
  • 120. Sergei BrinBiography :Retrieved from on Marrch 1, 2012 2 photos QUICK FACTS 1 NAME: Sergey Brin 2 OCCUPATION: Entrepreneur, Engineer 3 BIRTH DATE: August 21, 1973 (Age: 38) 4 EDUCATION: University of Maryland at College Park, Stanford University 5 PLACE OF BIRTH: Moscow, Russiamore about Sergey BEST KNOWN FORSergey Brin created Google, the worlds most popular search engine. Brin and Larry Page,Googles co-creator, still manage the company and are billionaires.SynopsisSergey Brin was born on August 21, 1973 in Moscow, Russia. His family emigratedto the United States to escape Jewish persecution in 1979. He met Larry Page atStanford University and the two created a search engine that would sort web pagesbased on popular search engine. Brin and Larry Page, Googles co-creator, still managethe company and are billionaires. 120
  • 121. Internet entrepreneur, computer scientist. Born on August 21, 1973 in Moscow,Russia. The son of a Soviet mathematician economist, Brin and his family emigratedto the United States to escape Jewish persecution in 1979. After receiving his degreein mathematics and computer science from the University of Maryland at CollegePark, Brin entered Stanford University, where he met Larry Page. Both students werecompleting doctorates in computer science.As a research project at Stanford University, Brin and Page created a search enginethat listed results according to the popularity of the pages, after concluding that themost popular result would often be the most useful. They called the search engineGoogle after the mathematical term "Googol," which is a 1 followed by 100 zeros, toreflect their mission to organize the immense amount of information available on theWeb.After raising $1 million from family, friends and other investors, the pair launchedthe company in 1998. Google has since become the worlds most popular searchengine, receiving more than 200 million queries each day. Headquartered in the heartof Californias Silicon Valley, Google held its initial public offering in August 2004,making Brin and Page billionaires. Brin continues to share the companys day-to-dayresponsibilities with Larry Page and CEO Eric Schmidt. In 2006, Google purchasedthe most popular Web site for user-submitted streaming videos, YouTube, for $1.65billion in stock.© 2012 A&E Television Networks. All rights reserved.Theory/Contributions:Retrieved from on Marrch 1, 2012Sergey Mihailovich Brin is the cofounder of Google, and is now the President ofTechnology at Google and has a net worth estimated at 11 billion US dollars.Born 1973 in Russia to a Jewish mathematician and economist. In 1979 BrinMoved to America with his family where his father worked as a professor ofmathematics at the University of Maryland, and his mother working as a specialistat NASA. Brin had an interest in computers from an early age, and he received hisfirst computer, a Commodore 64, from his father for his 9th birthday.Sergeys natural talent for mathematics and computing was soon apparent,surprising a teacher by submitting a project printed from the computer, at a timebefore computers were commonplace. Brin also gives credit for his success tohaving attended Montessori schools. In 1990, after he finished high school, Brinenrolled in the University of Maryland to study Computer Science and Mathematics,receiving his Bachelors of Science in 1993 with high honors. After graduating he 121
  • 122. received a graduate fellowship from the National Science Foundation, which heused to study a masters degree in Computer Science at Stanford University, andcompleting it ahead of schedule in august 1995.Sergey Brin’s defining moment in his life was when he met future Co-president ofGoogle, Larry Page. Brin was assigned to show Larry around the university.However they did not get on well in the beginning, arguing about every topic theydiscussed. The pair soon found a shared common interest in retrieving informationfrom large data sets. The pair later wrote what is widely considered their seminalcontribution, a paper called "The Anatomy of a Large-scale Hypertextual WebSearch Engine". The paper has since become the tenth most accessed scientificpaper at Stanford University.Soon after they started working on a project that later became the Google searchengine. After trying to sell the idea failed, they wrote up a business plan andbrought in a total initial investment of almost $1 million to start their own company.In September 1998 Google Inc. opened in Menlo Park, California. The companygrew so quickly and gained so many employees’ a few office relocations weremade due to lack of space, with Google Inc. finally settled in its current place atMountain View, California. Over the next few years headed by Larry and SergeyGoogle made many innovations and added to its list of products and employee’s(nearly 5000 by 2006). By October 2004 Google announced their first quarterlyresults as a public offered company, with record revenues of $805.9 million. As of2005 Brin has been estimated to be worth US$11 billion and is sixteenth in Forbes400 list and ranked the 2nd richest American under the age of 40.Despite Brin’s success, he has remained fairly unknown to the public. He is notknown to live a lavish lifestyle, driving an inexpensive car and still renting a two-bedroom flat.He is also a keen gymnast taking trapeze lessons. Like many of the Google staff,he often rides around work on roller skates and plays roller hockey during breaks.Keeping ties with his cultural heritage, Brin often dines in San Franciscos manyRussian restaurants.Video :Length: 22 MinutesRetrieved from Marrch 1, 2012 122
  • 123. Larry PageBiography :Retrieved from on Marrch 1, 2012As an Internet user you probably frequently visit sites like Google and Yahoo and you maybe wondering perhaps how they came to be. In the case of Google, it all started with twomen – Sergey Brin and Larry Page, who interestingly didnt get along well with each otherat first. As graduate students of Stanford University, the two would argue about practicallyeverything. Ironically, it is through their arguments that would eventually lead them to solvea mathematical problem that turned out to be Google. Photo by Freedom To Marry Photo by bpedroMajor ContributionsSergey Brin and Larry Page are mainly known for founding Google, Inc. in 1998, one ofthe biggest corporations specializing in Internet search and advertising. Google, in fact, isone of the most reliable search engines, alongside Yahoo and MSN. It has become ahousehold utility, many web surfers refer to web searching as simply a “Google”.AwardsBrin earned his Bachelor’s degree in mathematics and computer science from theUniversity of Maryland with honors. He has a Master’s degree from Stanford Universityand is currently working on his Ph.D. in computer science also at Stanford University. Brin,along with Page, received an honorary MBA from the IE Business School in 2003. Bothare Marconi Foundation recipients of the Highest Award in Engineering in 2004. Brin isnow a member of the National Academy of Engineering. Aside from the honorary MBAfrom the IE Business School, Page also earned an Honorary Doctorate Degree from theUniversity of Michigan. He has been named Global Leader for Tomorrow by the WorldEconomic Forum. 123
  • 124. Under the strong and able leadership of Brin and Page, Google has earned many awards,as well, including “Best Company To Work For” in 2008, “Best Search Engine” in 2003,and “Best Paid Search Program” also in 2003.Other InterestsBrin and Page are both concerned with the energy and climate problems. They play a veryactive role in getting companies to search for innovative solutions to energy problems.Both are engaged with Tesla Motors, an alternative energy company that developed TeslaRoadster, the revolutionary electric battery vehicle.Brin also has made investments with the space tourism company, Space Adventures,based in Virginia, which plans to make a proposed space flight in 2011 possible. Born aRussian, Brin is a member of a networking organization for Russian-speaking businessprofessionals in the United States, the AmBAR.SummaryIt’s pretty obvious that these two have more things in common than their love for ideas andinnovation. 1 Major contributions – both founded Google, Inc. the largest Internet company specializing in Internet search and advertising technology. 2 Awards and Citations – both achieved honorary MBA degrees from IE Business School, and recipients of the Marconi Foundation Highest Award in Engineering. Brin is now a member of the famed National Academy of Engineering. Page was named Global Leader for Tomorrow. 3 Other interests – both are involved with alternative energy. Both have investments with Tesla Motors. Brin has also invested with Space Adventures which would make a proposed flight into space in 2011 possible.Theory/Contributions:See AboveVideo :Length:Retrieved from Marrch 1, 2012 124
  • 125. Ev WilliamsBiography :Follow on Twitter:!/evRetrieved from on Marrch 1, 2012Theory/Contributions:Anything Could HappenRetrieved from on Marrch 1, 2012Evan Williamss first little idea shifted the culture. (You can thank him for the ubiquity ofblogging.) His new business, called Twitter, will be entering your Why does this stuff happen? Because he lets it. Justin StephensEvan Williamss first little idea shifted the culture. (You can thank him for the ubiquity of blogging.)His new business, called Twitter, will be entering you consciousness 125
  • 126. Jonathan SpragueThe Idea Factory Williamss office is his business philosophy made manifest: Find smart people;put then together; stand backWhat is Evan Williams doing?I ask myself this as I consume a second cup of strong coffee in a quiet San Francisco café. Itis early in the morning on the first workday of the new year, and Williams is apparentlyblowing me off. For the past two weeks he has ignored my e-mails, phone calls, and textmessages. We were supposed to meet this morning to discuss his next move; instead wehave radio silence.This is odd. Williams is the sort of person who cant seem to do anything, no matter howtrivial, without blogging, photo-sharing, or text-messaging the news. He founded Blogger,the website that introduced the world to blogging and now attracts some 163 millionvisitors each month. He has maintained a detailed personal blog for more than a decade--posting pictures, explaining his latest theories on business, and huffing about the cablecompany. His new business, called Twitter, takes it a step further: It lets exhibitionists,techies, and--a hint of things to come--marketers blast their latest doings to cell phones. Sohes not just a practitioner of hyperconnectedness; he practically invented the concept.Eventually, Williams sends me an apologetic text message--we resolve to push back themeeting slightly--and then he does something else: He uses Twitter to send a text messageto, oh, a few thousand people: "Late for my first meeting of the year and in need of ashave."Like so many technology entrepreneurs, Williams, whose friends call him Ev, is a softwareengineer. But unlike many of the most successful, hes no genius when it comes toprogramming. His specialty is taking a tiny, almost nonsensical idea and turning it into acultural phenomenon. "Hes like a master craftsman," says Naval Ravikant, a serialentrepreneur who is an angel investor in Twitter. "There are entrepreneurs who arefinancial geniuses, and there are raw coders. Evan is the master of creating a productwhere there wasnt one before." If Williamss art is the conception of inconceivableproducts, then Twitter is his chef-doeuvre.What is Twitter? Its hard to explain--Williams and his co-founders have wrestled withthis--but it helps to begin in familiar territory: blogging. A blog is an online diary, in whichsomeone holds forth on a topic, like vacation itineraries or the case against Roger Clemens.Now strip this to the core. A typical entry--say, a couple of paragraphs, some links,pictures, or maybe a funny YouTube video--becomes a 140-character plain text comment.(Thats the maximum length of a Twitter message--also known as a tweet--and the exactlength of the previous sentence.) Instead of sitting down in front of a screen and typing acouple of paragraphs into a form, you compose your message quickly on your phoneskeypad. Instead of having readers come to your website to check out your latest, you blastit directly to their cell phone inboxes. A recent selection of Williamss tweets includes:"Considering making February external-meeting free," "Relaxing my shoulders. Writing alittle code. Drinking Guayaki," and "Packing my warmest clothes for Chicago." Eachsnippet is sent to his 5,644 (and counting) "followers," as theyre called in Twitter-speak:the friends, acquaintances, and stalkers who have elected to keep tabs on his every move. 126
  • 127. This is Twitter, in all its wildly popular, ridiculous glory. The service, which had a fewthousand users at the beginning of last year, had close to 800,000 at the beginning of thisone. Because Twitter allows anyone to send messages to thousands of cell phones at onceand for free, new uses are popping up. JetBlue (NASDAQ:JBLU) and Dell(NASDAQ:DELL) use it as a kind of mailing list; presidential candidates use it to contactsupporters; the Los Angeles fire department uses it as a de facto emergency broadcastsystem. As with all movements, theres a backlash. The United Arab Emirates recentlybanned the service, and there are lots of cautionary tales about Twittering gone bad. (I hadsuch an experience when, en route to an unfortunately named barbecue restaurant, ITwittered, and then hastily deleted, this gem: "Walking to Smoke Joint.")As a cultural phenomenon, Twitter is a comer--having been featured in an episode of CSI,on MTV, and in nearly every major newspaper--but its status as a business is nebulous.The 14-person company is unprofitable (its single largest source of revenue last year wasthe subleasing of half a dozen desks to three small start-ups at $200 a desk a month), andthere are no immediate plans for it to be anything otherwise. Although some technologiststhink Twitter could one day be a billion-dollar company, many others say it represents theworst of Web 2.0: a company that is built to flip, that does little of value and has no long-term prospects as a standalone enterprise. Williams and his collaborators dont entirelydispute this notion. Co-founder Jack Dorsey, the services inventor, freely admits thatTwitter is "useless, in a sense" and that many people are "violently turned off" by the ideaof constant communications. But, he adds, "theres a lot of value in seemingly uselessthings."This strange statement encapsulates Williamss business philosophy. He believes thatsmall ideas are almost always better than grand visions. That Twitters main function--telling you what your friends are doing--is included as a feature in Facebook, MySpace,and most instant messaging programs doesnt bother him in the slightest. "I think featurescan make great companies," he says. "You just have to choose them right." Moreover, heargues, a product can succeed by doing less than a competitive product. Case in point:Google (NASDAQ:GOOG), which rocketed to popularity because of a single feature--thesearch box--while its chief competitor, Yahoo (NASDAQ:YHOO), offered dozens ofservices, from search to stock quotes to horoscopes. Google operated for years without abusiness model before it figured out that it could throw off billions in cash by serving littletext ads next to its search results. "Applying constraints can help your company and yourcustomers in unexpected ways," says Williams. "The default thing we do is ask how we canadd something to make it better. Instead we should say, What can we take away to createsomething new?"That an entrepreneur can look at something as silly as Twitter and say, Yes, this is thefuture, is remarkable. Technology inventors have a horrible track record of turning newbehaviors into long-term financial successes--social networking pioneer Friendster waslong ago lapped by MySpace and Facebook; the first search engines, Web browsers, andvideo game systems met similar fates. And its not as if Williams doesnt have the money(he made a reported $50 million selling Blogger to Google) or the connections (Twittersangel investors read like a whos who of Silicon Valley) to attempt something moreambitious.But he doesnt care to. And he probably doesnt need to. Mass adoption of broadband andsocial networking have made finding customers cheaper, and a booming online advertisingmarket has made it easier to turn a profit once you attract them. Moreover, a handful of 127
  • 128. acquisition-happy tech companies have shown a willingness to add services by buying tiny,money-losing start-ups for tens of millions of dollars. These may be signs of yet anothertechnology bubble, but there are smart people, like start-up financier Paul Graham, whoargue that technology start-ups are undergoing a fundamental change, becoming smaller,cheaper to start, and more numerous--in short, commoditized. We may be entering an eraof the little idea, a time tailor-made for Evan Williams.Williams grew up on a corn farm in Clarks, Nebraska (population 379). Hes a self-taughtcoder, having dropped out of college after only a year to start a company. But this wasntBill Gates dropping out of Harvard to start Microsoft (NASDAQ:MSFT). The college wasthe University of Nebraska-Lincoln, and the companies--there were three failures in fiveyears--were unambitious, money losing, and admittedly dopey. Williamss most successfulproduct was a CD-ROM for fans of the Cornhuskers football team. Finally, convinced hestill knew little about how to run a business, he cut his losses, took a Web development jobin California, and started writing about it.Today, Williams is 35 years in age and unassuming in appearance. He talks quietly in thesoft, flat tones of a Midwesterner. Hes handsome, but ordinarily so. In person, wearing anice pair of jeans, a gray T-shirt, and a cashmere cardigan, he is subdued and guarded.When his bagel with peanut butter and banana is brought to our table sans banana, heseems to struggle mightily as he weighs what to do about it. Williams often speakstentatively, revising, disclaiming, and qualifying his thoughts in a manner that mostbusinesspeople would take as a sign of weakness. When I ask him a question on start-upfinance, he starts with a disclaimer. "I was thinking a little differently before," he says,pausing. "I wonder why that is?" A conversation with Williams can quickly devolve into aninscrutable merry-go-round of ideas.But to meet him online is a different story. Many of the qualities that make Williamsawkward in real life play beautifully on, the online journal he has maintainedsince 1996. Williamss honesty, his tendency toward frankness, and his willingness toadmit not knowing everything make him different from most business bloggers. Theymake him interesting.As the name suggests, Evhead is a record of Williamss thoughts, profound and otherwise.In the past months he has posted a picture of himself and his wife, Sara, with a stuffedblack bear--as well as a thoughtful essay on how to evaluate a new software product and anuntitled post that reads, "Im awake at 5:37 (for two hours now). Thinking about so manythings." Even 15 years ago, an entrepreneur who did this would have seemed creepy orridiculous. But to members of the Facebook generation, who meticulously groom theironline profiles--posting photos while sharing everything from their political preferences towhats currently in their Netflix queue--Williams comes off as likable, even humble.Some 25,000 people, mostly techies and entrepreneurs, look at Evhead each month.(Many of these readers also follow his Twitterings.) Dorsey had followed Williamss blogfor years. He knew it so well that when he spotted Williams on the street in San Francisco,he recognized him immediately and decided to apply for a job. "It was the first time Idseen him in person," Dorsey says, as if he were talking about a celebrity he had neverconsidered a real person. "I took it as a sign." In the online world, Williams is seen as atruth teller, an engineer whos not afraid to stick it to the suits and the venture capitalists.Hes someone who actually understands the process of invention and who values it morethan he does the bottom line. To read his blog is to watch the growth of a human being: 128
  • 129. You see Ev nearly lose his company, bring it back from the dead, strike it big, struggle withthe tech support for his new cell phone, and get married. In Williams, a new generation ofentrepreneurs has a mascot.Its January 31, 2001, and Evan Williams is alone in his apartment, writing a blog post forEvhead. Its a big one. His company, Pyra Labs, is on life support, and Williams has justlaid off the entire staff. (His co-founder and ex-girlfriend, Meg Hourihan, quit rather thanbe laid off.) The trouble is partly the result of the Internet bust--the Nasdaq has beentanking for months, and Williamss investors have told him he must make do with whathes got--but its also, in a strange way, a result of his companys unlikely popularity.Williams and Hourihan started Pyra, in 1998, with a plan to develop and sell projectmanagement software. They did contract Web programming for Hewlett-Packard to paythe bills while they developed their product. So they could keep track of each othersprogress, Williams created a piece of software he called Stuff, which, it turned out, was afar simpler and more useful collaboration tool than the one he was building for Pyra. Stuffallowed him to quickly upload text to a webpage by filling out a simple form, and itorganized the text by date. He and Hourihan joked that it worked better than their actualproduct. Only Williams wasnt joking. While Hourihan was on vacation, in August 2000,he put it online as took off. Online diaries had existed since the birth of the Internet, but they hadbeen difficult to maintain and organize and were therefore limited to serious techies.Blogger made communicating your thoughts to the world much easier and more satisfying:Fill out a simple form, click a button, and--bang--youre a published writer. By 2001,Blogger had attracted 100,000 users and the beginnings of what seemed like a healthybuzz, even though it made no money and had no model for changing that.So as he sits in his apartment and blogs, Williams finds himself in an odd place. Hesrunning a company thats more popular and growing faster than he could have possiblyimagined. Its also flat broke. Several weeks earlier, Williams had written a post thatbegged users to donate money to keep the servers running. It worked: He raised more than$10,000 in $10 and $20 money transfers made through PayPal. Now hes got to figure outhow to save the company. Writing the blog post, which he titles "And Then There WasOne," he describes the layoff, wishes his former employees well--"Hopefully ourfriendships will survive"--and then finally addresses his customers: "Im still fighting thegood fight," he writes. "The product, user base, brand, and vision are still somewhat intact.Amazingly. Thankfully. In fact, Im actually in surprisingly good shape. Im optimistic. (Imalways optimistic.) And I have many, many ideas. (I always have many ideas.)"With no personnel costs, Blogger hung on. In March, there was a $40,000 licensing dealwith Trellix, a business software start-up whose founder, a Blogger admirer, read aboutWilliamss plight on his blog and decided he wanted to help save the company. By the latesummer, Williams had a business model. He had been making next to nothing placingbanner ads on peoples blogs. Now he would charge those people $12 a year to remove theads. Meanwhile, Pyra--and the phenomenon of blogging--grew like gangbusters through2001. By the middle of 2002, there were 600,000 registered users. In late 2002, Googlecame calling. Sergey Brin and Larry Page offered to buy Williamss little company and lethim run it inside their highflying (and still private) search start-up. Williams blogged thenews of his acceptance while delivering a speech at a technology conference. "Holy Crap," 129
  • 130. he wrote, linking the words to a minutes-old article on the sale. "Note to self: When you getoff this panel, you should probably comment on this."The experience of shepherding Blogger through growth, then hardship, until he finallyturned it into a real company cemented Williamss philosophy of business. He would be anentrepreneur who looked for value in things that seemed worthless. Faith--in ones ability,in ones chosen path, and, above all else, in the fact that there are always opportunitiesahead--was a companys greatest need. Stick to your product, forget about scrambling fordeals, and good things will happen.The belief that faith is an important business attribute goes a long way in describing howWilliams is able to see opportunities. "He has a stubbornness of vision," says Tim OReilly,the tech luminary who runs publisher OReilly Media and who coined the term "Web 2.0."OReilly was Williamss first employer in Silicon Valley and an investor in Pyra. "There areso many me-too start-ups on the Web, so many people saying this will be the next bigthing, but the successful entrepreneurs are people who see the world differently."Williamss closest collaborator, Twitter co-founder Biz Stone, says much the same. "He hasa tendency to wait just a bit longer than everyone else would, to give an idea more time,"Stone says. "It is patience and perseverance and hope--all those things rolled up into one."After leaving Google at the end of 2004, with his fast-appreciating stock and a world-classeducation in business, Williams resolved to tread water until the right opportunity camealong. "While I think Im likely to start another company sometime," he wrote on his blog,"Im forcing myself to be noncommittal at the moment. My goal is to develop someperspective, learn new things, rest, and explore." He promised to travel and to think abouthow he would change his life.He didnt do much of either. His next-door neighbor, an entrepreneur named Noah Glass,was starting a podcasting company, and Williams began advising him in the weeksfollowing his departure from Google. Advising turned into full-time work, and full-timework turned into being co-founder, seed investor, and, eventually, CEO. By February 2005,he had invested $170,000 and personally launched the company, now called Odeo, with ademonstration at TED, the invitation-only tech conference held in Monterey, California.That same day, a front-page article in the business section of The New York Times profiledOdeo and its famous founder. Williams, it seemed, was on his way to turning anotherweird technology phenomenon into the next big thing.But Odeo had no real product--only a sense that podcasting was somehow going to bepopular. The website that Williams unveiled at TED, an audio directory and a few simpletools for recording ones own podcasts, wasnt ready for the public until a few months later,and by then it had been overshadowed by Apples release of podcasting features for iTunes.Odeos strategy, if there was one, was to be a one-stop shop for Internet audio, offering anumber of tools for podcasters and casual listeners. Being all things to all people requiredmoney, and there were plenty of eager investors who wanted in on Evs next big thing. Heraised $5 million from the venture capitalists Charles River Ventures and a number ofhigh-profile angels, including OReilly, Google backer Ron Conway, and Lotus founderMitch Kapor. The company quickly started hiring, and by the end of the year, it employed14 people.While he was trying to come up with a strategy for Odeo, Williams was processing thelessons of the past few years. In the fall of 2005, he wrote what he calls "my best blog post 130
  • 131. ever." It was called "Ten Rules for Web Startups," and it has since become something of anInternet classic. (Google the title and youll get more than a thousand results, nearly all ofwhich point to Williamss post.) The lessons were lifted from his experience at Blogger,particularly the first one, "Be Narrow," which urged entrepreneurs to "Focus on thesmallest possible problem you could solve that would be potentially useful." Other lessonswere "Be Tiny," "Be Picky," and "Be Self-Centered," which discussed the importance ofcompany founders using their own products.Even as he wrote his rules, he was ignoring them. He wasnt even podcasting. As Odeosputtered, struggling to gain new users, Williams began to see his problem as one ofcorporate structure. He had accepted millions of dollars in investment capital, built a team,and worked the media before he knew what his company was. Odeo needed toexperiment--to play, even. "If we were just two guys in a garage, we could say, I dontknow about that idea, but lets see where it goes, " he says. His solution was to organizewhat he called a "hack day." He broke the company into small groups and told them tospend a day experimenting--not just with podcasting, but with anything that struck theirfancy. It was Dorseys project that struck Williamss. Dorsey had long been fascinated bythe status function on instant message programs: the short, pithy postings that allow youto tell your online friends what you are doing. He built a prototype of Twitter in two weeks."Thinking twttr is the awesomest," Williams Twittered in March 2006. With little fanfare itwent live in July. Like Blogger before it, Twitter was introduced as an experiment, a funlittle side project. Nonetheless, Williams was excited--more excited than hed been aboutanything that had happened at Odeo. This got him thinking about the hack day that hadled him to Twitter--and then about the two years in which he had struggled to buildanything, despite having plenty of money and all the hype in the world.How had a single experiment succeeded where an entire company couldnt? And moreimportant, how could he do more of them?On October 25, 2006, Williams blogged his answer. He was buying Odeo, taking the odd--to some, almost unbelievable--step of returning his venture capitalists money. It cost him$3 million out of pocket, plus all the cash Odeo still had. It was a lot to pay for a failingWeb company and an unproven prototype.He called the new endeavor Obvious, a nod to a lesson learned from the success atBlogger--that seemingly silly and trivial ideas often look like great ones in retrospect.Obvious would be a workshop where Williams and his cohorts could experiment with ideasin an environment free from financial distractions. If an idea worked really well, he couldspin it off into an independent company using outside investment. Otherwise, he couldeither keep it for Obvious or throw it away. "I dont want to have to worry about gettingbuy-in from executives or a board, raising money, worrying about investors perceptions,or cashing out," he blogged. The move was widely seen as heroic. "Odeo Buys Back Soul,"read the headline of gossip blog Valleywag.Shortly after buying Odeo, Williams wrote a blog post that announced his intentions to sellthe podcasting part of the company--a New York start-up paid a reported $1 million for theservice--and focus on Twitter. The text messaging service had its coming-out party at theSouth by Southwest technology festival in March, where conference attendees eagerlybegan Twittering one another. From there it grew rapidly, reaching a hundred thousandusers in a matter of weeks and garnering nationwide media coverage. In July, Williams 131
  • 132. formally spun off the company, raising several million dollars from Union SquareVentures, a New York City VC with a hands-off reputation. (Managing partner FredWilson, who, judging from his Twitters, really, really loves to eat at Murrays Bagels, hadbeen using the service for months.) Williams appointed Dorsey CEO and told him to focusexclusively on fixing Twitters reliability problems. Though Williams remains the singlelargest shareholder, he has taken pains to stay out of Twitter. The business model, he says,can wait until millions of people are using it.Beginning on the first day of this year, Williams started working in earnest on Obvious. Hiswork area is a small nook under a lofted conference room in Twitters San Francisco office.The building has served as a private home, a snowboard factory, and an underwear store.The soiled carpet is a sort of puke-green color, and the only natural light comes from a fewskylights far overhead. To date, Williams has hired two contract engineers to build smallsoftware products; they are building an application that will allow users to write "notes toself." Obvious isnt particularly counting on this product--"Its almost not worth talkingabout," Williams says--but thats the point. Williams wants to make product developmentless risky and more prone to the kind of spontaneity that created Twitter.At the same time, hes trying to find early-stage start-ups to roll up into Obvious. He sayshe would like to invest roughly $100,000 in each company. Everyone will work in the sameoffice, which means he will eventually have to look for additional space. Hes also trying tohire an assistant: The job description warns that the candidate will be paid hourly "untilyou set up the payroll system for the company, and then we can discuss salary andinsurance (once you set that up, too)."The goal is to separate the creative environment of the start-up process from the regularwork-a-day of running a business. "Its all theory for now," Williams says. "But werehoping that by setting up an environment with multiple projects at once, these happyaccidents can occur." If this sounds unbusinesslike, then thats the point, too. Obvious is,in the broadest sense, a company founded on the idea that its hard to predict which ideaswill work and which wont. "Its almost like a theater troupe," says Stone. "The idea is totinker around and to be willing to come up with flops."Like most good theater, Williamss new company is at once disruptive and self-indulgent--an ambitious challenge to the Silicon Valley rule book and a test for all of those blog-worntheories. The company of little experiments is itself an experiment, and a chance for Ev todo something grand on his own terms.Max Chafkin wrote the December cover story about Inc.s 2007 Entrepreneur of the Year,Elon Musk. Senior contributing writer Max Chafkin has profiled companies such as Yelp, Zappos, Twitter, Threadless, and Tesla for the magazine. He lives in Brooklyn, New York. @chafkinVideo :Length: 8 MINUTES 132
  • 133. Retrieved from on Marrch1, 2012 133
  • 134. Sheryl SandbergBiography :Follow on twitter:!/sherylsandbergRETRIEVED FROM ON MARCH 1, 2012Ms. Sheryl K. Sandberg has been Chief Operating Officer of Facebook, Inc. since March2008. Ms. Sandberg is responsible for helping Facebook scale its operations and expandits presence globally and also managed sales, marketing, business development, humanresources, public policy, privacy and communications. She served as Vice President ofGlobal Online Sales & Operations of Google Inc., from November 2001 to March 2008.She was responsible for online sales of Googles advertising and publishing products. Shejoined Google Inc. in 2001. She was also responsible for sales operations for Googlesconsumer products and Google Book Search. Prior to Google, Ms. Sandberg served asthe Chief of Staff for the United States Treasury Department, where she helped lead itswork on forgiving debt in the developing world. Before that, she served as a ManagementConsultant with McKinsey & Company and as an Economist with The World Bank, whereshe worked on eradicating leprosy in India. She has been a Director of Starbucks Corp.since March 2009. She has been an Independent Director of Walt Disney Co. sinceDecember 2009. Ms. Sandberg served as Director of The Advertising Council Inc. Sheserved as Director of eHealth, Inc. from May 2006 to December 17, 2008. She is aDirector at One Campaign and Leadership Public Schools. She is Director of Google Foundation and directs the Google Grants program. She serves on a numberof nonprofit boards including The Brookings Institution, The AdCouncil, Women for WomenInternational, and V-Day. In 2008, Ms. Sandberg was named as one of the "50 MostPowerful Women in Business" by Fortune and one of the "50 Women to Watch" by TheWall Street Journal. Ms. Sandberg received a A.B. in Economics from Harvard Universityand was awarded the John H. Williams Prize as the top graduating student in Economics.She was a Baker and Ford Scholar at Harvard Business School, where she earned anMBA with highest distinction.Theory/Contributions:Retrieved from onMarrch 1, 2012Why Facebook Needs SherylSandbergMark Zuckerbergs second-in-command provides "adultsupervision" at the company, trying to keep growth at anoptimum levelBy Brad Stone 134
  • 135. Retrieved from on Marrch 1, 2012On a Tuesday afternoon in late April, 30 managers of Facebooks various business unitscome together to discuss a matter that preoccupies its famous founder: how to keep theirrapidly growing little company from getting too big. The meeting, organized and led by thesecond-most-famous person at the social network, Chief Operating Officer SherylSandberg, focuses on how to solve the problems of users, advertisers, and partnerwebsites by using automated systems rather than bringing in thousands of newemployees.One by one, the managers stand and present their progress on new productivity-generating tools. A service called social verification offers a way for Facebook memberswho get locked out of their accounts to have friends verify their identity. Another newsystem intends to scare away creators of fake profile accounts by displaying their locationson a map and asking if they really want to continue.Sandberg, sitting with one leg tucked underneath her, the other folded over the arm of thechair, listens intently and responds with a mix of positive feedback and disarmingcamaraderie. "That is a huge accomplishment," she says when an international managertalks about new efficiencies in the Hyderabad office. "Whoever worked on this, you guysshould feel great. It took us four years at Google to do this." The success of an automatedtool that eliminates duplicate profiles on the service evokes an "awesome."Sandberg hopes the new procedures discussed at these meetings will allow the Palo Altocompany to maintain a moderate pace of hiring. She believes that other booming Internetcompanies that doubled and tripled their staffs during similar periods of unchecked growth—Google (GOOG) has more than 26,000 employees—eventually came to regret theinnovation-killing bureaucracy that resulted. Facebook has only 2,500 employees. A newheadquarters under renovation one town over in Menlo Park, on the former SunMicrosystems campus, currently maxes out at about 3,600. "We think one of the best waysto stay small is just to stay smaller," Sandberg says later.As the meeting winds down, a product manager shows a slide that nearly makesSandberg jump out of her seat. The chart displays Facebooks advertising revenue andvolume—both lines are tilting upward. It also shows the number of man-hours spent onsupport operations, a line that holds steady. "This is a beautiful chart. I might frame it onmy wall," Sandberg says. "Guys, this is the difference. This is about, how big do we wantto be as a company?"Ever since Silicon Valley started turning out companies with beautiful growth charts,entrepreneurs and their investors have talked about the need for "adult supervision"—aseasoned executive who can take over a startup from its inexperienced founders, guide itthrough the hazards of hyperkinetic expansion, and convert a great idea or breakthroughtechnology into a bona fide business. Today, however, young founders generally want toremain at the helm of their companies, and theres a new shorthand for the kind of leaderwhos willing to serve as a second-in-command, complementing without overshadowingthe wunderkind entrepreneur: a Sheryl Sandberg. As in, "were growing, but God knowshow well make money. What we really need is a Sheryl Sandberg." 135
  • 136. No one needs a Sandberg more than the company that currently has her. In the threeyears since Sandberg, 41, defected from Google and joined Facebook as its COO, shehas helped to steer the company to previously unimaginable heights, devising anadvertising platform thats attracted the worlds largest brands and forging a remarkablytrusting partnership with Mark Zuckerberg, its imperious 26-year-old founder. (He turns 27on May 14.)Even with all that, Sandberg now faces her toughest challenge. Facebook, which hasgrown from 66 million members when she joined to more than 640 million, is undergoingthe kind of metastatic growth that tends to sow organizational turmoil. Her job is to "scale"Facebook, or help it grow, cranking up its business engine and justifying the grosslyinflated expectations for the social network, which many bankers believe could make ahuge splash with a $100 billion initial public offering later this year or early in 2012. Suchan IPO would instantly make Facebook one of the most richly valued Internet companiesin the world; it would also raise the level of scrutiny the company is under—and its alreadythe focus of obsessive attention—by another order of magnitude. Sandberg says shes notdaunted by the challenge, but adds that the only expectations that Facebook is trying tomeet are its own. "I assure you that no ones expectations are higher than MarkZuckerbergs," she says, "and I dont mean in terms of market cap. We want the wholeworld to use Facebook to share and connect."Facebook and Sandberg have their work cut out for them. The company is confronting thekinds of obstacles that for years have bedeviled its left-brained founder. Theres a steadyexodus of senior tech employees, looking to cash in their stock on the secondary markets.Theres yet another improbable lawsuit over the firms Harvard origins; contentious internaldeliberations over whether to open operations in China; and, of course, ongoing issueswith privacy. Even under Sandbergs watch, the company has repeatedly angeredconsumers over whats private and whats public on Facebook.Yet for all that she has on her plate, few are willing to bet against her, and friends andcolleagues rave about her deftness with the subtle form of persuasion known as softpower. "Shes truly the best operating executive I have ever met in my life," says MattCohler, an early Facebook executive and now a venture capitalist. Jim Breyer, a Facebookboard member, adds: "I can say very simply I have never seen anyone with hercombination of infectious, enthusiastic spirit combined with extraordinary intelligence."Sandbergs light touch stands in stark contrast to the nerd machismo of other Valley icons.Steve Jobs and Larry Ellison can hardly be called nurturing; former Intel (INTC) ChiefExecutive Officer Andy Grove was so intimidating that he once made an employee faintduring a performance review. "Ive cried at work," Sandberg says. "Ive cried to Mark. Hewas great. He was, like, Do you want a hug? Are you O.K.? ""Without her," says Zuckerberg, "we would just be incomplete."Back in early 2008, before Sandberg came aboard, Zuckerberg had a reputation as ahubristic geek who had developed a service around human relationships without seemingto understand them. Facebooks membership growth had slowed, top executives werebickering, and the company was on the receiving end of an angry backlash over an ill-conceived advertising service called Beacon, which some users complained divulged theironline purchases to friends without their permission. 136
  • 137. Facebooks biggest concern was the absence of a sustainable, scalable business model.The company had an agreement with Microsoft (MSFT) to power search and place bannerads on the social network, and was conducting failing experiments with online classifiedsand allowing users to buy virtual gifts for one another. Like many technological purists,Zuckerberg looked down on the ignoble business of selling ads. "I think early on we hadalmost this phobia that we shouldnt focus too much on [ads], because that meant we werenot putting our best foot forward on user products," he says.With his new COO in place, Zuckerberg embarked on a month-long trip around the world—and Sandberg set about forging a new ad business. She convened a series of regularafter-work meetings at the companys downtown Palo Alto offices, ordering in food andscrawling potential revenue opportunities on white boards. The possibilities, she recalls,boiled down to two categories—making users pay or making advertisers pay. Employeesquickly agreed with her that the latter was far more appealing. "It was stressful becausethis was about our entire business and all of our revenue," she says.Outside reviews from that early period were mixed. Several high-profile execs departed,such as Cohler and Chief Technology Officer Adam DAngelo, who went on to create thequestion-and-answer website Quora. The tech gossip blog Valleywag photo-shopped arifle onto a picture of Sandberg and insinuated that she was running roughshod over thesocial network and spoiling all the fun. Friends say Sandberg was upset at thecharacterization, in part because some people thought she was wielding an actual firearmin the photograph.Eventually the sniping stopped. One reason: The ad model that Sandberg and hercolleagues devised in those nighttime meetings has worked in a way that few could haveimagined."Social ads" on Facebook perch unobtrusively on the right border of the page and usuallyspecify which of a members friends has "liked" or commented on that particular ad oradvertiser. The data company Webtrends says that only around half of one percent ofpeople who see these ads actually click on them; yet Facebook pulled in an estimated $2billion in sales in 2010, Bloomberg has reported, and is on track to do twice that in 2011.Facebook executives argue that the click-through numbers are not that meaningful; theysay that people remember ads better and are more likely to make purchases when theirfriends endorse products.Advertisers appear to be buying that logic. The social network now serves up nearly one-third of the display advertising that Internet users see in the U.S., according to comScore(SCOR), and delivers twice as many ad impressions as its closest rival, Yahoo! (YHOO).Sandberg wants to let advertisers burrow even deeper into the social fabric of the site.When a user checks into a restaurant using the Facebook app on their mobile phone, orleaves a comment on the profile page of an advertiser, that action gets broadcast intofriends news feeds, where it can get lost in the clutter. A new tool called SponsoredStories allows advertisers to pay to turn that members action into an ad, which is morelikely to be seen by the users friends.It may sound obscure, but if youre an advertiser, theres nothing better than convertingcustomers into unpaid endorsers. Michael Lazerow, chief executive of Buddy Media, whichhelps brands advertise on Facebook, predicts that the largest advertisers will cross the$100 million spending threshold on Facebook this year. "The ones who were spending 137
  • 138. zero last year are spending millions this year," he says. "The ones who were spendingmillions are spending tens of millions."Facebooks tentacles now touch millions of other websites, from the Huffington Post (AMZN), that use its reader comment system, and its "like" and "send"buttons, to allow their users to share their content with their friends on the social network.Under Sandbergs direction, Facebook has begun preaching the mantra of what it calls"social design" to companies that want to remake themselves for the fashionable age ofsocial media. It sets up Facebook brilliantly—those social ads may someday start showingup on any site that has a "like" button.Sandberg helped to develop much of this basic playbook during her time at Google.Facebooks ads are meant to fit into the context of the social network, just as Googlestargeted search ads complement its algorithmically generated search results. Sandberghas even organized Facebooks advertising group in the same way as Googles, with adirect sales organization reaching out to the worlds largest brands, an inside sales teamcatering to medium-size marketers, and an online sales group that builds self-help tools forthe smallest companies. She has plucked many of her top lieutenants at Facebook fromGoogle as well.Given Facebooks trajectory, Google losing Sandberg could become legendary as a techindustry misstep—like operating system pioneer Gary Kildall flying off in his personal planein 1980 instead of closing a deal with IBM (IBM), which opened the door for Bill Gates tolicense MS-DOS to the computing giant. "Google has done so many things right, but thething they screwed up more than anything was missing the import of people fromnonengineering backgrounds and failing to appreciate the value such people can bring,"says Roger McNamee, a friend of Sandbergs and a founder of Elevation Partners, whichhas an investment in Facebook. "As a consequence, a lot of people like Sheryl were notgiven an opportunity to shine to their true level. For all intents and purposes, Googlechased Sheryl away."Sandberg grew up in the middle-class suburbs of Miami, the oldest of three children;her mother taught English and her father was an ophthalmologist. By the time sheattended Harvard in the late 80s, her college friends say, she was already a whirlwind ofintellect, social perspicacity, and political activism.At Harvard, Sandberg organized her dorm into a cohesive social unit and assembled agroup to encourage more women to major in economics and government. In 1991 shecaught the eye of economics professor Lawrence Summers by scoring the highest on amidterm exam, and he agreed to be the adviser on her thesis—on the correlation ofdomestic violence against women and socioeconomic status. Sandberg recalls that incompleting that project, she ran so much data on the Harvard University Science Centercomputers that she crashed the system, more than a decade before another student, MarkZuckerberg, would notch the same achievement. In Sandbergs case, networkadministrators called Summers to complain, and he in turn hired her after graduation tojoin him at his new post as chief economist of the World Bank.Summers says Sandberg proved herself quickly, in part by researching a question thatsomeone had raised idly—whether 70 years of Communism could have been avoided ifsomeone had financed the Russian politician Alexander Kerensky. "She came back sixhours later, analyzing the merits of this thesis," says Summers, who calls her "a 138
  • 139. remarkable person." (Sandberg reports that she simply picked up the phone and askedHarvard professor Richard Pipes.)After two years at the World Bank, working on poverty-related issues and touring lepercolonies in India, Sandberg joined Summers at the Treasury Dept. She later became hischief of staff after he was promoted to Treasury Secretary. In that role, she had aresponsibility to pass her bosss directives to some dozen Senate-confirmed undersecretaries—and no authority with which to enforce them. In her third day on the job, oneof them, U.S. Customs Chief and future New York City Police Commissioner Ray Kelly,slammed the phone down on her after saying, "Just because Im not in Larry Summers30-year-old brain trust does not mean I dont know what Im doing." After that, Sandbergvisited each under secretary and asked how she could make their job easier. "Once youvedone that, you have the relationship," she says.In some ways, Sandberg is still a creature of Washington. She holds parties and events ather house almost constantly, evoking the high-powered hospitality of the late WashingtonPost publisher Katharine Graham in her heyday. She doesnt bring a laptop into meetings,preferring instead to scrawl notes in a day planner. And shes made great use of herpolitical skills, praising subordinates in public and keeping reprimands private. ("She issuper direct," says Mike Schroepfer, Facebooks vice-president of engineering. "She pullspeople aside privately and says, Im going to be the one to tell you, this is what people areexpecting from you and heres what you need to do to improve. ")She also uses her sociability to advantage as Facebooks top recruiter, where she oftenforges tight personal bonds in the process of bringing coveted candidates to Facebook.Carolyn Everson was Microsofts global head of sales when she got an unsolicited phonecall from Sandberg earlier this year, asking if they could meet for the first time about anopening as Facebooks vice-president of global sales. During the brief ensuing courtship,Sandberg called Everson from her car, from her home, and from vacation in Mexico, whereEverson could hear her kids frolicking in the background. "One night she left a messagesaying she was actually going to bed at 9 or 9:30 and that she was exhausted," Eversonsays. "I was, like, at least this woman sleeps."The bond wasnt fleeting. After she was hired in the job, Everson was asked to speakbefore Facebooks 800-person sales team, and agonized about the choice of whether towear a red dress or a more casual pants and tunic. Naturally she called Sandberg, whosaid, "First, there is never a dumb question. This is what girlfriends are here for." Then sheselected the red dress.Despite Sandbergs managerial skills and personal touch, some of the same problemsthat have given fits to other leading tech companies—including the one she left—appear tobe hurtling toward Facebook. Foremost is privacy. Last year the company introduced afeature called "instant personalization" that allowed outside websites to tailor their contentto a Facebook users personal details. Members found that creepy, and privacy groups did,too.Facebook tactically retreated—as it regularly does—and offered a single way for users toopt out of websites being able to see their Facebook user preferences. Nevertheless, theFederal Trade Commission has initiated an inquiry into Facebooks constantly morphingprivacy policies after a formal complaint from privacy organizations. Two people familiarwith the inquiry say that within weeks, the FTC will agree that Facebooks changes to its 139
  • 140. privacy policies constituted unfair and deceptive practices. Among the likely provisions in aconsent decree, Facebook would have to undergo periodic "privacy audits" by anindependent group (Google recently agreed to the same measure) and be prohibited frommaking changes to members privacy settings without their express permission. Sandbergand Facebooks head of public policy, Elliot Schrage, declined to comment specifically onthe investigation. Sandberg argues the company has searched for the right balance onprivacy. "I think the fair criticism of us would be that we have done a better job at givingpeople control over how much they share than at helping people understand thosecontrols and making them simple," she says.Then there are the lawsuits that Facebook attracts like nobody else, from the early-stagepartner or financier who seemingly shows up out of nowhere and demands his share—inthe hundreds of millions—of the company he claims to have helped Zuckerberg create.Currently its former wood pellet salesman and ex-con Paul Ceglia, who has lawyered upand sued Zuckerberg, insisting that Zuckerberg promised him half of Facebook in a work-for-hire contract back in 2003. (He has produced e-mails to prove it; whether they areauthentic or not is for the courts to decide.) Neither Sandberg, Zuckerberg, nor any otherFacebook exec will discuss the suit.And then theres China. Facebook has explored creating a joint venture with ChineseInternet companies such as search engine Baidu (BIDU) to operate a division of the socialnetwork in China that complies with local censorship and filtering requirements. Thecompany maintains that no decision has been made. Sandberg says the subject, likecountless interpersonal relationships on Facebook, is complicated. "There arecompromises on not being in China, and there are compromises on being in China. Its notclear to me which one is bigger," she says.Three people familiar with these internal deliberations say that Sandberg and Zuckerbergfundamentally disagree on the issue. Zuckerberg believes that Facebook can be an agentof change in China, as it has been in countries such as Egypt and Tunisia. Sandberg, aveteran of Googles expensive misadventures in the worlds most populous country, iswary about the compromises Facebook would have to make to do business there.Sandberg wont address whether theres friction over the topic, but she saysdisagreements in her partnership with Zuckerberg are common and healthy, and that theCEO gets to make the final call. For his part, Zuckerberg insists that he is taking the longview and that nothing is settled. "We have a pretty long-term perspective on this," he says."Given our track record so far, I have confidence that we have a good shot at winningwhenever it makes sense for us to enter. But we need to figure out what that is going tolook like."If and when Facebook does go to China, it will likely find itself censoring free speech andfiltering out sensitive political content on behalf of the Chinese government. What if, forexample, a Chinese user opens a page dedicated to outlawed sect Falun Gong? Or theChinese government asks the social network to divulge the private messages of ademocratic activist?"Everyone would agree its a minefield," says Jonathan Zittrain, a Harvard Law professorand co-founder of the Berkman Center for Internet & Society. "Its a minefield not only frompotentially a public-relations and branding point of view, but because I dont think theywould want to end up in a place that had them doing something they would regret." 140
  • 141. Beyond Facebook, the other social network that Sheryl Sandberg has been ferventlyscaling is her own. Every few weeks a few dozen Silicon Valley women—doctors,teachers, and techies—head to the seven-bedroom Atherton (Calif.) mansion Sandbergshares with her husband, Dave Goldberg, chief executive of Web startup SurveyMonkey,and their two kids. The group sits on foldout chairs in the living room and holds plates ofcatered food on their laps as they listen to a guest speaker. Over the years, Sandberg haslured such luminaries as Geena Davis, Billie Jean King, Rupert Murdoch, Meg Whitman,and Senator Kirsten Gillibrand (D-N.Y.). Robert Rubin, the most recent guest, said that 15years ago when he was Treasury Secretary, it was good for Sheryl Sandberg that sheknew him. Now, he quipped, it was good for him that he knows her.These "Women in Silicon Valley" events, as Sandberg calls them, have become amainstay in the lives of the women in her personal and professional circle. "I think thereare a lot of people who feel they are very good friends with Sheryl, and thats a testamentto how much she invests in those relationships," says Marne Levine, a former colleague atTreasury who joined Facebook last year in Washington as its vice-president of globalpublic policy.Last year a guest speaker at one of Sandbergs home soirees was Cambodian humantrafficking activist Somaly Mam. After she discussed her work and shared her personalhistory of being sold into slavery at a young age, Sandberg stood up and announced herintention to hold a fundraiser for the Somaly Mam Foundation and asked how many of herfriends would join her. Everyone volunteered. The fundraiser, held at the Hiller AviationMuseum in San Carlos, Calif., in November, raised more than a million dollars for thefoundation, a third of the organizations annual contributions.The ease with which Sandberg marshals such support has friends and admirers constantlywondering what comes after Facebook. Sandbergs recent barnstorming hasnt dampenedthat speculation. In December she gave a speech at a conference called TEDWomen inWashington—TED talks are de rigueur for any tech star—and spoke about the smallcompromises women make that limit their career advancement. The presentation hassince been viewed nearly 100,000 times on YouTube. Last month, Sandberg delivered aspeech on leadership to the U.S. Naval Academy as part of its annual Foreign AffairsConference. She silenced the mostly male crowd by telling the women in the audience tofind partners who will support their careers. Then she brought them to their feet with arousing paean to inspirational leadership—and by putting on a midshipmans jacket.So…governor? Senator? Will she or wont she return to Washington? Sandbergsimpeccably political response: Shes happy friending Mark Zuckerberg for as long astheyre changing the world. Her husband believes she will stay at Facebook for a longtime. "Its well beyond an 18-month time horizon," says Goldberg. "My guess is if she hadto [predict her future], she has a real desire to improve the lives, particularly of women, butalso the lives of people in the developing world."Only Lant Pritchett, one of her former professors at Harvard and a longtime friend, doesnthold back. "I always had the impression that she was going to run the world. I think shecan be President of the United States," he says. "One time my wife said, There are somany things that you want to be envious about and hate about her. And you just cant. "With Douglas MacMillan. Stone is a senior writer for Bloomberg Businessweek. 141
  • 142. video : Sheryl Sandberg: Why we have too few women leadersLENTH: 15 MINUTESRetrieved from on Marrch 1, 2012 142
  • 143. Pete CashmoreFollow on twitter:!/mashableBiography :Retrieved on on March 2 ,2012Pete Cashmore is the founder and CEO of Mashable, an award-winning site and one ofthe largest and most popular destinations for digital, social media, and technology newsand information with more than 20 million unique visitors per month. Mashable has beennamed a must-read site by both Fast Company and PC Magazine and is ranked as themost influential media outlet by Klout.Pete founded Mashable in 2005 as a blog focused on up-to-the-minute news on socialnetworks and digital trends. Since then, Mashable quickly grew to be one of the top 10 andmost profitable blogs in the world.Pete was named one of Ad Age’s 2011 influencers, a Time Magazine 100 in 2010, and aForbes magazine web celeb 25. He was also named a Briton of the year by the Telegraphin 2010. Pete is a World Economic Forum 2011 Young Global Leader.Pete is based in New York and frequently visits San Francisco.Theory/Contributions:Retrieved on on March 1, 2012Mashables Pete Cashmore onPersistenceHow he turned obstacles into an opportunity, why hes soobsessed with the Internet and a winning habit he learned fromhis father.BY TERI EVANS | May 10, 2011|22 143
  • 144. Photography by Jessica GrievesPete Cashmore is founder and CEO of MashableTweetTrep Talk is a column on personal insights from the people behind the big ideas.Pete Cashmore carries a quiet sense of urgency wherever he goes, despite his easygoingdemeanor. As founder of the influential technology blog Mashable, the 25-year-old hasbeen labeled everything from a tech wunderkind to one of the U.K.s "Britons of the Year"in 2010. But the accolades do not impress him. Cashmore sees success as an ever-moving target, which drives his compulsion to be "on top of everything all the time."Growing up in the rural village of Banchory, just outside of Aberdeen, Scotland, the self-described geek was a sickly child who befriended the Internet as a bedside companion.Missing too much high school to graduate with his peers, he earned his diploma two yearslater-- an early example, he says, of his tendency to be "ridiculously persistent."Intrigued by the Web and its democratizing power, Cashmore opted out of college andlaunched Mashable at 19. He started the blog in an effort to decipher technology for amainstream audience in 2005. Today the 44-employee company, with offices in New Yorkand San Francisco, draws more than 12.5 million unique visitors to its site every month.As Cashmore sits down for this interview with Trep Talk, his relaxed tone is mostlygrounded in seriousness. Still, a rare chuckle emerges when its clear hes about to own upto something. Edited interview excerpts follow. 144
  • 145. On discovering a passion: The Internet was appealing partly because it was something Icould do in bed and feel like I was achieving something. I had an operation when I was 13and ended up with complications, so I was in and out of the hospital. The bottom line isyou can get through health challenges. Its part of why I was so driven.Biggest startup challenge: Not only did I not have connections, I wasnt in [Silicon]Valley. But I did have an outsider perspective, and as it turned out that was an advantagebecause theres a mass market that wants to know what the coolest gadgets are and howto use Facebook, Twitter and other [technology] to get ahead.How my parents learned about Mashable: I always had the sense Im not really where Ineed to be, so I thought, Maybe Ill tell them, if it takes off. I never did. About a year into it,they found out when a Daily Mail reporter knocked on the door, wanting the story of whowas I and where did I come from.More Trep TalkA single obsession: If it doesnt come through the Internet, its not really compelling tome. I dont have a TV or watch movies. I dont like to be broadcast to, I want to participate.The Internet is an engaging experience. If I cant engage with it, its frustrating and I dontfeel like I have any influence over it, so whats the point.Justified play: I like gaming on my iPad and iPhone. But Im thinking this is the nextwave, so its kind of justified.Biggest lesson learned: Execution really shapes whether your company takes off or not.Im very much a creative person, but youve got to do the follow-through. A lot of peoplestart out with an exciting thing and they want to take over the world, but really the peoplewho do take over the world have a good plan of how to get there and the steps along theway.Video: Cashmore on more lessons for young entrepreneursOn being the boss: The talent that has to be learned is finding out what someonespassion is and setting them up to realize that. You dont get the best work from people ifyoure guiding them versus them guiding themselves.Loyalty... is incredibly important. Theres a base of stability in [our] organization that [feels]like we can weather anything because we have these relationships with key people andtheyre going to be with us whatever we do.On creative space: It takes a long time to recalibrate if you let people pull at you all thetime. A lot of stress comes from reacting to stuff. You have to keep a certain guard [on youravailability], if youre a creative person. You need space to try things and create.Video: Cashmore on managing stress as a young entrepreneurFavorite niche news source: Every month theres a big article onwhats changing and what should businesses be focusing on, if they want to benefit from it.I read every word a hundred times. I like that big-picture thinking. 145
  • 146. Three people I wish I could invite for dinner: Richard Branson. Albert Einstein, who wasa little zany -- I think eccentricity is good. And Bono [lead singer of U2] because of theawareness he brings to charitable causes and theres a lot we could do together. Hed begreat for our Social Good channel.On starting young: I kept my age quiet for a good few years. I didnt see it as a positive. Iworked remotely, so I just didnt tell people. I tried to look older as well. I keep as muchfacial hair as it takes to do that. (Laughs.) You just want to be judged against everyonefairly.Whats a Competitive Advantage for a Young Entrepreneur?Tip for young treps: Theres an advantage to having a certain degree of naivete aboutthe challenges and the way things were before, so you can build something in acompletely different way.The opposite of me: My parents told me not to take risks. Theyre still like, Well, I dontknow if you should do that, it sounds risky. Its also somewhat of a British thing to be anti-risk.What I learned from dad: My dad is good at sticking with stuff and he has a strong workethic, which is imbued in me. Growing up, he would constantly ask what I was doing andwas I achieving anything. Now, hes the opposite. (Laughs) Hes like, Oh, you should workless. It seems like you work the whole time. I say, I do. Well, you told me!Corrections & Amplifications: An earlier version of this article misstated where Cashmoregrew up. He was raised in the rural village of Banchory, just outside of the city ofAberdeen, Scotland.Video :Pete Cashmore on How He GrewMashable [VIDEO]Retrieved from on March 2, 2012 146
  • 147. Tariq KrimBiography:Follow on Twitter:!/search/tariq%20krimRetrieved from on March 1, 2012BiographyAn avid enthusiast of technology, while he was still a boy Tariq Krim created his ownInternet messaging system. He was a pioneer in the development of the Internet in Franceas a popularizer and an entrepreneur, and he is considered a visionary in the Internetworld. In 2005 he created Netvibes, a dashboard that allows users to customize andarrange all the things they do on the Web, and in 2008 he developed Jolicloud, anoperating system for tablets based on Linux and on the clouding computing concept (bywhich all the files and applications that people use are in "cloud" instead of on theircomputers). For his achievements, MITs Technology Review chose him as one of the Top35 Young Innovators Under 35 and the Davos World Economic Forum named him a YoungGlobal Leader in 2008.Theory/Contributions:The Bottom LineRetrivieved from on March 1, 2012Netvibes is an excellent choice for those that want to have a personalizedhome page for their web browser. It is loaded with many useful features from ato-do list to a notepad to leave yourself reminders to news feeds and weatherforecasts.Its simple interface uses drag-and-drop to allow for easy customization, andthe multiple tabs allow you to organize the start page based on interests. 147
  • 148. Pros • Easy to sign up. • Simple to customize. • Lots of good features such as a to-do list widget and email connectivity.Cons • The initial start page doesnt have separators between articles and has a very plain theme.Description • Drag-and-drop customization provides ease of use. • Multiple tabs for keeping different interests organized. • The ability to read external email from popular sources like Yahoo and Hotmail.Guide Review - A Review of NetvibesNetvibes makes it very easy to personalize your home page. Signing up for theservice is as simple as putting in your username, email address, and choosinga password. Once done, you are taken to your personalized start page to begintailoring it to your interests.The start page is set up with tabs, so you can have a general tab containingthe basic information you want at your fingertips when you open up your webbrowser, and specialized tabs for other interests.You can move the mini-windows by hovering your mouse over the title bar anddragging the window to where you want it displayed. You can also closewindows by clicking the x button, so if that initial page has a few windows youdont need, it is easy to get them out of the way.Adding new windows is also very easy. Clicking on the add content link on theupper left hand corner of the start page drops down a list where you canchoose to add feeds like USA Today (even video feeds like MTV DailyHeadlines), basic widgets like a notepad or a to-do list, communications (emailand instant messaging), search engines, applications, and external widgets.The ability to add these features to your start page and organize them intodifferent tabs can put the information you want to see at your fingertips. If youare like me and routinely hit several different news site and blogs eachmorning, Netvibes can make your web life a lot simpler.The only real negative I had with Netvibes was how ugly and scrunched upeverything was in my initial start page. This isnt difficult to solve; the settingslink on the upper right hand side of the site allows you to change the look andfeel of your start page including painting it with a different theme and putting 148
  • 149. separators between feed articles. But it would have been nice to start out witha nicer appearance.My Prezi Presentation : 4:12 149
  • 150. Clay ShirkyFollow on Twitter:!/cshirkyBiography:Retrieved from on March 2, 2012Clay Shirky thinks about the Internet. He has been doing this in one form or another for manyyears.He is currently a Partner for Technology and Product Strategy at the acceleratorgroup, and onleave as Professor of New Media at Hunter College, where he teaches in both the undergraduate andgraduate programs.In addition to teaching, Professor Shirkys writings are currently focussed on: • The Internets effect in shifting power from producer to consumer in the media landscape. • The Internet economy, and especially its effect on national culture. • Open Source Software and the post-PC network ecology.He has worked as a writer, programmer, and consultant, writing for Business 2.0, FEED, SiliconAlley Reporter,, Urban Desires, and net_worker magazine, and working as an onlinemedia and measurement consultant with Barnes and Noble, iVillage, Ziff-Davis University, EisnorInteractive and others, where he practices "Web Archeology", a way of measuring a companysbusiness assumptions against the actual behavior of its online users.Before leaving to teach, Prof. Shirky was VP Technology, Eastern Region for CKS Group, a globalmarketing and communications company, having been promoted from the position of ChiefTechnology Officer of SiteSpecific after its acquistion by CKS. During his tenure at both CKS andSiteSpecific, he oversaw Internet strategy for online advertising and marketing efforts, extendingfrom user tracking and back-end databases to multi-media ads and optimal user paths, and builtSiteSpecifics Media Performance Tracking database.He writes extensively about the Internet, including articles in Urban Desires,, and aquarterly column in the ACMs net_worker magazine. Clay testified against the CommunicationsDecency Act as an expert witness on the culture of the Internet, in an amicus brief filed with theSupreme Court. Working with the Society for Electronic Access, he has filed commentary with theFederal Government concerning the Clipper chip "key escrow" scheme, Digital SignatureStandards, and computer crime sentencing guidelines.Before there was a Web, he wrote and edited books for Ziff-Davis Press, authoring a book on e-mailand another on network culture, and editing the first book written on HTML. Before that he was adirector and lighting designer of avant-garde theater in New York City, working with the WoosterGroup and directing his own company, Hard Place theater, which produced and performed "non-fiction theater", pieces created in rehearsal from collages of found sources. He received hisBachelors Degree in Art from Yale University.Theory/Contributions: 150
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  • 152. Nicholas CarrBiographyNicholas Carr writes about technology, culture, and economics. His most recentbook, The Shallows: What the Internet Is Doing to Our Brains, is a 2011 PulitzerPrize nominee and a New York Times bestseller. Nick is also the author of twoother influential books, The Big Switch: Rewiring the World, from Edison to Google(2008) and Does IT Matter? (2004). His books have been translated into more than20 languages.Nick has been a columnist for The Guardian in London and has written for TheAtlantic, The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, Wired, The Times ofLondon, The New Republic, The Financial Times, Die Zeit and other periodicals.His essay “Is Google Making Us Stupid?” has been collected in several anthologies,including The Best American Science and Nature Writing 2009, The Best SpiritualWriting 2010, and The Best Technology Writing 2009.Nicholas Carr writes about technology, culture, and economics. His most recentbook, The Shallows: What the Internet Is Doing to Our Brains, is a 2011 PulitzerPrize nominee and a New York Times bestseller. Nick is also the author of twoother influential books, The Big Switch: Rewiring the World, from Edison to Google(2008) and Does IT Matter? (2004). His books have been translated into more than20 languages.Nick has been a columnist for The Guardian in London and has written for TheAtlantic, The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, Wired, The Times ofLondon, The New Republic, The Financial Times, Die Zeit and other periodicals.His essay “Is Google Making Us Stupid?” has been collected in several anthologies, 152
  • 153. including The Best American Science and Nature Writing 2009, The Best SpiritualWriting 2010, and The Best Technology Writing 2009.Nick is a member of the Encyclopedia Britannicas editorial board of advisors, ison the steering board of the World Economic Forums cloud computing project,and writes the popular blog Rough Type. He has been a writer-in-residence at theUniversity of California, Berkeley, and is a sought-after speaker for academic andcorporate events. Earlier in his career, he was executive editor of the HarvardBusiness Review. He holds a B.A. from Dartmouth College and an M.A., in Englishand American Literature and Language, from Harvard University. :Does the Internet Make You Dumber?The cognitive effects are measurable: Were turning into shallowthinkers, says Nicholas Carr.Retrieved from on March 1, 2012 The Roman philosopher Seneca may have put it best 2,000 years ago: "To be everywhere is to be nowhere." Today, the Internet grants us easy access to unprecedented amounts of information. But a growing body of scientific evidence suggests that the Net, with its constant distractions and interruptions, is also turning us into scattered and superficial thinkers. The picture emerging from the research is deeply troubling, at least to anyone who values the depth, rather than just the velocity, of human thought. People who read text studded with links, the studies show, comprehend less than those who read traditional linear text. People who watch busy multimedia presentations remember less than those who take in information in a more sedate and focused manner. People who are continually distracted by emails, alerts and other messages understand less than those who are able to concentrate. And people who juggle many tasks are less creative and less productive than those who do one thing at a time. Mick Coulas 153
  • 154. The common thread in these disabilities is the division of attention. The richness of our thoughts, our memories and even our personalities hinges on our ability to focus the mind and sustain concentration. Only when we pay deep attention to a new piece of information are we able to associate it "meaningfully and systematically with knowledge already well established in memory," writes the Nobel Prize-winning neuroscientist Eric Kandel. Such associations are essential to mastering complex concepts. When were constantly distracted and interrupted, as we tend to be online, our brains are unable to forge the strong and expansive neural connections that give depth and distinctiveness to our thinking. We become mere signal-processing units, quickly shepherding disjointed bits of information into and then out of short-term memory. In an article published in Science last year, Patricia Greenfield, a leading developmental psychologist, reviewed dozens of studies on how different media technologies influence our cognitive abilities. Some of the studies indicated that certain computer tasks, like playing video games, can enhance "visual literacy skills," increasing the speed at which people can shift their focus among icons and other images on screens. Other studies, however, found that such rapid shifts in focus, even if performed adeptly, result in less rigorous and "more automatic" thinking.56 SecondsAverage time an American spends looking at a Web page.Source: Nielsen In one experiment conducted at Cornell University, for example, half a class of students was allowed to use Internet-connected laptops during a lecture, while the other had to keep their computers shut. Those who browsed the Web performed much worse on a subsequent test of how well they retained the lectures content. While its hardly surprising that Web surfing would distract students, it should be a note of caution to schools that are wiring their classrooms in hopes of improving learning. Ms. Greenfield concluded that "every medium develops some cognitive skills at the expense of others." Our growing use of screen-based media, she said, has strengthened visual-spatial intelligence, which can improve the ability to do jobs that involve keeping track of lots of simultaneous signals, like air traffic control. But that has been accompanied by "new weaknesses in higher-order cognitive processes," including "abstract vocabulary, mindfulness, reflection, inductive problem solving, critical thinking, and imagination." Were becoming, in a word, shallower. In another experiment, recently conducted at Stanford Universitys Communication Between Humans and Interactive Media Lab, a team of researchers gave various cognitive tests to 49 people who do a lot of media multitasking and 52 people who multitask much less frequently. The heavy multitaskers performed poorly on all the tests. They were more easily distracted, had less control over their attention, and were much less able to distinguish important information from trivia. 154
  • 155. The researchers were surprised by the results. They had expected that the intensive multitaskers would have gained some unique mental advantages from all their on-screen juggling. But that wasnt the case. In fact, the heavy multitaskers werent even good at multitasking. They were considerably less adept at switching between tasks than the more infrequent multitaskers. "Everything distracts them," observed Clifford Nass, the professor who heads the Stanford lab.Does the Internet Make You Smarter? Charis TsevisAmid the silly videos and spam are the roots of a new reading and writing culture, saysClay Shirky. It would be one thing if the ill effects went away as soon as we turned off our computers and cellphones. But they dont. The cellular structure of the human brain, scientists have discovered, adapts readily to the tools we use, including those for finding, storing and sharing information. By changing our habits of mind, each new technology strengthens certain neural pathways and weakens others. The cellular alterations continue to shape the way we think even when were not using the technology. The pioneering neuroscientist Michael Merzenich believes our brains are being "massively remodeled" by our ever-intensifying use of the Web and related media. In the 1970s and 1980s, Mr. Merzenich, now a professor emeritus at the University of California in San Francisco, conducted a famous series of experiments on primate brains that revealed how extensively and quickly neural circuits change in response to experience. When, for example, Mr. Merzenich rearranged the nerves in a monkeys hand, the nerve cells in the animals sensory cortex quickly reorganized themselves to create a new "mental map" of the hand. In a conversation late last year, he said that he was profoundly worried about the cognitive consequences of the constant distractions and interruptions the Internet bombards us with. The long-term effect on the quality of our intellectual lives, he said, could be "deadly." What we seem to be sacrificing in all our surfing and searching is our capacity to engage in the quieter, attentive modes of thought that underpin contemplation, reflection and introspection. The Web never encourages us to slow down. It keeps us in a state of perpetual mental locomotion. 155
  • 156. It is revealing, and distressing, to compare the cognitive effects of the Internet with those of an earlier information technology, the printed book. Whereas the Internet scatters our attention, the book focuses it. Unlike the screen, the page promotes contemplativeness. Reading a long sequence of pages helps us develop a rare kind of mental discipline. The innate bias of the human brain, after all, is to be distracted. Our predisposition is to be aware of as much of whats going on around us as possible. Our fast-paced, reflexive shifts in focus were once crucial to our survival. They reduced the odds that a predator would take us by surprise or that wed overlook a nearby source of food. To read a book is to practice an unnatural process of thought. It requires us to place ourselves at what T. S. Eliot, in his poem "Four Quartets," called "the still point of the turning world." We have to forge or strengthen the neural links needed to counter our instinctive distractedness, thereby gaining greater control over our attention and our mind. It is this control, this mental discipline, that we are at risk of losing as we spend ever more time scanning and skimming online. If the slow progression of words across printed pages damped our craving to be inundated by mental stimulation, the Internet indulges it. It returns us to our native state of distractedness, while presenting us with far more distractions than our ancestors ever had to contend with.—Nicholas Carr is the author, most recently, of "The Shallows: What the Internet Is Doingto Our Brains."Video :Wading in The Shallows with Nick CarrLength: 13 Minutes 156
  • 157. George SiemensBiographyFollow on Twitter: @gsiemensRetrieved from on March 1, 2012George Siemens, Founder and President of Complexive Systems Inc., a research labassisting organizations to develop integrated learning structures for global strategyexecution. In 2006 he authored a book - Knowing Knowledge (.pdf version available here)-an exploration of how the context and characteristics of knowledge have changed, andwhat it means to organizations today. In 2009, he published the Handbook of EmergingTechnologies for Learning (.pdf version available here) with Peter Tittenberger.George is currently affiliated with the Technology Enhanced Knowledge Research Institute(TEKRI) at Athabasca University. His role as a social media strategist involves planning,researching, and implementing social networked technologies, with focus on systemicimpact and institutional change.Prior to TEKRI, he was the Associate Director, Research and Development with theLearning Technologies Centre at University of Manitoba. Image via Stephen Downes, UNESCO conference, Barcelona, 2009George has presented at numerous national and international conferences, on topicswhich include: the role of new media in learning, systemic change, social media andnetworked learning, elearning in vocational education, streaming media, and connectivism.For more information, please visit the presentations page. If you would like George topresent at your conference or event, or are interested in consultation services, pleasecontact him directly via email. 157
  • 158. Updated January 8, 2010Theory/Contributions:Retrieved from on March 1, 2012Ken’s note. You may enjoy reading this on online by clicking the link aboveMedia Literacy: Making Sense Of NewTechnologies And Media by George Siemens- Aug 23 08Feed: Robin Goods Latest News -How can the educational system we pay for via our taxes change and transform itselfinto a new way to prepare our young people for an even faster-changing future? Are therealternatives out there?Photo credit: DArcy Norman As I have promised you last week, George Siemens hasmade himself available for a short, informal video conversation in which we havediscussed several interesting topics that some of you had also suggested. [I was not ableto bring in all of your suggested questions, both because of the limited time available inthis conversation (the video runs about 32 mins) and also because I have gotten some ofyour suggested queries way too late to use them in this videoconference.] If you areinterested in seeing me and George talk about the state of education and schooling todayand the down-to-the-ground issues a parent of any teenager meets today you may findthis enjoyable to watch. The other topics we cover include a simplified explanation ofconnectivism and its relevance to non academics, as well as education future direction andsocial media hype. Here the video interview and, right after it, Georges habitual qualityselection of issues, topics and resources to keep an eye on while trying to make sense of itall. Robin Good interviews George Siemens on connectivism, learning, social media andthe future of education. 158
  • 159. eLearning Resources and Newslearning, networks, knowledge, technology, trends by George Siemens20 Free Ebooks On Social Media I havent read all of theebooks listed... but this is a useful listing of 20 free ebooks on social media. The listincludes resources on podcasting, blogging, usability and related subjects. Im notentirely convinced I like the term social media anymore. In the sense that all media(whether creation/production, transmission, reception...and even when media is treated asstorage, it still aspires to be viewed) require a producer and consumer, doesnt the notionof media have an inherent social trait?NSF and The Birth Of The Internet 159
  • 160. Ray Schroederprovides a link to a great resource: NSF and the Birth of the Internet. The site includesa mix of timelines, images, videos, interviews, etc. As prominent as the internet is in ourlives, its worth having at least a functional understanding of the stages of development aswell as future directions. We need something similar for the development of educationaltechnology...Social Media Classroom Howard Rheingold has beenworking on a project called Social Media Classroom to incorporate emergingtechnologies into classrooms. An instantiation of his platform can be seen here for anupcoming course he is teaching. The software - SMC - pulls together wikis, blogs,tagging, media sharing, and other tools familiar to the read/write web crowd. This type ofcentralized tool set is important for introducing the next wave of adopters to distributedsocial media. Im unsure at this stage whether Rheingolds software allows forincorporation of learners blogs that exist outside of the software - i.e. if I have an existingblog, can I post there? Or do I have to use the course software exclusively? Im of themindset that developers of software, such as LMS, need to design for two groups: themajority who are just starting to adopt social media and the minority who are well on thejourney and want to keep their existing space and identity. Rheingold provides a shortintroduction to the software in this 8 minute presentation. Key quote: dont worry aboutkeeping up with the technologies so much as keeping up with the literacies thetechnologies enable.Explaining Leads To Information 160
  • 161. Ive beentrying to gain a better sense of the role universities will play in society in the future. At onepoint, we thought content was the value point of universities. Wrong. MITsOpenCourseWare initiative changed that. Ok, then the interaction with faculty is the valuepoint. And wrong again. Open communication and collaboration in online environmentswith networks of peers and experts gave us control over our interactions. Fine. Then thevalue point is accreditation. Yes, for now. Our ability to rate, review, comment, andprovide feedback has increased with the development of the read/write web. Im not surehow long we can build educations value on the concept of accreditation. As Ive frequentlysuggested, we can glean much insight from a field that has spent more time journeyingdown the path of shifting value from content to something else: the news/journalism/mediaindustry. Jay Rosen, in National Explainer, advocates a new role for journalists. Insteadof presenting information, the objective is to assist readers and viewers in making sense ofcomplex subject areas. The ability to do this rests on the journalists ability to providecoherent, memorable explanations. In my presentation at Madison a few weeks ago, Iemphasized that the role of university may well become one of being a coherence-maker,helping learners make sense of information abundance and change. Sure, universitieshave always done this... but they have done so from a perspective of authority rather thanengagement.Facebook In Education I was interviewed by a radio programtoday on the role of Facebook in education. My view: very little research has beenconducted on whether the high communicative value of Facebook translates into academicvalue. Do students want educators to integrate Facebook into instructional activities? Ordo students prefer to use these tools for more social purposes? As educators we are often 161
  • 162. drawn to tools in popular use, assuming we can co-opt them for academic purposes. "Ohlook, everyone has a mobile phone/Facebook account/Second Life avatar...lets use thatfor educational purposes". InsideHigher Ed asks the key question: Will Colleges FriendFacebook? In a related vein - the term creepy treehouse has acquired a fair bit of tractionto draw attention to differences of intention in the use of popular technologies andprocesses for teaching/learning.Web 2.0 /> One of my favoritepast times is to whine about the term web 2.0. I dont like it. It turns what is inherently aprocess in to a product. Its a marketers dream. It smacks of hype. And so on. Yet the termappears with increasing frequency in books, articles, and conference themes. DonHinchcliffe states that web 2.0 is the more popular "new internet" term. He then providesa good overview of how the term evolved, how Gartner presents it in their hype cycle,and how "2.0" is impacting the development of concepts such as enterprise 2.0.Location-Based Learning and Working 162
  • 163. For somereason, we like to do certain things in certain places. Its not as comical a statement as itfirst appears. Consider work: we go to work, sit at a desk, or lecture in a classroom. Wehave a habit of eating dinner at the table (well, for some, in front of the TV). We have a"go to" mentality. Why? I havent a clue. But that mentality is changing in a few areas.Consider business - many workplaces are moving away from the traditional "go to work"mentality. Distributed workforces, increased travel, and internet connectivity leave manyprofessionals with only a limited presence at a particular physical location. Consideranother perspective: "we go to classrooms to learn". It may have been more valuable atone time, but with meetups and internet connectivity, I wonder if classrooms are going togo the way of business offices: distributed, open, mobile.Are Social Networking Sites Good For Business? 163
  • 164. I oftenencounter this type of question with regards to education: Are social networking sitesgood for business? The question assumes that SNS possess some intrinsic value inthemselves. Simply put, social networking services are good for communicating andconnecting with others. If thats your aim - in education, business, or whatever - then, yes,these tools can be useful. Outside of an aim, in keeping with Gibsons concept of theneed of an agent to perceive affordances or action potential of a tool, SNS have no :Length: 42 Minutes: 164
  • 165. Sherry Turkle!/search/sherry%20turkleBiography :Retrieved from on March 1, 2012Author of "Alone Together: Why We Expect More fromTechnology and Less from Each Other"Abby Rockefeller Mauzé Professor of the Social Studies ofScience, and Technology in the Program in Science,Technology, and Society at MIT; founder and currentdirector of the MIT Initiative on Technology and SelfExpertise • Technology and its impact on society • Human Relationships                  • Current technological innovations and their impact on our way of lifeBiographyThe definitive expert in her field, Sherry Turkle has been studying people’schanging relationships with digital culture for three decades.  She is the AbbyRockefeller Mauzé Professor of the Social Studies of Science and Technology inthe Program in Science, Technology, and Society at MIT and the founder (2001)and current director of the MIT Initiative on Technology and Self. An accomplishedauthor, her latest book “Alone Together: Why We Expect More from Technologyand Less from Each Other” (Basic Books, January 2011) explores technology’sinfluence on our interpersonal relationships, calling for society to reexamine andredefine our basis human connections. Profiles of Professor Turkle have appearedin such publications as The New York Times, Scientific American, and WiredMagazine. She is a featured media commentator on the social and psychologicaleffects of technology for CBS, NBC, ABC, CNN, the BBC and NPR, includingappearances on such programs as "Nightline," "Frontline," "20/20" and "TheColbert Report."Turkle offers a unique perspective on technology and social interaction, and onthe psychological dimensions of technological change. Her work investigates theintersection of digital technology and human relationships, from the early days ofpersonal computers to our current world of robotics, artificial intelligence, socialnetworking and mobile connectivity. Turkle’s exploration into our lives on thedigital terrain shows how technological advancement doesn’t just catalyzechanges in what we do – it affects how we think. 165
  • 166. EducationProfessor Turkle received a joint doctorate in sociology and personalitypsychology from Harvard University and is a licensed clinical psychologist. Shehas been studying our changing relationships with digital culture for over threedecades, charting how mobile technology, social networking, and sociablerobotics are changing our work, families, and identity.AwardsWorld Economic Forum Fellow2002 - Named one of the Top Ten Wired Women by ABC News.com2000 - Named one of Time Magazines "Innovators of the Internet"1995 - Selected Member of "50 for the Future: the Most Influential People toWatch in Cyberspace," Newsweek Magazine1984 - Selected "Woman of the Year," by Ms. MagazinePublications/Books"Alone Together: Why We Expect More from Technology and Less from EachOther" (Basic Books, January 2011)"Life on the Screen:  Identity in the Age of the Internet" (Simon and Schuster,1995; Touchstone paper, 1997)"Simulation and Its Discontents" (MIT Press, 2009)"The Second Self: Computers and the Human Spirit" (Simon and Schuster,1984; Touchstone paper, 1985; second revised edition, MIT Press, 2005)"Psychoanalytic Politics: Jacques Lacan and Freuds French Revolution" (BasicBooks, 1978; MIT Press paper, 1981; second revised edition, Guilford Press, 1992)interview:This is very long, and very good. I challenge you to read it.There seems to be a mass of cheerleaders out there who are celebrating thisdigital revolution, particularly in education.I think that we live in techno-enthusiastic times. We celebrate our technologiesbecause people are frightened by the world weve made. The economy isnt goingright; theres global warming. In times like that, people imagine science andtechnology will be able to get it right. 166
  • 167. “Many students were trained that a good presentation is a PowerPoint -- bam-bam. Its very hard for them to have a kind of quietness in their thinking whereone thing can lead to another and build and build.”In the area of education, it calms people to think that technology will be asalvation. It turns out that its not so simple. Technology can be applied in goodways and bad. Its not the panacea. It depends how; it depends what. It dependshow rich you are, what other things you have going for you. Its a verycomplicated story. But I definitely think that were at a moment when nostalgia forthings that we once got right is coded as Luddite-ism.I see part of my role in this conversation as giving nostalgia a good name. Ifsomething worked and was helpful to parents, teachers, children, that thingshould be celebrated and brought forward, insofar as we can. Its not to say thattechnology is bad -- robots, cell phones, computers, the Web. The much harderwork is figuring out what is their place. That turns out to be very complicated.You cant put something in its place unless you really have a set of values thatyoure working from. Do we want children to have social skills, to be able to justlook at each other face to face and negotiate and have a conversation and becomfortable in groups? Is this a value that we have in our educational system?Well, if so, a little less Net time, sil vous plait. Technology challenges us to assertour human values, which means that first of all, we have to figure out what theyare.What is this moment were in? Can you define it?We are at a point where the fact that something is simulated does not, for thisgeneration, make it second best, and that leads to some problems.This is really the first generation that grew up with simulation to the point thatthey see simulation as a virtue and have a very hard time identifying where realityslips away from simulation, often in subtle ways.I think when you have a generation that doesnt see simulation as second best,doesnt know whats behind simulation and the programming that goes intosimulation, but just takes simulation at interface value, you really have a set upfor a very problematic political, among other things, set of issues.The turning point was the introduction of the Mac in 1984, because the Macintoshsaid you dont have to look under the interface we give you; you can just be at theinterface. And so thats when you start getting into terrible trouble withsimulation, because youre so dependent on it. You dont know how it works, andthere begins to be slippage between the simulated and the real.Children who loved to program are now absent. People talking about computersin education for the most part [are] talking about children using computer tools.Theyre not talking about understanding this technology. 167
  • 168. What would be different if we had a generation of kids who did look underthe hood?I think that when I say "look under the hood," there are levels and levels, and Icertainly am not advocating that everybody has to become a specialist in chipdesign. But I think not understanding how to write a simple program -- things arebuilt out of simple programs to more complex programs, and these programs arecultural creations, cultural constructions; you can change the program -- I thinkthat has been a shift thats not all to the good.Education has dropped that out of the curriculum. The most used program incomputers and education is PowerPoint. What are you learning about the nature ofthe medium by knowing how do to a great PowerPoint presentation? Nothing. Itcertainly doesnt teach you how to think critically about living in a culture ofsimulation.[And there are consequences to this.]I think were at a robotic moment where a great many people are very open tohaving either agents on a computer screen or robots, if they could get fancyenough, really serve as everything from teachers to nannies and company for theelderly and for children -- big push for this in Japan.I think we suffer in that willingness to have a program that somehow knows howto do a little back and forth with us, in our willingness to be seduced intorelationships with these inanimate beings. Part of it is really because we donthave in mind the nature of the programming in these agents, because theyre sofancy, theyre so lovely, theyre so animated.In fact, if people knew a little more about programming, they would at least havethe tools to think theres nobody home. If Im pouring out my heart to this entity,its not understanding a word Im saying. And I think as the robots, as the screenrepresentations of empathic behavior become more sophisticated, were raising ageneration that needs to be far better prepared to know whats appropriate andnot appropriate with these machines.Are you including in that notion someone who says that they are reallyconnecting in Second Life with another avatar in a deep and meaningful way?Well, there are many kinds of relationships with a machine. When Im talkingabout a relationship with a robot, Im talking more about connecting with anavatar in Second Life behind which is not a person but a bot, an artificialintelligence.There are bots built into Second Life and into a lot of computer games wherepeople get used to relating to an artificial intelligence as though its a person. Andin my own studies, I find that from the point that youve been in a game whereyour life has been saved by a bot, you kind of feel something for that bot, and itsonly three baby steps to feeling as though that bot is appropriate to confide in. 168
  • 169. So to be clear, there are relationships with machines where your relationship isnot via the machine to another person. No, Im talking about relating to a robot,relating to a bot and being willing to take what you can get in that relationship asbeing sort of sufficient unto the day. And at least as I can see from interviewingchildren and teenagers, were gradually moving into expanding, gradually andgradually, the realms in which we think its appropriate to relate to a machine.When one talks to people who are enthusiasts for technology, they often willsay, look, its not one or the other. Having robots or text messages or cellphones to deal with all the things that we dont have time or the inclinationto deal with ourselves gives us more time to have meaningful connectionsthat we really want to have.This is a very compelling argument until you hang out for five years withteenagers who theoretically are the ones who are supposed to be having their textmessages and their long conversations, too.What Im seeing is a generation that says consistently, "I would rather text thanmake a telephone call." Why? Its less risky. I can just get the information outthere. I dont have to get all involved; its more efficient. I would rather text thansee somebody face to face.Theres this sense that you can have the illusion of companionship without thedemands of friendship. The real demands of friendship, of intimacy, arecomplicated. Theyre hard. They involve a lot of negotiation. Theyre all the thingsthat are difficult about adolescence. And adolescence is the time when people areusing technology to skip and to cut corners and to not have to do some of thesevery hard things.So of course people try to use everything. But a generation really is growing upthat, because its given the option to not do some of the hardest things inadolescence, are growing up without some basic skills in many cases, and thatsvery concerning to me.One of the things Ive found with continual connectivity is theres an anxiety ofdisconnection; that these teens have a kind of panic. They say things like: "I lostmy iPhone; it felt like somebody died, as though Id lost my mind. If I dont havemy iPhone with me, I continue to feel it vibrating. I think about it in my locker."The technology is already part of themselves.And with the constant possibility of connectivity, one of the things that I see is ...a very subtle movement from "I have a feeling I want to make a call" to "I want tohave a feeling I need to make a call" -- in other words, people almost feeling as ifthey cant feel their feeling unless theyre connected.Im hearing this all over now, so it stops being pathological if it becomes agenerational style. And I think we have to ask ourselves, well, what are some ofthe other implications of that? Because certainly our models of what adolescentsgo through in order to develop independent identities did not leave room for that 169
  • 170. kind of perpetual reaching out to other people in order to feel a sense of self.That was something you hopefully went through and then developed the kind ofthing where: "I have a feeling. I want to tell somebody about it."I think of what I do as the inner history of technology, and theres shifts in theinner life that you dont necessarily see if you just say: "How often do you useyour cell phone? What are you using your cell phone for? Who are you calling onyour cell phone?" When you actually look at how these kids are thinking abouttheir feelings and the relationship of their feelings to their phones, I think you seea somewhat different picture.Tell me about the fieldwork that youve been doing.My first work was on the one-to-one [relationship] of person with computers. Andthen from 1995 on, Ive looked at the computer as the gateway to relationshipswith other people. Since 1995 Ive been studying adolescents and adults inconnectivity culture, which is how I think of it -- studying gaming, virtual worldsand what began just with text-based virtual worlds, and now its moved on tothings like Second Life, where you actually build worlds.Where do you mark the "always on, always on you" culture as having started?For kids I mark it in a very arbitrary way at 9/11, because in 2001, kids were inschool without cell phones, and shortly after that, it became possible to give yourkid a cell phone. That was a moment of trauma for parents, where they wantedthat connection with their children. Parents were cut off, and in my interviews Ifind that children felt cut off. And from that point onward, having your child inconstant connection became a parental virtue, and also something that childrenwanted.Then very quickly for teenagers [it became] they prefer to text than talk becausetalking for them involves too much information, too much tension, too muchawkwardness. They like the idea of a communication medium in which theredoesnt need to be awkwardness. You leave before youre rejected.Let me just say one thing thats on my mind: Many people are enthusiasts aboutthe empowerment of children with these new technologies, and I think that ofcourse there is an empowering side. But when I talk to kids about privacy, theirMySpace account being hacked into, about people seeing their business whoshouldnt see their business, they say things like, "Who would want to know aboutmy little life?" Thats very different than feeling empowered.Facebook knows all, and it changes the rules about privacy, and you dont evenknow theyve changed the rules until your mom tells you, and then you cant evenfigure out how to get it back to the old setting, and we have 13- and 14-year-olds who are trying to deal with this. They do feel as though theyre out of controlof what the rules are. And their response is not to feel empowered. 170
  • 171. We filmed with some vets who are coming back from Iraq and Afghanistanwith PTSD [post-traumatic stress disorder], and they are being put throughsomething called Virtual Iraq, which is essentially a game in which theirtrauma is actually recreated in symbolic terms in a virtual world. Andtherapists are saying its incredibly effective. And let me just clarify, there isa real therapist there who --The use of simulation in therapy that tries to re-enact moments, that has atherapist there, to me thats using simulation the way in which child therapistshave traditionally used dollhouses and dolls. You ask people to talk about thedolls, their meanings, their experience, to relive things. If you can use simulationas a kind of souped-up version of that, Im fine with that. My litmus test iswhether there is someone in the room who is interpreting these experiences interms of human meaning.My problem is that were very quick, I think, to say, "Oh, technology as therapy --we can get the person out of the room." That hasnt worked in education, and Idont think its going to work in psychotherapy.It seems as though theres been a kind of outburst in the virtual worldsbusiness starting with Second Life. And now, for example, IBM is creatingtheir own virtual world, and youve got all these childrens virtual worlds.The question isnt so much why business, corporations, universities would bedrawn to making their own environments. The question is, what do we really wantto do there? And also [we need to be] asking the question, if were there, wherearent we?If youre spending three, four, five, six hours in very fun interactions on SecondLife, theres got to be someplace youre not. And that someplace youre not isoften with your family and friends sitting around, playing Scrabble face to face,taking a walk, watching television together in the old-fashioned way.So the question of the brilliance of the virtual environments is never in question. Imyself have studied how many interesting psychological moments anddevelopmental moments you can have in virtual spaces. For adolescents, its aplace to have what [development psychologist and psychotherapist] Erik Eriksononce called the "moratorium time," where you can fall in love and out of love withpeople, with ideas. You can experiment with gender; you can experiment withsexual identity. You, the extrovert, can be an introvert.Many exciting and interesting things can happen when you are in virtual places,but for every hour of life on the screen is an hour not spent on the rest of life.And its well past the time to take the measure of what are the costs.You have your face-to-face [life], and you have your virtual life, and you have yourSecond Life -- it doesnt take into account two things: the limitation of hours inthe day and the seduction of the virtual, not just for teenagers but for all of us 171
  • 172. who dont want to do all the hard things that are involved in having relationshipswith other people.Its very hard to tell a colleague that theyve disappointed you, that their work is aproblem. Its extremely easy to send an e-mail that says that. Its very hard to tella friend that theyre not invited to your party. Its extremely easy to send an e-mail that does that. (Laughs.) There are all kinds of things that really are hard thatvirtuality smoothes over.There is a reason that when you go into an organization, people are in theirrooms feet away from each other, sending each other e-mail. And you ask themwhy, and they say, "Oh, its more convenient; I dont have to bother anybody,waste anybodys time." Its as though everybody lived in a world where were allwasting each others time. So now we dont waste each others time. You only haveto get your mail when you want to.[What about parents and teens in this new world?]One of the interesting things about studying teenagers and adults at the sametime is you see teenagers beginning to want to correct parents seduction into thetechnology, because teenagers have needs that arent being met that theyre veryvocal about.For example, teenagers complain -- often these are teenagers from parents whohave been divorced -- they would not have seen their mom in four days. Themom comes to pick them up at the soccer game; this is now their time with theirmom, right? The mom is sitting there with the Blackberry, and until she finishesthe Blackberry stuff, she doesnt look up to look at the kid. The kids in the car,and theyve driven off before the mom looks up from the Blackberry.This infuriates children. And children are more critical of their parents seductionby this technology than they are by their own behavior, because every kid wantsto feel -- Blackberry generation or no, iPhone or no -- that their parent is therefor them at the moment that they need their parent. And having all of theseparents who are on the Blackberrys during pickup, this comes up so often in myinterviews.Weve spent time with people who play World of Warcraft, and theyre veryimpressive -- professionals, self-aware. They say, "Everybody dismisses therelationships we have here, but these are some of the most meaningfulrelationships in our life." Now, in some cases its because theyre overweight,or theyre crippled, or in some other way have issues socially relating toother people, and they feel freer, unburdened of their physical self. In othercases its because their lives dont have space in them for real face-to-faceencounters a lot, and they get to spend that time that they would otherwisebe at home and watching TV connecting to other people. What do you say tothat? 172
  • 173. I say good. If virtual reality gives you something that you cant get otherwise, whywould I want to deny the pleasures of virtuality to someone whose life is enhancedby them? I do think that my value system is most comfortable, however, seeingvirtuality and the pleasures of virtuality as a stepping stone to being able toincrease your range in love and work.I think time in virtual reality is most constructive when it causes you to reflect onyour life in the physical real in a new kind of way, because in the virtual, wheresort of anything is possible, very often we learn what were missing in the real. Itsalmost kind of a Rorschach [inkblot test] not for what were getting in the real butwhat we dont have in the real.I just came back from Dublin, [Ireland], where my daughter is spending a gap yearand, you know, sitting in a pub drinking. Well, in these games, they have virtualpubs where theres drinking. I think sitting in a pub drinking is a differentexperience, an experience that you wouldnt want to miss because youre busydrinking in a virtual pub with virtual Guinness stouts. I say get comfy there, andthen learn how to take that next step, to bring it out into the real.So Ive often been accused of having an argument where the best virtual lives arelives lived when youre also seeing a psychotherapist who can help you bring itinto the real. And Ive been accused of that, but Im not uncomfortable with theaccusation.If Philip Rosedale, the creator of Second Life, was sitting here, hed say yourejust privileging the real over the virtual. Why cant one enhance ones rangein a virtual world?One can. But ultimately we are creatures with bodies, and the pleasures of ourbodies are major. And to just say, "Well, lets raise a generation that can do it allin their heads," I say, "Why would you want to deny the pleasures of the body?,"because we are creatures of our bodies, of our faces. We are evolutionarilydesigned to communicate at the highest level with the tiniest twitch of our voices,our faces. These are, in some ways, the highest expression of who we are aspeople.I think the burden of proof is on people who want to give up the body. Ive been inso many conversations online, having been a denizen of virtual worlds now sincethe late 80s, early 90s. Ive eaten so much virtual food and drank so many virtualbeers and wines and had so many virtual margaritas thrust at me. Whats to talk[about]? Whereas sitting at dinner with friends, theres plenty to talk about -- howwere all feeling and how were looking, and how the way were looking is awindow onto how we are. Now, why is it that we want to give all this up?Ive got to meet this Philip Rosedale. But I dont believe for a minute that he liveshis life ... --His hobby is flying airplanes. 173
  • 174. Exactly. I think the technology enthusiasts -- people who make a living out ofglowingly describing the world to come where were sort of staring at our screensand being with each other virtually all the time -- these people tend to love thebest food and wine and love the company of their friends and family and love tohang out in beautiful places and bring friends and have parties. I think we have tokeep each other honest about what really are our greatest pleasures in life.I think the enthusiasts would say its all about balance: "Were not in any waysuggesting that the virtual replace the real; were just saying theres room forboth." But I wonder about the issue of addiction -- the way in which we canget lost in these worlds.Well, I dont like the metaphor of addiction for talking about any of these worldsor technologies. If youre addicted to a controlled substance, the only questionyou need to ask is, how can I stop using this substance, because it is closingdown my ability to function?Its a much more complicated story if youre addicted to Second Life. The questionis, what are you getting on Second Life that is so compelling that you need tohave it in your life, and how can we get that in your life?For people who say, "Well have our Second Life; well have our e-mail; well haveour texting; well have our face to face; well move fluidly among these differentworlds," I say show me the exemplars of people who are really moving so fluidlyin these worlds.The argument about fluidly moving between doesnt take into account the holdingpower of this technology. [It is] offering us something about which we arevulnerable. People want to have companionship without the demands offriendship, because companionship, particularly if youre an adolescent, can bevery threatening. Heres a technology that allows that. Thats very powerfulholding power when we look at a generation of kids who literally cannot put itdown. And there are things they are not doing developmentally because they cantput it down.It doesnt mean that theyre not growing up. It doesnt mean that theyre monstersor that theyre limited in every way. But there are developmental jobs that they arenot doing because they are so enmeshed in the technology.What do we want our teenagers to know? We built all of these classrooms in whichthey can be online all the time. So now you go into any college classroom, andeverybodys typing, and its only a fiction that theyre looking at supplementarymaterials that will help them understand the lecture. I mean, it even changes howteachers teach.You need to compete today with the son et lumière, -- the bright lights, big cityof the Web. So even decisions that face every professor every day when they walkinto class and see the laptop screens go up, and what am I going to say to my 174
  • 175. class? But it doesnt just face professors. It faces every chairman of the board thattries to have a board meeting or a trustees meeting of any sort.Some would say most of the lectures, most of the classes, most of the booksare unnecessarily long and boring, and the stuff thats great you could fit in acouple of hands, and thats the stuff they should really commit to andmemorize and study. The rest of it is better short and quick and to the point.Look at haiku. Its much harder to do something quickly than it is to dosomething for hours. And whos to say that its better to take your time andnot be distracted?Much of literature and poetry and film and theater, the ability to trace complicatedthemes through a literary work, through a poem, through a play, these pleasureswill be lost to us, because these pleasures become pleasures through acquiredskills. You need to learn how to listen to a poem, read a [Fyodor] Dostoevskynovel, read a Jane Austen novel.These are pleasures of reading that demand attention to things that are long andwoven and complicated. And this is something that human beings have cherishedand that have brought tremendous riches. And to just say, "Well, were of ageneration that now likes it short and sweet, and haiku -- why?" Just because thetechnology makes it easy for us to have things that are short and sweet andhaiku? In other words, its an argument about sensibility and aesthetics thatsdriven by what technology wants.[Co-founder of Wired and journalist] Kevin Kelly has written extensively aboutwhat technology wants and that technology has its own desires; technology wantscertain things. And Kevin is a great friend, and hes a very, very brilliant man.When I listen to this, I say, well, I dont really care what technology wants. Its upto people to develop technologies, see what affordances the technology has. Veryoften these affordances tap into our vulnerabilities.I would feel bereft if because technology wants us to read short, simple stories,we bequeath to our children a world of short, simple stories. What technologymakes easy is not always what nurtures the human spirit.Plus, it is absolutely, in my view, the wrong argument for our times, because howare we going to convince our children that we are giving them a world where theproblems are more complex than ever -- education, the environment, politics ismore complex [than] ever -- and also be telling them that actually you can get itin mind-size bites, little haiku bits of information; that you can kind of get it onthe Web, a quick little version?Look at a problem like the contemporary terrorist threat, rooted in social,political, cultural, religious, tribal. You need to be able to put complicated, long,historical stories together. This is not amenable to quick, quick.To me, every part of the story about the forward thinking of the mind-size biteputs technology first, doesnt put technology in its place, and disempowers us 175
  • 176. rather than empowers us. And theres the aesthetic argument -- we turn out to bewonderful as human beings at being able to follow the complexity of meaning inother people and narratives.By putting the premium on whats fast, it takes away from education the ability toreason with your students about complicated things. Thats why they shouldnt bedoing everything virtually. Thats why they should come to universities and be in acommunity. And most important, it takes away from the future our best way ofthinking about complexity, which really is to study very long stories and try to putthem together. And so when I teach at MIT, I live in a world of people arguing thefast and the furious, and I dont think that it holds up.Ive been here for 20 years; Ive seen the losses. Theres no one whos beenteaching for 25 years and doesnt think that our students arent different now thanthey were then. They need to be stimulated in ways that they didnt need to bestimulated before. No, thats not good. You want them to think about hard things.You want them to think about complicated things. You dont want to be, literally,professors. I mean, if you look at changes in styles of teaching, it is driven byPowerPoint.Henry Jenkins, who was here at MIT, talks often about the creativeempowerment of this technology for kids, how theyre creating the culturewith this stuff and that thats a wonderful thing.Technology makes certain things easy educationally in the classroom. Thatdoesnt necessarily mean that those things are the most educationally valuable.When you have the ability to easily do showy, fabulous things, you want to believetheyre valuable because that would be great. I think that we always have to askourselves, when technology makes something easy, when its affordances allow usto do certain things, is this valuable? What are the human purposes being served?And in the classroom, what are the educational purposes being served?For example, video games make certain things easy. A video game is a complexsimulation, and in a lot of the educational games you get simulated scienceexperiments [that] make kids feel as though theyre discovering something. Oneof the things that happens in a simulated science experiment is the values comeout right, so the experiment isnt botched; the data isnt corrupted.How many physics experiments did you do, or chemistry, where all that was justthrown down the drain because it was contaminated? You didnt learn anything. Soyou went back to the textbook and saw how it should have been done.No, in a simulated experiment, you always get a result thats smooth. But whatyou dont learn is the resistance of nature. You dont learn that, in fact, things doget contaminated and that the real does have that resistance to you and the realhas that roughness and that thats what science is about. Its grappling with thatreal, which is really one of the first things a scientist needs to learn. 176
  • 177. Also, in any kind of simulation, somebody was always there before you toprogram this in, to plant these discoveries in. There isnt that sense of realdiscovery, of you being the one that puts it together.So psychologically, students have experience of simulation where theyre missinga kind of discovery that they can get really in the physical real.Let me say one more thing.One of the things that has been most distressing to me in looking at K through 12is the use of PowerPoint in the schools. It is statistically the most used piece ofeducational software. Students are taught that the way on how to make anargument -- to make it in bullets, to add great photos, to draw from the popularculture and show snippets of movies and snippets of things that [he or she] cangrab from the Web, and funny cartoons and to kind of make a mélange, a pasticheof cropped cultural images and animations and to make a beautiful PowerPoint.And thats their presentation.PowerPoint presentations are about simple, communicable ideas illustrated bypowerful images, and theres a place for that. But that isnt the same as criticalthinking. And PowerPoint is easy, and kids love to do it, and it feels good. And itsimply isnt everything. You know, great books are not fancied-up PowerPointpresentations. Great books take you through an argument, show how theargument is weak, meet objections, show you a different point of view. By thetime youre through with all that, youre way beyond the simplicities ofPowerPoint.We filmed in a school in the Bronx, and it was a school where kids weredropping out --And now theyre happy because they have the computers.Theyre paying attention. I mean --Because they have computers. So heres the thing about the schools. Computersare seductive; computers are appealing. Theres no harm in using the seductiveand appealing to draw people in, to get them in their seats, and to begin aconversation. The question is, what happens after that?So Im actually quite positive about all kinds of technology to get people who needto be in chairs. Im a pragmatist. I think theres a crisis in education; I want to dowhat works. But after theyre in their chair, the most impressive programs Iveseen is where children form relationships with mentors. Now, they can be doingtechnology while theyre having this relationship with a mentor. But kids who thesystem is failing dont have relationships and reasons to keep studying, learningand thinking.Again, Im not a Luddite. Technology is a wonderful conversation opener becauseits so seductive. That doesnt mean its where the conversation should end. Its a 177
  • 178. wonderful means of collaboration. But the collaboration is between people whoare excited about the ideas. The technology is not the product. I think its veryhard to see that because teachers are overworked; theyre over-stressed; there aretoo many kids in the class. They themselves have often lost their love of learning.Theyre in a situation where its hard to develop that -- so many disciplineproblems, so much struggling for any resources. And the fantasy that technologywill make this right is very compelling. I think the truth is that it may make iteasier if we use it to do the hard jobs.And the hard jobs are ... ?The hard jobs in education [are] getting children to love learning, to findsomething in learning that fits with their life and experience and where they canfind meaning in their own lives and love learning this. To see how learning cangive them a better life is very important. If students dont think learning can givethem a better life, there is no reason to learn. And thats a hard sell if youre notvery privileged, that learning can give you a better life.Also, Im very struck by the use of the words "interactivity" and "collaboration" ineducational discourse, as though all collaboration leads to ... goodness, and allinteractivity means that exciting things are happening educationally.You can be very interactive with a great piece of literature, sitting quietly in yourroom, maybe holding a pencil, but youve learned interactive skills so that you andthat piece of literature are in a complex interaction. You do not have to havethings exploding on the screen and people coming out to you and talking to youand shaking your hand and asking you to go -- were taking human imaginationout of our conversation about interactivity. And interactivity is not always an endin itself. And collaboration is not always an end in itself.I think that when you look at why thats happening, its because thats what thetechnology kind of puts in in advance. Computer games are interactive, and yourealways moving back and forth. And computer games are collaborative; you can beplaying with people all over the world. Well, it turns out, its highly overrated.Been there, done that. Good sometimes, not all the time. And it doesnt aneducation make, in my point of view.What about multitasking?Because technology makes it easy, weve all wanted to think it is good for us, anew kind of thinking, an expansion of our ability to reason and cycle throughcomplicated things -- do more and be more efficient. Unfortunately, the newresearch is coming in that says when you multitask, everything gets done a littleworse.Let me just speak of my own experience as a writer. I work on a networkedcomputer, and I have it on a word-processing program, and Im writing and Imthinking, and I have my interviews all around. And Im trying to make a hard point,and its hard, and I hit my e-mail, and I do a little e-mail. You know, 20 minutes 178
  • 179. passes; a half hour passes; 10 minutes passes. And Ive lost my thought. And I goback to the writing. And once again, when its hard, I hit Safari and Im Googlingsomebody; Im checking if my books are selling on Amazon.Im doing every little thing to break up the difficult. And in my interviewing I findthat I am not alone, that the pull to do a lot of things when something is hard is akind of universal seduction. And it does not make for better writing.I talk to my students about this a lot. Many of them say, whats the difference?You get up; you stretch; you have a cup of coffee. What about that? There is adifference. When you get up and stretch and take a walk around the block, youcan stay with your problem. You can clear your mind; you can move your body.You can stay with the thing, whereas if youre answering an e-mail aboutscheduling baby-sitters or quickly writing a letter of recommendation, youve lostyour problem.I think were getting ourselves out of the habit of just staying with somethinghard. Some intellectual problems are quite hard, and they need full attention. Andthe more you hear educational specialists talking about multitasking as thoughits a big plus, the more I think we seduce ourselves out of what many people,when they actually get to doing a piece of hard work, really know what the truthis.So how does this manifest itself in your students? How are they different,and what do you -- ?I teach at MIT. I teach the most brilliant students in the world. But they have donethemselves a disservice by drinking the Kool-Aid and believing that a multitaskinglearning environment will serve their best purposes, because they need to betaught how to make a sustained, complicated argument on a hard, cultural,historical, psychological point.Many of them were trained that a good presentation is a PowerPoint presentation-- you know, bam-bam-bam -- its very hard for them to have a kind ofquietness, a stillness in their thinking where one thing can actually lead toanother and build and build and build and build.I dont blame them. I think that there really is a change in the educationalsensibility that theyve come up with. I think its for a generation of professors tonot be intimidated and say, "Oh, this must be the way of the future," but to say:"Look, there really are important things you cannot think about unless youre onlythinking about one thing at a time. There are just some things that are notamenable to being thought about in conjunction with 15 other things. And theressome kind of arguments you cannot make unless youre willing to take somethingfrom beginning to end."When you look out and see that sea of students in front of you, to whatdegree do you think they actually are Googling you, Googling their possiblenew boyfriend -- 179
  • 180. Every professor who looks out onto a sea of students these days knows thattheres e-mail, Wikipedia, Facebook, Googling me, Googling them, Googling theirnext-door neighbor -- that thats happening in the classroom. And everyprofessor makes a different call, and often we change our calls from one class toanother and from one semester to another.Very often now I will start my class and say: "You know, this really is not aboutmore information. What were doing in class is learning how to think together, andI need your full attention, and I want you to be really thinking with me. I want youto be interrupting me; I want you to be having new ideas. But I dont really wantyou to be having new ideas because theres some new piece of information youfound out on the Web. So no notebook laptops. If you have a note, you need totake a piece of paper." And then Ive had people say, "Oh, well;" then theyll bedoodling. And I think doodling is actually kind of interesting. I think doodling is away in which people visually represent in some way something theyre hearing. Imcomfortable with doodling. I dont get upset if people doodle.Its going to be because theres something about my reasoning or somethingabout your reading and experience that youve thought about before coming herethat you want to contribute. And thats pretty much how Im handling it now.And lectures?Well, Ive changed my lecture style so that it is really more about showing themhow to think. I say: "These lectures are not about the communication of content.Im going to be thinking through complicated material. Im going to be asking forinput from you. Im going to be showing you how to think through a problem. Mylectures are designed to help you think through a problem, and theres really nonew information thats required to both watch me do that and for you toparticipate in helping me do that, because if Im thinking in a way you think isproblematic, I will call on you, and we can take it back and think through adifferent way."So I think its changed my teaching style in a sense that I want to get rid of thefantasy that theres something in Wikipedia or on the Web thats going to turn thisall around. Theyre paying so much money for this education, and I think I havesomething very special to offer, and I want them to be there.But listen, I feel the same way about my colleagues. You go to a conference, andthe person on your left is downloading images from The New Yorker that theywant to use in their presentation, the person to the right is doing their e-mail ontheir Blackberry, and the speaker knows that theyre speaking to people who arereally otherwise occupied.So I dont want to lay this on my students. I think were living in a culture wherewere really not sure what kind of attention we owe each other. People put theircell phones on the table now. They dont turn them off. One of my students talkedabout the first time he was walking with friends, and they received a cell phonecall, and they took the call. And he said: "What was I, on pause? I felt I was being 180
  • 181. put on pause." I think that were socially negotiating what kind of attention we feelwe owe each other.I have come to feel that in order for me to love my job, Im willing to change thenature of what I present in order to honestly be able to say to students: "What Imhere to do with you is to think about how to think about a problem. I need yourfull attention. Theres no more information you need. Everybody off the Web." Andthen its for me to make sure I can make good on that promise.I dont think of myself so much as old school as feeling that technology has itsplace. And there were some very good things about thinking together with aspeaker and not talking to each other about free associations and contradictionsto what the speaker is saying. And I think it goes along with a kind of lack ofwillingness to hear a complicated point out to the end.When Ive tried to analyze the cross-channel conversations, which are soscintillating and smart and witty and fun, they often dont allow a complicatedpoint to mature, because while youre making a complicated point, you can saythings that can be easily refuted, or, you know, it needs to mature.Were becoming quite intolerant of letting each other think complicated things. Idont think this serves our humans needs, because the problems were facing arequite complicated.I have complicated ideas about when to use technology in education. Sometimesyes, sometimes no. For different students its good in different ways. And werejust becoming like, "Sherry, is it good, or is it bad?" Well, sometimes it depends onthe kid. These are complicated points, and I think we need to hear each other out.Part of hearing each other out, implicit in that is the ability to be still, right?Yes. To hear someone else out, you need to be able to be still for a while and payattention to something other than your immediate needs. So if were living in amoment when you can be in seven different places at once, and you can haveseven different conversations at once on a back channel here, on a phone here, ona laptop, how do we save stillness? How threatened is it? How do we regain it?Erik Erikson is a great American psychologist who wrote a great deal aboutadolescence and identity, and he talks about the need for stillness in order to fullydevelop and to discover your identity and become who you need to become andthink what you need to think. And I think stillness is one of the great things injeopardy.I think that part of K through 12 education now should be to give students a placefor this kind of stillness.Thoreau, in writing about Walden, lists the three things that he feels theexperience is teaching him, and for him to develop fully as the man he wants tobecome. He wants to live deliberately; he wants to live in his life; and he wants to 181
  • 182. live with no sense of resignation. But on all of those dimensions, I feel that weretaking away from ourselves the things that Thoreau thought were so essential todiscovering an identity.Were not deliberate; were bombarded. We have no stillness; we have resignation.Kids say: "Well, it has to be this way; we have no other way to live. Were not livingfully in our lives. Were living a little in our lives and a little bit in our Facebooklives." You know, you put up a different life, you put up a different person. So itsnot to be romantic about Thoreau, but I think he did write, as Erikson wrote,about the need for stillness; to be deliberate; to live in your life and to never feelthat youre just resigned to how things need to be.What are your thoughts on the dearth-of-evidence argument? Many peoplesay that theres no evidence to show technology is changing us in ways thatare worrisome. The jurys still out.The saying that we know too little to make a judgment about technology has, asits starting point, that we know nothing about human development, or thatsomehow the game has completely changed now that we have a technology to putin its place.I wrote a book that was a collection of asking people what was the object thatbrought you into science. I asked for an object, and people wrote about people.They started with the object, and two sentences later theyre talking about theteacher that introduced them to the object. So we know that asking aboutpeoples most profound learning experience brings people right to therelationships with people.So the idea that now were going to bring in technology and we can de-people ouruniverse and give people video games to play with or give people robots that willbe tutors, it doesnt take into account what we know about ourselves as people.The best example of this over the past Id say five years or so ... has been thecultural infatuation with multitasking. And finally the experiments are coming in-- the careful, controlled experiments about how when you multitask, theres adegradation of all function. Did we need to really go through 10 years of drinkingthe Kool-Aid on the educational wonders of multitasking and the forgetting abouteverything we knew about what it takes to really accomplish something hard?I think we could have been a lot more measured as educators in our infatuationwith multitasking. And again, we live in techno-enthusiastic times, and we wantwhat technology makes easy to be good for us. And it just isnt always. Not that itnever is, but it isnt always.Theres a quote you gave me at one point from Shakespeare --The Shakespeare quote is, "We are consumed by that which we are nourishedby" [sic]. [Editors note: Shakespeares Sonnet LXXIII -- "Consumed with that whichit was nourished by."] 182
  • 183. I think when were texting, on the phone, doing your e-mail, getting information,the experience is of being filled up. And that feels good. We assume that it isnourishing in the sense of taking us to a place we want to go. And I think that weare going to start to learn that in our enthusiasms and in our fascinations, we canalso be flattened and depleted by what perhaps was once nourishing us, butwhich cant be a steady diet, because speaking for myself, if all I do is my e-mail,my calendar and my searches, ... I feel great; I feel like a master of the universe.And then its the end of the day, Ive been busy all day, and I havent thoughtabout anything hard, and I have been consumed by the technologies that werethere and that had the power to nourish me.The point is were really at the very beginning of learning how to use thistechnology in the ways that are the most nourishing and sustaining. Were goingto slowly find our balance, but I think its going to take time, and I think the firstdiscipline is to think of us in the early days so that were not so quick to -- (snapsfingers) -- yes, no, on, off, good, good, and to just kind of take it slowly and notfeel that we need to throw out the virtues of deliberateness, living in life, stillness,solitude.There is a wonderful Freudian formulation, which is that loneliness is failedsolitude. In many ways, we are forgetting the intellectual and emotional value ofsolitude. Youre not lonely in solitude. Youre only lonely if you forget how to usesolitude to replenish yourself and to learn. And you dont want a generation thatexperiences solitude as loneliness. And that is something to be concerned about,because if kids feel that they need to be connected in order to be themselves,thats quite unhealthy. Theyll always feel lonely, because the connections thattheyre forming are not going to give them what they seek.Read more: 17 mintutes 183
  • 184. Sugata Mitr!/sugatamBiography:Retrieved from on March 1, 2012Why you should listen to him:In 1999, Sugata Mitra and his colleagues dug a hole in a wall bordering an urban slum inNew Delhi, installed an Internet-connected PC, and left it there (with a hidden camerafilming the area). What they saw was kids from the slum playing around with thecomputer and in the process learning how to use it and how to go online, and thenteaching each other.In the following years they replicated the experiment in other parts of India, urban andrural, with similar results, challenging some of the key assumptions of formal education.The "Hole in the Wall" project demonstrates that, even in the absence of any direct inputfrom a teacher, an environment that stimulates curiosity can cause learning throughself-instruction and peer-shared knowledge. Mitra, whos now a professor ofeducational technology at Newcastle University (UK), calls it "minimally invasiveeducation.""Education-as-usual assumes that kids are empty vessels who need to be sat down in aroom and filled with curricular content. Dr. Mitras experiments prove that wrong."Linux JournalTheory/Contributions:Sugata Mitras "Hole in the Wall" experiments have shown that, in the absence ofsupervision or formal teaching, children can teach themselves and each other, if theyremotivated by curiosity and peer interest.Video: Sugata Mitra shows how kids teach themselvesLength: 23 minutes 184
  • 185. Steve HargadonFollow on Twitter:!/search/steve%20hargadonBiography:Retrieved from on March 1,2012Steve Hargadon is Elluminates Social Learning Consultant and the founder of theClassroom 2.0 social network. He blogs, speaks, and consults on educational technology,and is particularly passionate about Web 2.0, social networking, Free and Open SourceSoftware, computer reuse, and computing for low-income populations.Steve Hargadon runs the Open Source Pavilion and speaker series for the North-AmericanNECC, CUE, and T+L edtech shows, is the organizer of the annual EduBloggerCon, andholds a series of free workshops (Classroom 2.0 LIVE) around the United States to help in-the-trenches educators learn about the uses of Web 2.0 in the classroom. Steve Hargadonis also the Emerging Technologies Chair for NECC, a regular columnist at School LibraryJournal, and a blogger at He has consulted for PBS, Intel, Ning,KnowledgeWorks Foundation, CoSN, and others on educational technology andspecifically on social networking. His interview series can be found,, and Steveand his wife have four children and live in California.Theory/Contributions:Web 2.0 Is the Future of EducationRetrieved from onMarch 1, 2012A moment of extreme clarity became an obsession for me last week. A session that I hadprepared for the IL-TCE conference went from "Web 2.0 Tools for the Classroom" to "WhyWeb 2.0 Is Important to the Future of Education." Then, as PowerPoint fever gripped me( Impress, actually), moving slides around as though they were puzzle 185
  • 186. pieces finally coming together correctly, I found my thoughts coalescing toward a boldconclusion and a final title change: "Web 2.0 Is the Future of Education."It was not, I know, what I was supposed to talk about. But it felt so important, as though theidea needed me to say it out loud. And it was magnified by the impression I was havingthat were about to have the biggest discussion about education and learning in decades,maybe longer.I believe that the read/write Web, or what we are calling Web 2.0, will culturally, socially,intellectually, and politically have a greater impact than the advent of the printing press. Ibelieve that we cannot even begin to imagine the changes that are going to take place asthe two-way nature of the Internet begins to flower, and that even those of us who havespent time imagining this future will be astounded by what happens. Im going to identifyten trends in this regard that I think have particular importance for education and learning,and then discuss seven steps I think educators can take to make a difference during thistime. I have been heavily influenced by an article co-authored by John Seely Brown (JSB)in Educause Magazine, called "Minds on Fire: Open Education, the Long Tail, andLearning 2.0" and listening at least twice to a talk hed given at MIT on the same topic. Ivetried to attribute his thoughts here, but there is a fair amount of "remix" taking place in mybold assertion, and while the conclusion is my own, his work has significantly informed it.Trend #1: A New Publishing Revolution. The Internet is becoming a platform forunparalleled creativity, and we are creating the new content of the Web. The Web thatweve known for some years now has really been a one-way medium, where we read andreceived as passive participants, and that required a large financial investment to createcontent. The new Web, or Web 2.0, is a two-way medium, based on contribution, creation,and collaboration--often requiring only access to the Web and a browser. Blogs, wikis,podcasting, video/photo-sharing, social networking, and any of the hundreds (thousands?)of software services preceded by the words "social" or "collaborative" are changing howand why content is created.Trend #2: A Tidal Wave of Information. The publishing revolution will have an impact onthe sheer volume of content available to us that is hard to even comprehend. If fewer than1% of the users of Wikipedia actually contribute to it, what will happen when 10% do? Or20%? There are over 100,000 blogs created daily, and MySpace alone has somethingover 375,000 new users (content creators) every day. I remember how much work I had togo to in my childhood to just find information. Now, we must figure out what information togive our time and attention to when we are engulfed by it. Web 2.0 is the cause of whatcan only be called a flood of content--and while we dont know what the solutions will be tothe information dilemma, we can be pretty sure they will be brought forth from thecollaborative web itself.I will also say that on a personal level, when people ask me the answer to contentoverload, I tell them (counter-intuitively) that it is to produce more content. Because it is inthe act of our becoming a creator that our relationship with content changes, and webecome more engaged and more capable at the same time. In a world of overwhelmingcontent, we must swim with the current or tide (enough with water analogies!).Trend #3: Everything Is Becoming Participative. is for me the greatexample of how participation has become integral to an industry, and in a delicious irony,the book industry itself. The reviews by other readers are the most significant factor in mydecision to purchase (and sometimes even read!) a book now. Not only that, but Amazontakes the information of its users and by tracking their behavior provides data from themthat they are most often not even aware that they are helping to create: of all thecustomers who looked at a certain book, here is what they actually ended up buying. This 186
  • 187. feature often leads me to other books I might otherwise not have heard of. AmazonsKindle, I keep saying, is a hairs breadth away from ROCKING our reading world. Imaginean electronic book that allows you to comment on a sentence, paragraph, or section of thebook, and see the comments from other readers... to then actually be in an electronicdialog with those other readers. Its coming.Trend #4: The New Pro-sumers. The word "pro-sumer" is a combination of the words"producer" and "consumer." More and more companies are engaging their customers inthe creation of the product they sell them. From avid off-road bikers who created theoriginal mountain bikes that now dominate the market, to substantial companies elicitingR&D work from a broader public. (And dont get me started on American Idol, which is afairly brilliant way to create a superstar.) The nature not just of how knowledge is acquired,but how it is produced, is changing.Trend #5: The Age of the Collaborator. We are most definitely in a new age, and itmatters. If Id been born 150 years ago, I might have been taken out into the wildernessand left to die--I cant digest milk, have a skin disorder that keeps me mostly out of thesun, and a nerve problem in a foot that without the right shoe insert incapacitates me.There is no question that historical eras favor certain personalities and types, and the ageof the collaborator is here or coming, depending on where you sit. The era of trustedauthority (Time magazine, for instance, when I was young) is giving way to an era oftransparent and collaborative scholarship (Wikipedia). The expert is giving way to thecollaborator, since 1 + 1 truly equals 3 in this realm.Trend #6: An Explosion of Innovation. Im pretty proud of my brother (AndrewHargadon), who wrote the book How Breakthroughs Happen. In explaining themisconception of the lone inventor, he shows how innovation results from the applicationof knowledge from one field to another--including the important role that consultants canplay in this process. Now, imagine all of us as creators, bringing our own particularexperiences and insight to increasingly diverse and specific areas of knowledge. Thecombination of 1) an increased ability to work on specialized topics by gathering teamsfrom around the globe, and 2) the diversity of those collaborators, should bring with it anincredible amount of innovation.Trend #7: The World Gets Even Flatter and Faster. Yes, and even if that "flat" world is"spiky" or "wrinkled," its still getting pretty darn flat. That anyone, anywhere in the world,can study using over the material from over 1800 open courses at MIT is astounding, andits only the start.Trend #8: Social Learning Moves Toward Center Stage. This is really JSB territory, andbest addressed by him (see, but Ill recommend him to youwhile still mentioning that the distinction between the "lecture" room and the "hallway" isdiminishing--since its in the hallway discussions after the lecture where JSB mentions thatlearning actually takes place. Just witness the amazing early uses of social media foreducational technology conferences (see In the aforementionedEducause article, JSB discusses a study that showed that one of the strongestdeterminants of success in higher education is the ability to form or participate in studygroups. In the video of his lecture he makes the point that study groups using electronicmethods have almost the exact same results as physical study groups. The conclusion issomewhat stunning--electronic collaborative study technologies = success? Maybe notthat simple, but the real-life conclusions here may dramatically alter how we view thestructure of our educational institutions. JSB says that we move from thinking of 187
  • 188. knowledge as a "substance" that we transfer from student to teacher, to a social view oflearning. Not "I think, therefore I am," but "We participate, therefore we are." From "accessto information" to "access to people" (I find this stunning). From "learning about" to"learning to be." His discussions of the "apprenticeship" model of learning and how itsnaturally being manifested on the front lines of the Internet (Open Source Software) arenot to be missed.Its the model of students as contributors that really grabs me, and leads to the next trend.Trend #9: The Long Tail. When sells more items that arent carried in retailstores than are, its pretty apparent that an era of specialized production is made possibleby the Internet. Chris Andersons Wired Magazine article, and then his book, shouldcapture the attention of the educational world as the technologies of the Web make"differentiated instruction" a reality that both parents and students will demand. I can goonline and watch heart-surgery take place live. I can find a tutor in almost any subject whocan work with me via video-conference and shared desktop. If a student cares aboutsomething--if they have a passion for something--they can learn about it and they canactually produce work in the field and become a contributing part of that community.Trend #10: Social Networking Really (Opens Up the Party. Web 2.0 was amazing whenblogs and wikis led the way to user-created content, but as the statistics Ive quoted aboveshow, the party really began when sites that combined several Web 2.0 tools togethercreated the phenomenon of "social networking." (Lets face it, blogging is just not that easyto start doing... and wikis can intimidate even the bravest of souls.) If MySpace were acountry, it would be the third most populous in the world. I think what Ning is doing byallowing users to create their own social networks is amazing--and apart from the keynotesession I attended at IL-TCE, every other session presenter I heard mentioned Ning insome way. The potential for education is astounding. (Full disclosure: I consult for Ning byrepresenting Ning to educators and educators to Ning.)OK, so if youre still with me, before I discuss the seven things that educators can do, Iwant to do a little ode to JSB that shows the shifts and where I think were going in a largercontext. I also want to suggest that their implications for education and learning areparadigm-shattering, as they in fact are all really about education and learning.* From consuming to producing* From authority to transparency* From the expert to the facilitator* From the lecture to the hallway* From "access to information" to "access to people"* From "learning about" to "learning to be"* From passive to passionate learning* From presentation to participation* From publication to conversation* From formal schooling to lifelong learning* From supply-push to demand-pullI wonder if you will agree with me, now, that Web 2.0 is the future of education. If not, Isure hope youll sound off! In the meantime, here are some things I think educators can doif there is truth to what I have suggested. 188
  • 189. * Learn About Web 2.0. Its not going to go away, and it is pretty amazing. I know it mayseem overwhelming, but its worth taking the time to jump in somewhere and start theprocess. Classroom 2.0 ( is not a bad place to start, since its asocial network for educators who are interested in learning about Web 2.0, as it turnsout... :) Those of you with suggestions of other resources, please post comments linking tothem. I do like social networking as an easy way to enter the world of Web 2.0, and a goodlist of educational social networks can be found at* Lurk. There is nothing wrong with "lurking," and a lot to recommend it. If you go toClassroom 2.0 or some other site, that doesnt mean you have to become a contributorright away. If youve spent years evaluating students on their writing, it can be a little scaryto put up something you have written for the whole world to see--especially if you donthave hours and hours to refine it. So wait and watch a little.* Participate. After some purposeful lurking, consider becoming personally engaged. Bebrave. Post a comment, or reply to a thought. It can be short! While Web 2.0 may seemshort on grammar, spelling, and punctuation, your skills in those areas will help you tocommunicate well, and you will discover that contributing and creating take on significantmeaning when you are participating in a worthwhile discussion.* Digest This Thought: The Answer to Information Overload Is to Produce MoreInformation.* Teach Content Production. When you have understood the previous suggestion, youllrealize the importance of starting to teach content production to your students (and yourfriends, family, and anyone who will listen!). This is important on many levels, not the leastof which is teaching how to make decisions about sharing what you produce (copyrightissues, and be sure to learn about Creative Commons licensing)--so that your studentscan appreciate the importance of respecting the licensing rights of others.* Make Education a Public Discussion. I had a friend who use to tell me that when hesaid he was a teacher, all dinner conversation would stop. Maybe the general public hasntspent much time discussing or debating education and learning lately, but its about timefor that to change.* Help Build the New Playbook. You may think that you dont have anything to teach thegeneration of students who seem so tech-savvy, but they really, really need you. Forcenturies we have had to teach students how to seek out information – now we have toteach them how to sort from an overabundance of information. Weve spent the last tenyears teaching students how to protect themselves from inappropriate content – now wehave to teach them to create appropriate content. They may be "digital natives," but theirknowledge is surface level, and they desperately need training in real thinking skills. Morethan any other generation, they live lives that are largely separated from the adults aroundthem, talking and texting on cell phones, and connecting online. We may be afraid to enterthat world, but enter it we must, for they often swim in uncharted waters without the benefitof adult guidance. To do so we may need to change our conceptions of teaching, andbetter now than later.Im particularly appreciative of all who devote their lives to education, and I hope this posthas given you some food for thought. May I invite you to respond? :) 189
  • 190. video :Length: about 9 minutes 190
  • 191. Awel GhonimRetrieved from On February 27, 2012Egyptian protest leaderBorn: Dec. 23, 1980Birthplace: Cario, EgyptGhonim, a marketing manager for Google, shot to international fame in February 2011 asthe catalyst behind the anti-government protest movement in Egypt that ultimately led tothe resignation of President Hosni Mubarak. Ghonim organized the mass demonstrationsanonymously as the administrator of the Facebook page, We Are All Khaled Said. Thepage, which has close to 600,000 supporters, was named in honor of a young Egyptianman allegedly beaten to death by Egyptian police in Alexandria in June 2010. Ghonim alsoused Twitter to rally Egyptians to the protest movement with tweets that included,"Freedom is a bless[ing] that deserves fighting for it." He acknowledged his role in therevolution in an emotional television interview in which he described his 12-day secretdetention by Egyptian police.More on Wael Ghonim from Infoplease: 1 Wael Ghonim - Biography of Wael Ghonim, 2 Revolution in Egypt: Protests Lead to the Resignation of Hosni Mubarak - Read about the resignation of Hosni Mubarak and find information about Egypt and the Middle East 3 Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak Resigns - Embattled president bows to intense pressure from protesters 4 Mubarak, Ghonim, Suleiman and ElBaradei Biographies, In-Depth Articles on Egyptian Crisis Featured on - Trusted Reference Site Provides Articles, Maps to Provide Insight Into Middle East Upheaval 5 Tumult in the Middle East: Protests Sweep Through Region - Read biographies of prominent figures in the Middle East, learn about the history of the countries in upheaval, and moreRead more: Wael Ghonim Biography — from on March 1, 2012Google marketing executiveCairo, Egypt By GRAEME WOODAn unlikely revolutionary sparks a monumental uprising with the click of a mouse.So much for brand loyalty. The defining act in the life of Wael Ghonim, a Google employeesince 2008, was founding a group on Facebook. 191
  • 192. “We are all Khaled Said,” declared his group’s thousands of members, associatingthemselves with the young Alexandrian Internet activist beaten to death in Egyptian policecustody in June 2010. That group grew rapidly from seed to sprout.After members helped organize the first Egyptian protests in January 2011, HosniMubarak’s government decided to cut off the Internet to try to stop them from bringingmore protesters to Tahrir Square.Absent from center stage in this drama was the social-media Trotsky himself. Ghonim wassnatched up by Egyptian authorities on January 28, and interrogated in isolation for 12straight days. In Ghonim’s telling, his questioners were incredulous rather than violent—shocked that all of this revolt could have erupted from the efforts of just a few “noisy kidson Facebook,” while Egyptian state media were blaming meddling by foreign powers. Themedia were issuing countrywide alarms: look out for Israeli, Qatari, and Iranian spies.Then the police met their revolutionary, and he was an Egyptian.Of the Egyptian revolution’s few unmistakable inflection points, Ghonim’s post-prisoninterview with Dream TV was perhaps the most decisive. Ghonim, who had been unawareof the unfolding drama while he was in custody, spoke through tears about the revolution’sdead. This emotional display was utterly alien to the Mubarak regime—and proof to manywavering Egyptians that the revolutionaries were humans, and the government was aheartless bureaucracy easily capable of every brutality of which it had been accused.Popular fear dissolved, and Tahrir Square became a protest site for ordinary Egyptians, notjust for Facebook friends and a crowd of tweeting revolutionaries.Image: Khaled el Faqi/EPA/CorbisGraeme Wood is an Atlantic contributing editorVideo:Not Required: 18 Minutes. Interview shortly after he was released from prison 192
  • 193. Jeff Bezos:Retrieved from on March 12,2012Jeff Bezos was born Jan. 12, 1964, in Albuquerque, New Mexico. He joined a New York investmentbank in 1990. Soon named senior vice president he was in charge of examining the investmentpossibilities of the Internet. In 1994 he quit his job and opened a virtual bookstore. Amazon.comsold its first book in 1995. It has since become the largest retailer on the Web and the model forInternet sales(born Jan. 12, 1964, Albuquerque, N.M., U.S.) American entrepreneur who played a key role in thegrowth of e-commerce as the founder and chief executive officer of, Inc., an onlinemerchant of books and later of a wide variety of products. Under his guidance, Amazon.combecame the largest retailer on the World Wide Web and the model for Internet sales.Early CareerWhile still in high school, Bezos developed the Dream Institute, a centre that promoted creativethinking in young students. After graduating (1986) summa cum laude from Princeton Universitywith degrees in electrical engineering and computer science, he undertook a series of jobs beforejoining the New York investment bank D.E. Shaw & Co. in 1990. Soon named senior vice president—the firms youngest—Bezos was in charge of examining the investment possibilities of theInternet. Its enormous potential—Web usage was growing by more than 2,000 percent a year—sparked his entrepreneurial imagination. In 1994 he quit D.E. Shaw and moved to Seattle, Wash., toopen a virtual bookstore. Working out of his garage with a handful of employees, Bezos begandeveloping the software for the site. Named after the South American river, sold itsfirst book in July 1995.Groundbreaking quickly became the leader in e-commerce. Open 24 hours a day, the site was user-friendly, encouraging browsers to post their own reviews of books and offering discounts,personalized recommendations, and searches for out-of-print books. In June 1998 it began sellingCDs, and later that year it added videos. In 1999 Bezos added auctions to the site and invested inother virtual stores. The success of encouraged other retailers, including major bookchains, to establish online stores. As more companies battled for Internet dollars, Bezos saw theneed to diversify, and by 2005 offered a vast array of products, including consumerelectronics, apparel, and hardware. Amazon.coms yearly net sales increased from $510,000 in 1995to some $600 million in 1998 and to more than $19.1 billion in 2008.In late 2007 released a new handheld reading device called the Kindle—a digital bookreader with wireless Internet connectivity enabling customers to purchase, download, read, andstore a vast selection of books on demand. Earlier that year Bezos had announced that he wouldinvest a portion of his Amazon earnings to fund Blue Origin, a Seattle-based aerospace companythat would offer suborbital flights in a redeveloped commercial spacecraft to paying customersbeginning in 2010.© 2012 A&E Television Networks. All rights reserved. 193
  • 194. Theory/Contributions:Retrieved from Bio: on March 1, 2012Jeffrey P. Bezos was born in Albuquerque, New Mexico. His mother was still in her teens,and her marriage to his father lasted little more than a year. She remarried when Jeffreywas four. Jeffreys stepfather, Mike Bezos, was born in Cuba; he escaped to the UnitedStates alone at age 15, and worked his way through the University of Albuquerque. Whenhe married Jeffreys mother, the family moved to Houston, where Mike Bezos became anengineer for Exxon. Jeffreys maternal ancestors were early settlers in Texas, and over thegenerations had acquired a 25,000-acre ranch at Cotulla. Jeffreys grandfather was aregional director of the Atomic Energy Commission in Albuquerque. He retired early to thefamily ranch, where Jeffrey spent most of the summers of his youth, working with hisgrandfather at the enormously varied tasks essential to the operation.From an early age, Jeffrey displayed a striking mechanical aptitude. Even as a toddler, heasserted himself by dismantling his crib with a screwdriver. He also developed intense andvaried scientific interests, rigging an electric alarm to keep his younger siblings out of hisroom and converting his parents garage into a laboratory for his science projects. Whenhe was a teenager, the family moved to Miami, Florida. In high school in Miami, Jeffrey firstfell in love with computers. An outstanding student, he was valedictorian of his class. Heentered Princeton University planning to study physics, but soon returned to his love ofcomputers, and graduated with a degree in computer science and electrical engineering.After graduation, Jeff Bezos found employment on Wall Street, where computer sciencewas increasingly in demand to study market trends. His went to work at Fitel, a start-upcompany that was building a network to conduct international trade. He stayed in thefinance realm with Bankers Trust, rising to a vice presidency. At D. E. Shaw, a firmspecializing in the application of computer science to the stock market, Bezos was hired asmuch for his overall talent as for any particular assignment. While working at Shaw, Jeffmet his wife, Mackenzie, also a Princeton graduate. He rose quickly at Shaw, becoming asenior vice president, and looked forward to a bright career in finance, when he made adiscovery that changed his life -- and the course of business history.The Internet was originally created by the Defense Department to keep its computernetworks connected during an emergency, such as natural catastrophe or enemy attack.Over the years, it was adopted by government and academic researchers to exchange 194
  • 195. data and messages, but as late as 1994, there was still no Internet commerce to speak of.One day that spring, Jeffrey Bezos observed that Internet usage was increasing by 2,300percent a year. He saw an opportunity for a new sphere of business, and immediatelybegan considering the possibilities.In typically methodical fashion, Bezos reviewed the top 20 mail order businesses, andasked himself which could be conducted more efficiently over the Internet than bytraditional means. Books were the commodity for which no comprehensive mail ordercatalogue existed, because any such catalogue would be too big to mail -- perfect for theInternet, which could share a vast database with a virtually limitless number of people.He flew to Los Angeles the very next day to attend the American Booksellers Conventionand learn everything he could about the book business. He found that the major bookwholesalers had already compiled electronic lists of their inventory. All that was neededwas a single location on the Internet, where the book-buying public could search theavailable stock and place orders directly. Bezoss employers werent prepared to proceedwith such a venture, and Bezos knew the only way to seize the opportunity was to go intobusiness for himself. It would mean sacrificing a secure position in New York, but he andhis wife, Mackenzie, decided to make the leap.Jeff and Mackenize flew to Texas on Independence Day weekend and picked up a 1988Chevy Blazer (a gift from Mike Bezos) to make the drive to Seattle, where they would haveready access to the book wholesaler Ingram, and to the pool of computer talent Jeff wouldneed for his enterprise. Mackenzie drove while Jeff typed a business plan. The companywould be called Amazon, for the seemingly endless South American river with itsnumberless branches.They set up shop in a two-bedroom house, with extension cords running to the garage.Jeff set up three Sun microstations on tables hed made out of doors from Home Depot forless than $60 each. When the test site was up and running, Jeff asked 300 friends andacquaintances to test it. The code worked seamlessly across different computer platforms.On July 16, 1995, Bezos opened his site to the world, and told his 300 beta testers tospread the word. In 30 days, with no press, Amazon had sold books in all 50 states and 45foreign countries. By September, it had sales of $20,000 a week. Bezos and his teamcontinued improving the site, introducing such unheard-of features as one-click shopping,customer reviews, and e-mail order verification.The business grew faster than Bezos or anyone else had ever imagined. When thecompany went public in 1997, skeptics wondered if an Internet-based start-up booksellercould maintain its position once traditional retail heavyweights like Barnes and Noble orBorders entered the Internet picture. Two years later, the market value of shares inAmazon was greater than that of its two biggest retail competitors combined, and Borderswas striking a deal for Amazon to handle its Internet traffic. Jeff had told his originalinvestors there was a 70 percent chance they would lose their entire investment, but hisparents signed on for $300,000, a substantial portion of their life savings. "We werent 195
  • 196. betting on the Internet," his mother has said. "We were betting on Jeff." By the end of thedecade, as six per cent owners of Amazon, they were billionaires. For several years, asmuch as a third of the shares in the company were held by members of the Bezos family.From the beginning, Bezos sought to increase market share as quickly as possible, at theexpense of profits. When he disclosed his intention to go from being "Earths biggestbookstore" to "Earths biggest anything store," skeptics thought Amazon was growing toobig too fast, but a few analysts called it "one of the smartest strategies in business history."Through each round of expansion, Jeff Bezos continually emphasized the "Six CoreValues: customer obsession, ownership, bias for action, frugality, high hiring bar andinnovation." "Our vision," he said, "is the worlds most customer-centric company. Theplace where people come to find and discover anything they might want to buy online."Amazon moved into music CDs, videos, toys, electronics and more. When the Internetsstock market bubble burst, Amazon re-structured, and while other start-upsevaporated, Amazon was posting profits.In October 2002, the firm added clothing sales to its line-up, through partnerships withhundreds of retailers, including The Gap, Nordstrom, and Lands End. Amazon shares itsexpertise in customer service and online order fulfillment with other vendors through co-branded sites, such as those with Borders and Toys R Us, and through its AmazonServices subsidiary. In September 2003, Amazon announced the formation of A9, a newventure aimed at developing a commercial search engine that focuses on e-commerceweb sites. At the same time, Amazon launched an online sporting goods store, offering3,000 different brand names. ended 2006 with annual sales over $10.7billion. Amazon is now Americas largest online retailer, with nearly three times the sales ofis nearest rival.Today, Jeff Bezos and Mackenzie live north of Seattle, and are increasingly concernedwith philanthropic activities. "Giving away money takes as much attention as building asuccessful company," he has said. The success of Amazon has also allowed Bezos toexplore a lifelong interest in space travel. In 2004, he founded an aerospace company,Blue Origin, to develop new technology for spaceflight. The company is based on a 26-acre research campus outside Seattle and maintains a private rocket launching facility inWest Texas. Blue Origin has received funding from NASA and is testing New Shepard, amulti-passenger rocket-propelled vehicle designed to travel to and from suborbital space atcompetitive prices. New Shepard will allow researchers to conduct more frequentexperiments in a microgravity environment, as well as providing the general public with anopportunity to experience spaceflight. In its mission statement, Blue Origin identifies itsultimate goal as the establishment of an enduring human presence in outer space. 196
  • 197. As exciting as that ppospect may be, Jeff Bezos has had more terrestrial innovations onhis mind as well. In 2007, Amazon introduced a handheld electronic reading device calledthe Kindle. The device uses "E Ink" technology to render text in a print-like appearance,without the eyestrain associated with television and computer screens. Font size isadjustable for further ease in reading, and best of all, unlike earlier electronic readingdevices, the Kindle incorporate wireless Internet connectivity, enabling the reader topurchase, download and read complete books and other documents anywhere, anytime.Hundreds of books may be stored on the Kindle at a time. Many classics can bedownloaded for as little for as little as two dollars; all new titles are priced at $9.99.With the introduction of the Kindle, Amazon quickly captured 95 percent of the U.S. marketfor books in electronic form -- e-books. The first major challenge to the Kindles supremacyin the e-book market came in 2010, when Apple introduced its iPad tablet computer, whichis also designed for use as an electronic reading device. Bezos responded aggressively,cutting the Kindles retail price and adding new features. One model works with WiFi, asecond adds G3 mobile technology. The new Kindles are thinner and lighter than theirpredecessors, with faster page-turning capability and longer battery life, are easier to readin sunlight, and cost hundreds of dollars less than the iPad.In 2010, Amazon signed a controversial deal with The Wylie Agency, in which Wylie gaveAmazon the digital rights to the works of many of the authors it represents, bypassing theoriginal publishers altogether. This, and Amazons practice of selling e-books at a price farbelow that of the same title in hardcover, angered several publishers, as well as someauthors, who see their royalty rates threatened. But it appears that the advent of electronicreading devices is increasing the overall sales of books, which can only benefit readersand authors alike. By mid-2010, Kindle and e-book sales had reached $2.38 billion, andAmazons sales of e-books topped its sales in hardcover. With e-book sales increasing by200 percent a year, Bezos has predicted that e-books will overtake paperbacks andbecome the companys bestselling format within a year. Having already revolutionized theway the world buys books, Jeff Bezos is now transforming the way we read them as well.This page last revised on Aug 09, 2010 13:40 PDDocumentary55 Minutes Documentary: 15 Minutes : 197
  • 198. Chris BroganFollow on Twitter:!/search/chris%20broganA Brief BiographyRetrieved from on March 10, 2012Chris Brogan is president of Human Business Works, a media and education company. Heconsults and speaks professionally with Fortune 100 and 500 companies like PepsiCo,General Motors, Microsoft, and more, about the intersection of business, technology andmedia. He is a New York Times bestselling co-author of Trust Agents, and a featuredmonthly columnist at Entrepreneur Magazine. Chris’s blog, [], is in theTop 5 of the Advertising Age Power150. He has over 12 years experience in onlinecommunity, social media, and related technologies.50 Ideas on Using Twitter for BusinessRetrieved from on March 2,2012We really can’t deny the fact that businesses are testing out Twitter as part of their stepsinto the social media landscape. You can say it’s a stupid application, that no business getsdone there, but there are too many of us (including me) that can disagree and point outbusiness value. I’m not going to address the naysayers much with this. Instead, I’m goingto offer 50 thoughts for people looking to use Twitter for business. And by “business,” Imean anything from a solo act to a huge enterprise customer.Your mileage may vary, and that’s okay. Further, you might have some really great ideas toadd. That’s why we have lively conversations here at [] in the commentssection. Jump right in!Oh, and please feel free to reblog this wherever. Just be kind and link back to the originalarticle.First Steps 198
  • 199. 1. Build an account and immediate start using Twitter Search to listen for your name, your competitor’s names, words that relate to your space. (Listening always comes first.) 2. Add a picture. ( Shel reminds us of this.) We want to see you. 3. Talk to people about THEIR interests, too. I know this doesn’t sell more widgets, but it shows us you’re human. 4. Point out interesting things in your space, not just about you. 5. Share links to neat things in your community. ( @wholefoods does this well). 6. Don’t get stuck in the apology loop. Be helpful instead. ( @jetblue gives travel tips.) 7. Be wary of always pimping your stuff. Your fans will love it. Others will tune out. 8. Promote your employees’ outside-of-work stories. ( @TheHomeDepot does it well.) 9. Throw in a few humans, like RichardAtDELL, LionelAtDELL, etc. 10. Talk about non-business, too, like @aaronstrout and @jimstorer.Ideas About WHAT to Tweet 1. Instead of answering the question, “What are you doing?”, answer the question, “What has your attention?” 2. Have more than one twitterer at the company. People can quit. People take vacations. It’s nice to have a variety. 3. When promoting a blog post, ask a question or explain what’s coming next, instead of just dumping a link. 4. Ask questions. Twitter is GREAT for getting opinions. 5. Follow interesting people. If you find someone who tweets interesting things, see who she follows, and follow her. 6. Tweet about other people’s stuff. Again, doesn’t directly impact your business, but makes us feel like you’re not “that guy.” 7. When you DO talk about your stuff, make it useful. Give advice, blog posts, pictures, etc. 8. Share the human side of your company. If you’re bothering to tweet, it means you believe social media has value for human connections. Point us to pictures and other human things. 9. Don’t toot your own horn too much. (Man, I can’t believe I’m saying this. I do it all the time. – Side note: I’ve gotta stop tooting my own horn). 10. Or, if you do, try to balance it out by promoting the heck out of others, too.Some Sanity For You 1. You don’t have to read every tweet. 2. You don’t have to reply to every @ tweet directed to you (try to reply to some, but don’t feel guilty). 199
  • 200. 3. Use direct messages for 1-to-1 conversations if you feel there’s no value to Twitter at large to hear the conversation ( got this from @pistachio). 4. Use services like Twitter Search to make sure you see if someone’s talking about you. Try to participate where it makes sense. 5. 3rd party clients like Tweetdeck and Twhirl make it a lot easier to manage Twitter. 6. If you tweet all day while your coworkers are busy, you’re going to hear about it. 7. If you’re representing clients and billing hours, and tweeting all the time, you might hear about it. 8. Learn quickly to use the URL shortening tools like TinyURL and all the variants. It helps tidy up your tweets. 9. If someone says you’re using twitter wrong, forget it. It’s an opt out society. They can unfollow if they don’t like how you use it. 10. Commenting on others’ tweets, and retweeting what others have posted is a great way to build community.The Negatives People Will Throw At You 1. Twitter takes up time. 2. Twitter takes you away from other productive work. 3. Without a strategy, it’s just typing. 4. There are other ways to do this. 5. As Frank hears often, Twitter doesn’t replace customer service (Frank is @comcastcares and is a superhero for what he’s started.) 6. Twitter is buggy and not enterprise-ready. 7. Twitter is just for technonerds. 8. Twitter’s only a few million people. (only) 9. Twitter doesn’t replace direct email marketing. 10. Twitter opens the company up to more criticism and griping.Some Positives to Throw Back 1. Twitter helps one organize great, instant meetups (tweetups). 2. Twitter works swell as an opinion poll. 3. Twitter can help direct people’s attention to good things. 4. Twitter at events helps people build an instant “backchannel.” 5. Twitter breaks news faster than other sources, often (especially if the news impacts online denizens). 6. Twitter gives businesses a glimpse at what status messaging can do for an organization. Remember presence in the 1990s? 7. Twitter brings great minds together, and gives you daily opportunities to learn (if you look for it, and/or if you follow the right folks). 8. Twitter gives your critics a forum, but that means you can study them. 200
  • 201. 9. Twitter helps with business development, if your prospects are online (mine are). 10. Twitter can augment customer service. (but see above)Google+ Business Page Strategies from Chris BroganRetrieved from on February 25, 2012We had an opportunity to interview best-selling author Chris Brogan.His company, Human Business Works, helps companies with customer acquisition,nurturing and engaging potential customers, and community building.His books Trust Agents and Social Media 101 are excellent resources for any smallbusiness owner who wants to use social media to promote his or her business effectively.And Chris Brogans blog is ranked #6 in the AdAge Power150 top marketing blogs.Brogans new book Google+ for Business: How Googles Social Network ChangesEverything is all about helping businesses understand how to use Google+ to network andengage with fans and customers. .In this interview, youll learn: 1 Why Every Business Should Create a Page in Google+ 2 How Google+ is Drastically Different than Facebook 3 Why Chris Advocates Businesses to Actively Post in Google+ (Unlike in Facebook) 4 Smart Ways Businesses Can Utilize YouTube Hangouts in Google+ 5 What Types of Circles Your Business Might Want to Create 6 And Much MoreRead the complete interview with Chris Brogan about Google+ . . .Chris, you have been a Google+ evangelist since the beginning. You evenabandoned Facebook to devote more of your time to Google+. When did you realizethat Google+ was more important for your business than Facebook?Chris: Facebook works well as a platform to connect me with people I already know, likefriends and family and old work colleagues. Google+ connects me with people who arelike-minded, and who share similar interests. Which set of people are more apt to help meland a client? Google+. My friends and family referrals can only stretch so far. Becausemost businesses rely on the kindness of strangers to survive, I recommend Google+.Business owners might feel that maintaining a Facebook page and a Twitter accountis enough. How is Google+ different and why should businesses create a page andbegin writing/sharing engaging content?Chris: Two or three years ago, it was difficult to convince a business owner that Facebookor Twitter was worth it. Now, theyre not willing to transition to the newest network, run bythe biggest search engine in the world? Im fascinated by this digging in. It shows thatbusiness owners arent seeing the platforms for what they are: a gathering place where 201
  • 202. potential prospects can be invited into a business relationship. Saying no to the biggestup-and-coming social network run by one of the richest companies on the planet seems alot short-sighted.You wrote Google+ for Business: How Google’s Social Network Changes Everythingto provide advice on leveraging Google+ to improve business communication,content promotion, and much more. Aside from social networking, what are waysbusinesses will benefit by owning a page in Google’s ecosystem?Chris: 69% of people start their online activity around a need with search. The numberone search engine in the world, Google, has opened a social network to help people betterinteract with and find what they want. Posting information to the public on Google+immediately impacts search results because Google (the search engine) indexes Google+(the social network). If three out of four humans start their search to fulfill their needs witha search engine, why wouldnt you want even more potential opportunity to interact withthose searchers?When business owners first create their pages, they might feel lonely since they areunable to circle people (until first circled back). What is your advice for them to helpthem get noticed and added into relevant circles?Chris: Im almost sad that business pages have already launched. So many people didnttake the opportunity to make relationships happen before those pages landed, and nowtheyre wondering why no one is rushing in to circle their company page. Humans makerelationships. Humans do the footwork before the business page comes into view. I knewEsteban Contreras from Samsung long before I saw the Samsung page. Wed interacted alot. When the Samsung USA page opened, I circled it right away due to my affinity forEsteban. Im friends with Jennifer Cisney from Kodak, and so I interacted with her pagelong before Kodak opened up a presence. The same is true for your business. Humansconnect. Make a relationship and the business page will get some traction. But dont waitfor that. Think of the business page as a business card. Would you ever let a salesmanwait around to sell until he or she had a business card?During your Google+ Business Webinar in November 2011, you suggested thatbusinesses should think about posting every six hours. This is a much moreaggressive posting strategy than businesses might be used to (especially comparedto Facebook). Why should businesses be active on Google Plus?Chris: Google+ is tied to Google, the search engine. The more opportunities you have toinfluence potential direction of prospects to your business is a positive thing. I also thinkthat because its a new and budding network, that more "seeding" has to happen to keeppeople interested. I note that larger companies are still only posting once a day at present.Then again, they dont get the engagement Im seeking.What types of circles should businesses think about creating so that they canmessage the right people with the right kind of content?Chris: It depends on the business. Intel has three circles: tech enthusiasts, press stuff,and life at Intel. They split it that way. If youre a plumber, you probably dont haveplumbing enthusiasts (then again, what do I know?). Circles for my professional pageinclude "prospects, collaborators, colleagues, allies, and unknown." I use those to sortpeople so that I dont upset any particular group by sharing too much (or the wrong)information.What are some ways small businesses could utilize YouTube hangouts in Google+?Chris: Hangouts are live video events. You can have up to 10 people in a hangout (thehost +9). To me, they are a great way to handle customer service issues, a wonderful wayto do training/education, a great method by which to share business advice, to havemeetings, to consult, and more. Hangouts are one of the best features of Google+.YouTube videos shared on Google+ get a lot more engagement by a higher caliber of 202
  • 203. person. I find that comments on YouTube itself are useless. On Google+, I have the exactopposite experience.When Google+ page analytics gets introduced, what type of data do you think willbe helpful to business owners – and how can they use this data?Chris: Analytics will help people see what type of content they share drives what level ofengagement. They will also see more click-through activity, more sense of how longsomeone interacts with your profile and/or other parts of your account, and more. It willreally help people decide what to spend their time on.How do you envision successful Google+ business pages will operate in the future?Chris: Google hinted at what business pages would do with Google Places. With Google+, once Places integrates with business pages, and given all the other tools you can useon Google+, I believe that this network will be a very robust and de facto part of businesscommunication and collaboration.Video : 203
  • 204. Julian Assange:Biography:Retrieved from on March7, 2012Activist / Internet CelebrityBorn: 1971Birthplace: Queensland, AustraliaBest known as: The co-founder and director of WikiLeaksJulian Assange is the controversial public face of WikiLeaks, an internationalwebsite that gives whistleblowers an anonymous way to publish sensitivedocuments. Assange is a former computer hacker and security specialist whoseown personal history is sketchy: according to reports in The Guardian, his parentsran a touring theater troupe in Australia before divorcing, and Assange was marriedat 18 and had a son before his own marriage broke up. In 1991 he was arrested forcomputer hacking in Australia, eventually pleading guilty to 25 counts but payingonly a fine. Late in 2006 he helped found, a website which describesitself as a "an anonymous global avenue for disseminating documents the publicshould see." WikiLeaks has published leaked documents on hundreds of topics,including oil scandals in Peru, the Church of Scientology, climate research, thecontents of a Sarah Palin email account, and procedures for the U.S. military prisonat Guantanamo Bay. In April of 2010 it released Collateral Murder, leaked video of adeadly 2007 U.S. Army helicopter attack on Iraqi citizens, and in July of that year itreleased more than 92,000 documents relating to the war in Afghanistan. White-haired, secretive and nomadic, Julian Assange has lived long periods in Australia,Kenya, Sweden, and other countries. In August of 2010 he was accused of sexualassault by two women in Sweden. Swedish authorities investigated, then closed theinvestigation, then opened it again, and the investigation is ongoing.Extra credit: Julian Assanges last name is pronounced AY-sanj... WikiLeaks isunrelated to Wikipedia, the popular open-source encyclopedia.Read more: Julian Assange Biography (Activist/Internet Celebrity) — 204
  • 205. WikiLeaks, Julian Assange Win MajorAustralian Prize for "OutstandingContribution to Journalism"Retrieved from on March 12, 2012Over the weekend, WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange accepted the award for MostOutstanding Contribution to Journalism at the 2011 Walkley Award in Australia, anhonor akin to the Pulitzer Prize in the United States. We play an excerpt fromAssange’s acceptance speech and get reaction from constitutional law attorney blogger Glenn Greenwald. Today also marks the first anniversary of"Cablegate," when WikiLeaks began publishing a trove of more than 250,000leaked U.S. State Department cables. In related news, the U.S. Army recentlyscheduled a Dec. 16 pretrial hearing for Army Private Bradley Manning, the soldieraccused of providing the cables to WikiLeaks. Manning "faces life in prison,possibly even the death penalty, although the government said they won’t seekthat, for what was an act of conscience," says Greenwald. [includes rush transcript]video: 205
  • 206. Yoshikazu Tanaka:Follow on Twitter:!/tanakayoshikazu Q&A: Japans Zuckerberg on his own successBy Andrew Stevens, CNNMarch 7, 2012 -- Updated 0238 GMT (1038 HKT)Retrieved from on March 8, 2012Japans new wave of entrepreneursSTORY HIGHLIGHTS 1 Yoshikazu Tanaka is billionaire founder of mobile games company, Gree 2 The company is valued at $7 billion; personal wealth $2.2 billion 3 Tanaka is often compared to Facebook founder Mark ZuckerbergTokyo (CNN) -- He is the face of New Japan Inc. 35-year-old Yoshikazu Tanaka, founderof mobile social gaming network Gree, is the worlds second youngest self-made billionairebehind Facebooks Mark Zuckerberg.The similarities dont end there. Tanaka, son of a Japanese salaryman, launched Greeinitially as a social network in Japan before moving into mobile social gaming.I caught up with him at his HQ in the Mori Building in downtown Tokyo, one of the mostdesirable business addresses in the city.Japans Zuckerberg leads new wave of entrepreneursHe may be flying high, but philosophically he remains down to earth, from the tips of hisshaggy hair to the soles of his bright red crocs.What do you think when youre compared to Mark Zuckerberg?I started my business in 2004 and Facebook also started around 2004. Facebook becamesuch a big company and I think they are doing well in how they are changing society. Ithink we (Gree) can change society in that way too, so I want to continue making achallenge.Japanese pray hard for prosperous 2Occupy protests spread to TokyoHow would you like to change Japanese society?We should change the way of thinking in the whole of Japan. To do that, rather than bysaying, "we should do this," or "we should do that," we should show what we can do by anew successful example. People say there is no culture of venture business in Japan, butactually social games and our company, Gree, became successful within seven years. Sowe want to have an impact on Japan by showing that it can be done.What drives you? 206
  • 207. Gree originally started as my personal business using my money and my spare time. So ofcourse it is good if I can make money out of it. However, my motivation is that I want tohave an impact on society with my business.Do you think your industry will become the most important part of Japanseconomy?It is true that the social gaming industry is an important industry for the Japaneseeconomy. Originally there were many Japanese game companies like Nintendo whichbecame successful globally. Japan is an island and an industry like ours doesnt have toworry about importing raw materials or exporting. In that sense we can do our businesswithout having the disadvantage of being on an island, so I think it is a good industry forJapan.What is the problem with older, traditional manufacturing businesses?If they have a problem, I think it would be that they tried to compete only in the domesticmarket and didnt try the global market. That means they can only be successful in Japanand they need to think more globally.What Japan should do now?Of course it is easy to blame politicians but Japan is democratic and its citizens choose thepoliticians. So the problem does not only exist in them. I think the biggest problem is thatso many people have not been able to accept the fact that we cannot survive withouttrying to compete globally.Do you think mobile game industry can be a savior of Japan?I dont know whether we can be a savior or not but I can say there are not many industrieswhich can generate this much profit and become successful globally. Not just our companybut the whole of Japan should consider developing an industry like that. 207
  • 208. TERMS 208
  • 209. 1.Location-based Marketing - scary.html 2.QR-Codes - about-qr-codes 3.SOPA - 4.Wikileaks - 5.Digital Media Literacy 6.HOt Trigger 7.Gamification - 8.Hashtag - 9.Khan Academy - 10. aggregation -,,sid9_gci214504,00.html 11.Connectivism - 12.crowdsourcing - crowdsourcing/ 13.curation - 14.cognitive surplus - 15.Infotention - 16.infographic - - media-and-communication 18.Mechanical Turk - Money-From-Amazon-Mechanical-Turk divide - 20.ubiquitous - 21.second screen - second-screen-2012-02-01 22.Flash Mob - 23.SmartMob - 24.SEO - 25.augmented reality 26.Google Hangout - hl=en&page=guide.cs&guide=1257349&answer=1215273 27.Generation Flux business 28.Flipped Classroom - radically-transforming-learning-536.php 29.Orkut in Brazil : 30. RenRen in China - 31.PLN - (Personal Learning Network) anyway/ 209
  • 210. 210
  • 211. LOCATION-BASED MAREKETINGTERM #1: LOCATION-BASED MARKETINGBy Cynthia Boris on February 14, 2012The Future of Location-Based Marketing is Cool. . . or ScaryRetrieved from on March 12, 2012Yesterday, I wrote about a stat that said more men than women remember and enjoy mobile ads. Istated that I never remember the ads I’ve seen and now I know why. The adsI’ve seen aren’t cool.Westin Hotels and the Weather Channel had an ad campaign last year called “Wipe Away YourWeather.” You check the app for the current weather. If it’s snowing at your location, snow slowlyfills your screen. You then wipe it away with your finger to reveal a sunny location courtesy ofWestin Hotels. Relevant, location-based information served up with a relevant ad. Smart and cool.AdWeek says we’ll be seeing more of this kind of thing and sooner and grander than you think.They make references to bus shelter posters that change instantly to offer you a free coffee as youwalk by or cereal coupons that pop up when you hit the cereal aisle at the store.It’s not just about location, it’s about timing and combined, these two elements pack a powerfuladvertising punch.You know the old tip about how you should never go grocery shopping when you’re hungry? Itworks the same way. A weekend getaway to a sunny spot is much more appealing on a snowyFriday in New York, than on a sunny Saturday afternoon in Los Angeles.The Future of Location-Based Marketing is Cool. . . or Scary 12. 3. 13. 오후 10:38The concept is called geofencing and it does require the consumer to opt-in usually by okaying adinformation from a brand they enjoy. Check-in services, the most common use of location-basedadvertising, require an initial app download and a continual commitment from the users.Geofencing is the opposite. It reaches out to the consumer and they don’t have to do anything butclick on the opportunity. 211
  • 212. For marketers, it’s a lot to take in. Usually ads are designed to reach as many people as possible.Even online targeted ads have a wide reach. But when you’re looking for hungry people near acertain street in Chicago, that really narrows the field.The upside? You’re not paying for people on the north side to see an ad for a restaurant on the southside.As always, the biggest worry is privacy. As much as we like the convenience of having targetedcoupons and ads, we don’t like the concept of being followed. I have a feeling, that as we moveforward with technology, location tracking will be as common as a listed phone number. By then,our targeted location-based ads will be really specific.“Hey Cynthia, the ice cream truck just turned into your complex and will be in front of your housein 60 seconds. Click here if you want him to stop.”Now, that’s an ad I’d remember.handcrafted by onelotus©2005-2011 Marketing Pilgrim, all rights reservedMarketing Pilgrim is a proud member of The Pilgrim Network 212
  • 213. TERM #2: QR CODES (QUICK RESPONSE CODES7 Things You Need to Know About QR CodesJay Lane | Sep 17, 2010RETRIEVED FROM ON MARCH 7, 2012A QR code (quick response code) is a two-dimensional barcode that can be displayed in printed form (print ads, signage,billboards, tradeshow booths, etc.) and used to drive consumers/prospects to a website, allow them to receive textmessages or see short text messages on their phones. Quite simply, it’s a completely different way of interacting withyour target audience and getting them to do something you want (i.e., learn more about your products/services).The QR code can be read by a QR reader app on a smart phone like an iPhone or Android using the phone’s built-incamera. The smart phones don’t come with a QR reader by default so your target audience will have to download anapp.The good news is that these apps are free and pretty easy to install and use.Here’s what you need to know about using QR codes in your marketing efforts:1) The QR code has to be large enough for a smart phone camera to be able to read it. For example, the camera on aniPhone seems not to focus as well as the camera on an Android phone. The larger you can make the QR code, thebetter. A minimum size of 1” x 1” seems to work best.2) This is a relatively new technology without defined standards as they apply to formatting, implementation andscanning. Japan has been using QR codes since 1994 and they are becoming more mainstream in the United States.3) QR codes can be put on just about anything from print ads and billboards to tattoos and apparel. See QR codes in thewild.4) Make sure your content is optimized for smart phones. If you’re sending your consumer/prospect to a website/landingpage, make sure that it looks good in a smart phone web browser. You have a lot less space than you would in a typicalweb browser so stay away from a lot of copy and images. 213
  • 214. Retrieved from on March 2, 2012STOP CENSORSHIP: THE PROBLEMS WITH SOPABy Julie Ahrens on November 16, 2011 at 3:13 pmToday Congress held hearings on the latest IP legislation, the Stop Online Piracy Act(SOPA). We are taking part in American Censorship Day to help spread the word and stopthis bill. We’ve outlined five of the most important problems with SOPA.1. SOPA violates due process. Under SOPA, any private copyright or trademark ownercan cut-off advertising and payments to any website by alleging that the operator“avoid[ed] confirming a high probability” that “a portion” of its site is being used toinfringe copyrights. Advertisers and payment companies (e.g. Visa, Mastercard, andPayPal) are then required to stop doing business with that site. It seems likely thatcontent owners (or people merely claiming to be content owners) will often succeed inshutting down websites without ever going to court. The proposed legislation also givesthe Attorney General and the Justice Department the power to shut down websitesbefore they are actually judged infringing. Courts will be able to order any Internet serviceprovider to stop recognizing an accused site immediately upon application by theAttorney General, after an ex parte hearing. By failing to guarantee the challengedwebsites notice or an opportunity to be heard in court before their sites are shutdown,SOPA violates due process. Read more: Letter to Congress from over 100 law professorstechdirt explains that SOPA would create the Great Firewall of America.2. SOPA censors lawful speech. As described above, the legislation allows any contentprovider or the Attorney General to accuse a website of promoting infringing content andhave that site blocked from the Internet. The legislation’s vague standards for liabilitymean that the only way for Internet service providers and websites to avoid liability is toover-block content, including non-infringing speech. And by ordering Internet serviceproviders to remove any offending domain name, it would require the suppression of allsub-domains associated with the domain-- censoring thousands of individual websiteswith vast amounts of protected speech containing no infringing content. Read more: Lawprofessor David Post on SOPA, due process, and speech More coverage from arstechnica and techdirt.3. SOPA breaks the Internet’s infrastructure. By tampering with the Domain NameSystem (DNS), SOPA breaks Internet security and encourages the development of aninsecure, offshore pirate DNS. Read more: Experts explain why SOPAs DNS filteringprovisions raise such serious technical and security concerns. techdirt concludes thatSOPAs collateral damage will be significant.4. SOPA blows up the safe harbor. Under existing law, providers are shielded fromliability for their users’ possible copyright infringement so long as they remove allegedlyinfringing material when they get complaints. SOPA turns this system upside down.Under SOPA, content owners can require advertisers and payment companies to stopdoing business with any website that allegedly has any portion used to infringe copyrightsor trademarks. Content owners will have the power to shut down websites without evergoing to court. Read more: Public Knowledge explains why SOPA is a DMCA bypass. 214
  • 215. EFF illustrates how SOPA could be used to strangle sites that have been found to belegal. techdirt concludes that SOPA is the end of the internet as we know it.5. SOPA kills innovation. By vastly increasing the risks associated with hosting user-generated content, SOPA will make it far more difficult to start new internet companies. IfSOPA had been the law, it is doubtful that Facebook or YouTube would have been able tolaunch. Read more: Letter to Congress from internet and technology companies Letter toCongress from dozens of venture capitalists Letter to Congress from OpenDNS BradBurnham on SOPA and innovation Union Square Ventures explains how SOPA will slowstart-up innovation and what you can do about it. 215
  • 216. WikileaksRetrieved from Wikileaks - On March 7, 2012 216
  • 217. What is digital media literacy and why is it important?Retrieved from on March 6, 2012Promoting media literacy is a key to ensure that Australians are equipped with tools tomake informed choices about media and communications services and to enablepeople to participate effectively in the digital economy.What is digital media literacy?Digital media literacy is often understood as the ability to access, understand andparticipate or create content using digital media.Developments in digital technology have had significant effects on the way individualsinteract with communications and media services. An increasingly wide range ofsources of information, ways of doing business, services (including governmentservices) and entertainment are now commonly made available and accessed onlineand/or through digital media.Why digital media literacy?The field of media literacy research is well established and takes in different forms ofliteracy including: 1 classic literacy (reading-writing-understanding), 2 audiovisual literacy (related to mass media such as film and television), and 3 digital literacy (which relates to the technical skills required by modern digital technologies).In the last decade, in both academic and policy discourses, the concept of medialiteracy has broadened from its traditional focus on print and audiovisual media toencompass the internet and other convergent media.The ACMA is particularly interested in the increasing role of digital media andtechnology in social, public and private lives. This informs the focus of the ACMA’smedia literacy research on issues relating to digital media.Why is digital media literacy important?The ability to confidently use, participate in and understand digital media and servicesis becoming an important prerequisite to effective participation in the digital economyand Australian society more generally.Australians need to have at least basic digital media literacy skills because: 1 the development of Australia’s digital economy will be constrained if its citizens are limited in their ability to participate because they lack adequate skills or confidence 2 those unable to participate will be excluded from the benefits that will increasingly flow from digital media as they become more integrated into everyday social, cultural and economic life 3 those who are not digitally literate, or who have low levels of digital literacy, will be less likely to have the confidence, knowledge and understanding needed to participate in a safe, secure and informed manner in the digital media and communications environments they enter.A digitally literate person should be able to: 217
  • 218. 1 understand the nature of different types of digital services and the content they provide 2 have basic capacity and competence to get connected, to operate and access various digital technologies and services 3 participate confidently in the services provided by digital technologies 4 exercise informed choices in online and digital media and communications environments 5 have an adequate level of knowledge and skills to be able to protect themselves and their families from unwanted, inappropriate or unsafe content.‘With an increasingly complex array of services and technologies, people need to beconfident and skilled in navigating an expanding range and choice of content while atthe same time understanding how they might protect themselves and their familiesfrom exposure to harmful or inappropriate material. They need to know how tomanage security and privacy risks online and be able to make informed decisionsbetween various platforms and competing service providers.’ Chris Chapman, ACMADigital Media Literacy Research Forum September 2008Examples illustrating digital media literacy in actionAccess to basic servicesAcross Australia an increasing range of services are made available online, includingbanking and government services. In some instances companies may replace face-to-face transactions with online services. The ability to effectively access these onlineservices requires a level of digital media literacy which spans: 1 Basic access: the ability to access broadband internet by a straightforward connection to the necessary device and technology 2 Understanding: users require a level of understanding about the risks associated with undertaking certain activities online. This means, for example, knowledge about how banks will communicate online with customers (never via email), the importance of maintaining regular security updates and virus checks, and the legitimacy of security certificates when passing on credit card details via the internet.Researching informationThe 2008 Norton Online Living Report found that 96% of online children in Australiafind their information for school projects on the internet. Increasingly older Australiansare also turning to the internet to research products, companies and other informationneeded to make daily decisions in life.But how do people select the most appropriate sources? Should they use informationfrom, say, a blog, Facebook comments, an online newspaper, a refereed academicpaper, wikipedia, or some other source?Making effective use of the internet to research a subject requires a degree of digitalmedia literacy that enables the user to correctly interpret the range and quality ofinformation available online.Social mediaFor many young people belonging to an online social network shapes the nature ofpeer relations not only online but also in other contexts too. A growing body ofresearch suggests there are a number of positive benefits associated with the rise inonline social networks, which include greater opportunities for peer-to-peer learning 218
  • 219. and more self expression, including participation in new creative forms through blogs,video-production, video or picture manipulation.Some scholars suggest that the ability to embrace participatory cultures has become anew form of ‘hidden curriculum’ which is starting to shape who will succeed and whowill be left behind as people enter school and move out into the workplace.However, the ACMA research indicates that almost 50 per cent of Australians don’tknow where to find information about protecting personal information when usingsocial media. Effective participation in social media activities depends not only onknowing how to access and use broadband services and social networking websites,but also understanding when and where it is appropriate to divulge personalinformation online.Contacts 1 Email: Digital Society Policy and ResearchRelated topics 1 What is digital media literacy and why is it important? 2 The ACMA programs and activities promoting media literacy 3 The ACMA digital media literacy research program 4 The ACMA digital media literacy resources 5 The ACMA families and media literacy research forum 6 International media literacy research forum 7 Mailing list and Contact details 8 What is digital media literacy? 9 Why digital media literacy? 10 Why is digital media literacy important? 11 Examples illustrating digital media literacy in action 219
  • 220. HOT TRIGGERSRetrieved from on March 9, 2012Watch this video: do a youtube search for “Ann interviews BJ Fogg”Ken’s Note. Facebook Tagging is one example of a “Hot Trigger”. Remember thatthe Facebook Photo Tagging is given credit for the massive rise of Facebook’sgrowth. 220
  • 221. Gamification is the infusion of game mechanics, game design techniques,and/or game style into anything.Retrieved from on February 27, 2012Bing Gordon, partner at Kleiner Perkins, talking about the importance of Gamification.Gamification typically involves applying game design thinking to non-gameapplications to make them more fun and engaging. Gamification has been calledone of the most important trends in technology by several industry experts.Gamification can potentially be applied to any industry and almost anything tocreate fun and engaging experiences, converting users into players.TermMain article: Gamification DefinitionEtymologyNoun; Gamification - gam(e) + -ification. Verb; gamify gerund: gamifying. The earliest traces ofthe usage of the word go back to March 2004, but it did not become popularly used until later in2010.DefinitionsGamification has been defined in a number of different ways.The Gamification Wiki defines Gamification as the infusion of game design techniques, gamemechanics, and/or game style into anything. This definition is purposely broad to support the manyuses of the word outside of the context of business.A few other definitions of Gamification are:Gamification is the use of game design techniques and gamemechanics to solve problems and engage audiences.[1]Simply put, the term refers to incorporating game elements andmechanics into non-gaming websites and software. [2] Examples of how to use the termGamification: 221
  • 222. "We used Gamification to make our product more fun!" "Health Month is the Gamification ofWeight Loss." "Gamification is one of the most important trends of our generation."ExamplesMain article: Gamification ExamplesEarly examplesA common example of Gamification in the real world is Frequent Flyer Programs , or FFP, such asthe one that United Airlines pioneered. This is a great example of Gamification as a LoyaltyProgram.Recent examplesMain article: Gamification examples listA few recent examples include:Unlocking badges in foursquare for visiting new or unique places.Interested in being a partner of the Gamification Wiki in your country? Contact us! Werecurrently translating into 14 new languages. Were still looking for people to helpbe a partner and translate the gamification wiki into Russian, Korean, Danish and more.We are also looking for help to build Gamification Education and Gamification Enterprise.Earning points and unlocking avatars for DJing in virtual spaces. CrowdTap allows users to level upand earn money for doing surveys and other activities.IndustriesCompaniesIn addition to companies that have used gamification techniques, several businesses have createdplatforms and consulting operations for others to gamify their own services.TechniquesSome common techniques have been applied to gamification projects, such as:achievements / badges levelsleaderboardsprogress barsactivity feeds avatarsreal-time feedback virtual currency gifting 222
  • 223. challenges and queststrophy caseembedding small mini games within other activities.Game mechanicsWeve created a comprehensive list of Game mechanics that are typically used in the gamificationdesign process. You can use the shortcut box below to jump to different game mechanics.TrendGamification has started being popularized as the next big thing in marketing. A Fortune articlestated "Companies are realizing that "gamification" -- using the same mechanics that hook gamers-- is aneffective way to generate business.[3] More recently, the technique captured the attention of venturecapitalists, one of whom said he consideredgamification to be the most promising area in gaming.[4] Another observed that half of allcompanies seeking funding for consumer software applications mentioned game design in theirpresentations.References 1. ^ Wikipedia - 2. ^ Small Business Labs - gamification.html 3. ^ Play to win: The game-based economy ( , Written by JP Mangalindan. 4. ^ The ultimate healthcare reform could be fun and games ( gamification/) , VentureBeat(April 12, 2010) Written by Michael Sinanian. 223
  • 224. HashtagTwitter: the #hashtag explainedb y L EE H OPKI N S on SEPTEM BER 14, 2010 ·Retrieved from on March 9,2012One of the questions I can count on being asked when I give training in Twitter is, “What’sa ‘hashtag’?”Somehow I have introduced the term in my talk, or else delegates have seen the hashsymbol in the examples I use, and naturally they are curious.The hashtag is actually quite a simple concept and definitely one worth getting your headaround.The term ‘hashtag’ comes from our computer-coding colleagues: the symbol is a hashmark, and the term is a tag, thus ‘hashtag’.Hashtags themselves serve many purposes: ■ creating/following a meme e.g. the sarcastic, self-deprecating ‘#firstworldproblems’ when twittering about the bloke snoring loudly in the business class seat next to you; ‘#followfriday’ (also known as ‘#ff’) when suggesting to those who follow you that ‘here are some people you might be interested in following’; ■ following an event e.g. ‘#marketingweek’ –tagged tweets were about a conference on marketing run recently in Adelaide (it also is the hashtag for a similar conference run in the UK shortly after); ‘#usopen’ to signify tweets about the US Open tennis championship currently running; ‘#AdlFringe’ about the Adelaide Fringe; ■ continuing a joke e.g. ; #bornthisway, #bieberfever, #songsiwillnevergettiredof; ■ organising around a group e.g. ‘#smcadl’ – the Social Media Club, Adelaide; ‘#socadl’ – social mediarists in AdelaideYou can search Twitter itself to see messages categorized with a hashtag (go and type in #firstworldproblems as an example).But if you are, say, a real estate agent and taking baby steps with Twitter, should you typein a suburb with a hashtag at the front of it? I’d say no, because someone searching for alocation, person or subject will just search Twitter for that search term.So if, for example, you have tweeted the suburb ‘Richmond’, whether you type‘#Richmond’ or just ‘Richmond’ (or ‘richmond’) is immaterial; Twitter’s search engine will 224
  • 225. still recall ‘Richmond’ in the search results. So why waste a character when you’ve only got140 of them?There we are… Twitter hashtags. What’s your favourite hashtag and why? 225
  • 226. KHAN ACADEMYTechnologyHome News TechnologyFebruary 26, 2012An Outsider Calls for a Teaching RevolutionBy Jeffrey R. YoungRetrieved from on March 12, 2012In just a few short years, Salman Khan has built a free online educational institution fromscratch that has nudged major universities to offer free self-guided courses and inspiredmany professors to change their teaching methods.His creation is called Khan Academy, and its core is a library of thousands of 10-minuteeducational videos, most of them created by Mr. Khan himself. The format is simple butfeels intimate: Mr. Khans voice narrates as viewers watch him sketch out his thoughts on adigital whiteboard. He made the first videos for faraway cousins who asked for tutoringhelp. Encouraging feedback by others who watched the videos on YouTube led him to startthe academy as a nonprofit.More recently Mr. Khan has begun adding what amounts to a robot tutor to the site thatcan quiz visitors on their knowledge and point them to either remedial video lessons if theyfail or more-advanced video lessons if they pass. The site issues badges and online"challenge patches" that students can put on their Web résumés.He guesses that the demand for his service was one inspiration for his alma mater, theMassachusetts Institute of Technology, to start MITx, its self-guided online courses thatgive students the option of taking automatically graded tests to earn a certificate.Mr. Khan also works the speaking circuit, calling on professors to move away from astraight lecture model by assigning prerecorded lectures as homework and using class timefor more interactive exercises, or by having students use self-paced computer systems likeKhan Academy during class while professors are available to answer questions. "It hasmade universities—and I can cite examples of this—say, Why should we be giving 300-person lectures anymore?" he said in a recent interview with The Chronicle.Mr. Khan, now 35, has no formal training in education, though he does have twoundergraduate degrees and a masters from MIT, as well as an M.B.A. from Harvard. Hespent most of his career as a hedge-fund analyst. Mr. Khan also has the personal 226
  • 227. endorsement of Bill Gates, as well as major financial support from Mr. Gatess foundation.That outside-the-academy status makes some traditional academics cool on his project."Sometimes I get a little frustrated when people say, Oh, theyre taking a Silicon Valleyapproach to education. Im like, Yes, thats exactly right. Silicon Valley is where the mostcreativity, the most open-ended, the most pushing the envelope is happening," he says."And Silicon Valley recognizes more than any part of the world that were having troublefinding students capable of doing that." Salman Khan discusses Khan Academy at TED 2011: watch the video here: salman_khan_let_s_use_video_to_reinvent_education.html 227
  • 228. AggregateRetrieved from,,sid9_gci214504,00.html on March 10,2012In general, to aggregate (verb, from Latin aggregare meaning to add to) is to collectthings together. An aggregate (adjective) thing is a collection of other things. Anaggregation is a collection.In information technology, individual items of data are sometimes aggregated into adatabase. Unlike marshalling , aggregation doesnt require giving one thingprecedence over another thing.The noun has special meanings in geology and in building construction.Ken’s Addition: By studying the aggregate of many people’s information, and onlinebehavior (time/money spent), future behavior and purchasing decisions can be predicted.This is extremely valuable information. 228
  • 229. CONNECTIVSMDescription of ConnectivismRetrieved from on March 14, 2012Connectivism is a learning theory for the digital age. Learning has changed overthe last several decades. The theories of behaviourism, cognitivism, andconstructivism provide an effect view of learning in many environments. They fallshort, however, when learning moves into informal, networked, technology-enabled arena. Some principles of connectivism: ■ The integration of cognition and emotions in meaning-making is important. Thinking and emotions influence each other. A theory of learning that only considers one dimension excludes a large part of how learning happens. ■ Learning has an end goal - namely the increased ability to "do something". This increased competence might be in a practical sense (i.e. developing the ability to use a new software tool or learning how to skate) or in the ability to function more effectively in a knowledge era (self-awareness, personal information management, etc.). The "whole of learning" is not only gaining skill and understanding - actuation is a needed element. Principles of motivation and rapid decision making often determine whether or not a learner will actuate known principles. ■ Learning is a process of connecting specialized nodes or information sources. A learner can exponentially improve their own learning by plugging into an existing network. ■ Learning may reside in non-human appliances. Learning (in the sense that something is known, but not necessarily actuated) can rest in a community, a network, or a database. ■ The capacity to know more is more critical that what is currently known. Knowing where to find information is more important than knowing information. ■ Nurturing and maintaining connections is needed to facilitate learning. Connection making provides far greater returns on effort than simply seeking to understand a single concept. ■ Learning and knowledge rest in diversity of opinions. ■ Learning happens in many different ways. Courses, email, communities, conversations, web search, email lists, reading blogs, etc. Courses are not the primary conduit for learning. ■ Different approaches and personal skills are needed to learn effectively in todays society. For example, the ability to see connections between fields, ideas, and concepts is a core skill. 229
  • 230. ■ Organizational and personal learning are integrated tasks. Personal knowledge is comprised of a network, which feeds into organizations and institutions, which in turn feed back into the network and continue to provide learning for the individual. Connectivism attempts to provide an understanding of how both learners and organizations learn.■ Currency (accurate, up-to-date knowledge) is the intent of all connectivist learning.■ Decision-making is itself a learning process. Choosing what to learn and the meaning of incoming information is seen through the lens of shifting reality. While there is a right answer now, it may be wrong tomorrow due to alterations in the information climate impacting the decision.■ Learning is a knowledge creation process...not only knowledge consumption. Learning tools and design methodologies should seek to capitalize on this trait of learning. 230
  • 231. CROWDSOURCINGMarch 7, 2007 3:00 AMWhat Is Crowdsourcing?By Jennifer AlseverRetrieved from March 12, 2012Despite the jargony name, crowdsourcing is a very real and important business idea.Definitions and terms vary, but the basic idea is to tap into the collective intelligence of thepublic at large to complete business-related tasks that a company would normally eitherperform itself or outsource to a third-party provider. Yet free labor is only a narrow part ofcrowdsourcings appeal. More importantly, it enables managers to expand the size of theirtalent pool while also gaining deeper insight into what customers really want.Why It Matters Now:With the rise of user-generated media such as blogs, Wikipedia, MySpace, and YouTube,its clear that traditional distinctions between producers and consumers are becomingblurry. Its no longer fanciful to speak of the marketplace as having a "collectiveintelligence"—today that knowledge, passion, creativity, and insight are accessible for allto see. As Time explained after choosing the collective "You" as the magazines 2006Person of the Year, "Were looking at an explosion of productivity and innovation, and itsjust getting started, as millions of minds that would otherwise have drowned in obscurityget backhauled into the global intellectual economy."The idea of soliciting customer input is hardly new, of course, and the open-sourcesoftware movement showed that it can be done with large numbers of people. Thedifference is that todays technology makes it possible to enlist ever-larger numbers ofnon-technical people to do ever-more complex and creative tasks, at significantly reducedcost.Why It Matters to YouWith a deft touch and a clear set of objectives, quite literally thousands of people can andwant to help your business. From designing ad campaigns to vetting new product ideas tosolving difficult R&D problems, chances are that people outside your company walls canhelp you perform better in the marketplace; they become one more resource you can useto get work done. In return, most participants simply want some personal recognition, asense of community, or at most, a financial incentive.The Strong PointsCrowdsourcing can improve productivity and creativity while minimizing labor and researchexpenses. Using the Internet to solicit feedback from an active and passionate communityof customers can reduce the amount of time spent collecting data through formal focusgroups or trend research, while also seeding enthusiasm for upcoming products. Byinvolving a cadre of customers in key marketing, branding, and product-developmentprocesses, managers can reduce both staffing costs and the risks associated withuncertain marketplace demand. 231
  • 232. The Weak SpotsCrowds are not employees, so executives cant expect to control them. Indeed, while theymay not ask for cash or in-kind products, participants will seek compensation in the form ofsatisfaction, recognition, and freedom. They will also demand time, attention, patience,good listening skills, transparency, and honesty. For traditional top-down organizations,this shift in management culture may prove difficult.Key PeopleLike the concept itself, crowdsourcing belongs to no one person, but many havecontributed to its evolution:Jeff Howe, a contributing editor to Wired magazine, first coined the term "crowdsourcing"in a June 2006 article and writes the blog Tapscott, a well-known business guru, has recently become an evangelist for masscollaboration in his book, Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything.Key PractitionersNetflix, the online video rental service, uses crowdsourcing techniques to improve thesoftware algorithms used to offer customer video recommendations. The team orindividual that achieves key software goals will receive $1 million.Eli Lily and DuPont have tapped online networks of researchers and technical experts,awarding cash prizes to people who can solve vexing R&D lets the public submit ideas for software products, vote on them,and collect royalties if a participants ideas are incorporated into allows amateur and professional photographers, illustrators, andvideographers to upload their work and earn royalties when their images are bought anddownloaded. The company was acquired for $50 million by Getty lets online members submit T-shirt designs and vote on which onesshould be produced.How to Talk About ItCrowdsourcing nomenclature is still in flux, but related terms include:Ideagoras: Democratic marketplaces for innovation. Proctor & Gamble taps 90,000chemists on, a forum where scientists collaborate with companies tosolve R&D problems in return for cash prizes.Prosumers: Consumers who have also become producers, creating and building theproducts they use. The hit online game Second Life lets its user/residents write andimplement software code to improve their virtual world. 232
  • 233. Worksource: Tapping a crowd of people to complete repetitive tasks or pieceworkprojects. Amazons Mechanical Turk is a worksource initiative for tasks (such as sorting orclassification) that are best served by human oversight.Expertsource: A narrower form of crowdsourcing that involves soliciting input fromtechnical experts in various fields.Further ReadingWikipedia: Written by a crowd of contributors, the Wikipedia definition ofcrowdsourcingincludes many examples of companies practicing the concept.Crowdsourcing: A blog by Jeff Howe, contributing editor at Wired magazine, who coinedthe term in June 2006. 233
  • 234. Content Curation?Retrieved from on March 14Very Important: Read the article online. by clicking the above link:Curation is not simply the act of collecting disparate items andsloppily slopping theme together. It entails many specializedtasks that are usually best executed by experienced curationexperts.• Curation has become quite the buzzword in journalism, social media, technology and marketing. It is often mistakenly used as a synonym for aggregation, but the process of curation is much more complex than simply collecting objects. 234
  • 235. COGNITIVE SURPLUSWhen the Screen Goes BlankRetrieved from on March14, 2012 “Florida, 1963” © Lee Friedlander, courtesy of Fraenkel Gallery, San FranciscoBy FARHAD MANJOOPublished: August 6, 2010It’s become gauche, lately, to criticize television. In the age of “The Sopranos,” “The Wire,”“Lost” and “Mad Men,” TV has achieved a measure of cultural respectability that wouldflummox longtime naysayers. The guy who constantly mentions he doesn’t own atelevision is an Onion joke. If you really believe that TV is a wasteland, you’re either acrank, a pedant or unfortunate enough to have missed that one episode of “BattlestarGalactica” in which we find out about the Cylons.It’s become gauche, lately, to criticize television. In the age of “The Sopranos,” “The Wire,”“Lost” and “Mad Men,” TV has achieved a measure of cultural respectability that wouldflummox longtime naysayers. The guy who constantly mentions he doesn’t own atelevision is an Onion joke. If you really believe that TV is a wasteland, you’re either acrank, a pedant or unfortunate enough to have missed that one episode of “BattlestarGalactica” in which we find out about the Cylons.COGNITIVE SURPLUSCreativity and Generosity in a Connected AgeBy Clay Shirky242 pp. The Penguin Press. $25.95Or you’re Clay Shirky, a celebrated scholar of Internet culture who teaches at New YorkUniversity’s Interactive Telecommunications Program. Shirky isn’t concerned with what’son TV. What galls him is how much we watch, regardless of what’s on. Television, he writesin “Cognitive Surplus: Creativity and Generosity in a Connected Age,” has “absorbed thelion’s share of the free time available to citizens of the developed world.” 235
  • 236. Just in the United States, he maintains, we collectively watch about 200 billion hours of TVevery year. For a vast majority of us, watching TV is essentially a part-time job.What would the world be like if many of us quit our TV-watching gigs? Critics of televisionhave long lamented its opportunity costs, but Shirky’s inquiry into what we might jointogether to do instead if we weren’t watching TV isn’t as fantastical as previous efforts.That’s because for the first time since the advent of television, something strange ishappening — we’re turning it off. Young people are increasingly substituting computers,mobile phones and other Internet--enabled devices for TV. And when they do watch thetube, they’re doing it socially, collaborating to produce terabytes of online material thatdeepens their appreciation for whatever’s on. (For proof that the most ardent fans of “Lost”spend more time discussing the show online than watching it on TV, look up the Web siteLostpedia. Careful, there are spoilers.)The time we might free up by ditching TV is Shirky’s “cognitive surplus” — an ocean ofhours that society could contribute to endeavors far more useful and fun than television.With the help of a researcher at I.B.M., Shirky calculated the total amount of time thatpeople have spent creating one such project, Wikipedia. The collectively edited onlineencyclopedia is the product of about 100 million hours of human thought, Shirky found. Inother words, in the time we spend watching TV, we could create 2,000 Wikipedia-sizeprojects — and that’s just in America, and in just one year.If it seems far-fetched to imagine the industrial world’s TV-watching hordes fleeing thecouch to build projects as demanding as Wikipedia, Shirky has some news for you — theyalready are. “Cognitive Surplus” teems with examples of collaborative action. Fans of thesinger Josh Groban, for instance, came together online to form a remarkably successfulcharity. Many of the world’s Web sites run on Apache, open-source server software createdby programmers across the globe. And by loosely organizing online, the teenage girl fans ofa South Korean boy band nearly brought down their government by staging weeks ofprotest over the importation of American beef.Much of “Cognitive Surplus” is a meditation on the mechanics of these groups — how andwhy they form and stay together — but Shirky’s analysis is too often abstruse andscattershot. He lapses into academic jargon (brush up on your “intrinsic” and “extrinsic”)and muddies his points with needless digressions on the follies of institutions still stuck inthe pre-digital world, which feels like shooting fish in a barrel.The bigger problem is that, while making a convincing case for the social revolution thatcould come from our liberation from TV, Shirky seems to be telling just half the story.Nearly every one of his examples of online collectivism is positive; everyone here seems tobe using the Internet to do such good things.Yet it seems obvious that not everything — and perhaps not even most things — that weproduce together online will be as heartwarming as a charity or as valuable as Wikipedia.Other examples of Internet-abetted collaborative endeavors include the “birthers,” Chinesehacker collectives and the worldwide jihadi movement. In this way a “cognitive surplus” ismuch like a budgetary surplus — having one doesn’t necessarily mean we’ll spend it well.You could give up your time at the TV to do good things or bad; most likely you’ll do both. 236
  • 237. ¶Farhad Manjoo, a technology columnist at Slate, is the author of “True Enough: Learningto Live in a Post-Fact Society.”I (Ken) also really like this article: 237
  • 238. INFOTENSIONHoward Rheingold’s World of InfotentionPosted by Ann Michaelsen on Jan 27, 2012 in Less Teacher, More Student, Making TheShift, Student Life, Voices |Retrieved from onMarch 9, 2012Have you ever sat down in front of your computer, expecting a lot of work to be done in a certainamount of time, only to find that you have done nothing work-related at all? Or that you’ve done alot — just not what you planned to do?Many people are thinking about the way we spend our time and what gets our attention in thisdigital age. Howard Rheingold calls it infotention and I’ve been learning a lot about it recentlythanks to his challenging but rewarding online course, “Introduction to Mind Amplifiers.” It’s afive-week experience using asynchronous forums, blogs, wikis, mindmaps, social bookmarks,synchronous audio, video, chat, and Twitter. Participation requires a serious commitment of timeand attention by every member of the learning group. Believe me, the skill of staying focused onwhat is important certainly proves to be helpful here!The world demands “infotention”Infotention is a word I came up with to describe the psycho-social-techno skill/tools we all need tofind our way online today, a mind-machine combination of brain-powered attention skills withcomputer-powered information filters. ~ Howard RheingoldI first heard about Howard Rheingold and his fascinating history as a founding father of onlinecommunities via my PLN. I had the pleasure of hearing him present at ISTE in Denver 2010. Iwrote about the presentation where he talked about “crap detection 101.” He discussed theimportance of sharing best practices for Internet literacy and critical thinking with our students. Hereminded us of the importance of teaching our students how to search the web skillfully and how tofind trustworthy websites. (See this video on YouTube with advice to students.) He recommendedtriangulation, saying that by all means start your research with Wikipedia, but always check twomore sources (for example, here and here!)The course I’m taking is pointing me in many directions and the reading material list is long. I havea lot of new books in my iPad Kindle app, including several that examine the potentiallydetrimental effects of the Internet on human cognition and relationships, like: Alone Together bySherry Turkle and The Shallows by Nicholas Carr. The latter wrote a much-talked-about 2008article for The Atlantic magazine called Is Google Making Us Stupid? in which he described hisown experience this way: 238
  • 239. (W)hat the Net seems to be doing is chipping away my capacity for concentration andcontemplation. My mind now expects to take in information the way the Net distributes it: in aswiftly moving stream of particles. Once I was a scuba diver in the sea of words. Now I zip alongthe surface like a guy on a Jet Ski.Carr wrote that his friends reported similar experiences. The more they use the Web, the more theyhave to fight to stay focused on long pieces of writing.What are the implications for our students?If highly educated professionals are having problems staying focused on long pieces of writing,what about students? More and more schools are going 1:1, equipping students with personalcomputing devices without equipping their teachers with research-based pedagogy to support itsuse.It is like Clayton M. Christensen says in his book Disrupting Class: we can’t go on teaching,assuming all students should be taught the same things on the same day in the same way. Whenteachers are lecturing, using a PowerPoint for more than 15 minutes, students’ attention mostcertainly will be on content they find online! I think it is rather unfair to assume that all teachersautomatically know how to deal with these distractions and how to guide their students. I knowmany teachers struggle with this at my school.The solutions I read about online tend to emphasize strict time limits, interesting tasks and real lifeproblems. I found this recent article from the Harvard Education Letter useful: “Teaching studentsto ask their own questions”. But even if we have a school where the core values are: inquiry,research, collaboration, presentation and reflection, (Science Leadership Academy, Philadelphia), ifwe’re going to help our students develop the focus they need to think deeply about things — toacquire Howard Rheingold’s Infotention — then I think most schools will need some ground rules,made in collaboration with students after lots of conversations around these important topics.Some draft guidelinesHere are some possible guidelines or ground rules that come to my mind for using computers andstaying focused in school. Please add your own thoughts in the comments.A. Make your own rules of student Netiquette.Netiquette (short for “network etiquette” or “Internet etiquette”) is a set of social conventions thatfacilitate interaction over networks, whether through social media, chat, email or other means. 1. Computer lids down when teacher is giving instructions for class. 2. Stay on task, no gaming, Facebook, Twitter, Skype or surfing when not related to school work. 3. Computer lids down when teachers or students are presenting, unless you are taking notes or searching online for more information.B. Teach and discuss how to focus in the age of distraction. 1. Close all other applications and devices when reading texts. 2. Make a mental list of what to do and how much time you have available. 3. Turn off the internet when you don’t need it. 4. Leave your phone at home sometimes!C: Teach and discuss how to find reliable information online. 1. Teach searching skills and introduce safe search engines. 2. Teach and discuss knowing how to ask the right questions and finding the accurate answers. 3. Help students build personal learning networks with people they know they can trust. One way is to introduce blogging and the use of Twitter. 239
  • 240. I’ll be spending two more virtual weeks with Howard Rheingold. If you’d like to know more abouthis e-course, which is characterized by many good things, including small enrollment, visit thiswebpage at the Social Media Classroom.Image: Joi Ito, Creative Commons 240
  • 241. What Are InfographicsRetrieved from on March 10, 2012Information graphics, also known as infographics, are a way of presenting information, data, orknowledge with the use of visual tools. Infographics are quite ancient; early humans, for example,made maps and other visual representations of their lives which can be seen today. There are a widerange of modern uses for infographics, from maps of subway systems to slides in a presentationgiven at a conference.Many people are familiar with basic infographics, like weather maps, which have small symbols toindicate areas of low and high pressure, as well as predictions for snow, rain, and sunshine. Youveprobably also made an infographic at some point in your life if youve ever drawn out a quick mapto help someone find your house, or created a chart graphing data which you collected. These smallunits of visual information contain a lot of information when they are closely studied, and theyorganize that information in a very accessible way.Some infographics are designed to be universally readable and accessible. For example, manypeople around the world recognize a red octagon as a stop sign. Other road sign graphics clearlyillustrate things like T-intersections, areas of curvy road, and upcoming merges. Universalinfographics like these are immensely helpful in areas where people speak many differentlanguages, making signs such as ”merge ahead” impractical because the sign would not beuniversally understood. They are also sometimes used as communication tools; some travelers, forexample, bring a chart with infographics of their basic needs which they can point to, asking forthings like a bed, food, a phone, or water.An infographic can also include verbal information. Many infographics like maps have keys whichare designed to explain all of the elements of the graphic, making it easier to understand. Others,such as subway maps, use words to designate each station, as well as bright colors illustrating thedifferent routes. When charts are used to present data, they also typically have verbal information;the side of a bar graph, for example, might explain that one axis showed the number of people withcars, while the other side indicated which country the car owners lived in.Visual presentation of information is a powerful tool. Sometimes a complex concept can be morequickly understood with the use of infographics than through words. The universal comprehensionfactor is also very valuable in a mixed group, and the use of infographics ensures that informationwill be accessible to people thousands of years in the future, who may not understand the system ofwritten communication used; for example, nuclear waste disposal sites use infographics to explainthat they are dangerous. Infographics have also been used in attempts to establish communicationwith alien races who might be able to understand drawings even if they cant comprehend humanlanguages. 241
  • 242. MOBILE:FUTURE OF MOBILE TECHNOLOGYWatch this Video: mobile is forcing us to change the waywe measure the Internet24TH OCTOBER 2011 by JON RUSSELLRetrieved from on March 12, 2012It is a metric that is well used across the world in research, analysis and reporting but it is time thatthe technology world stopped leaning so heavily on Internet penetration. The statistic is one of anumber that are at a risk of becoming out-dated in today’s multi-platform Internet.Internet penetration rate denotes the percentage of a (usually) national population that has access tothe Internet in their home. The figure is calculated by studying customer figures from fixed-lineInternet service providers (ISPs), and – though not 100% accurate – it is a reliable estimate of thereach of fixed, home web access.Once upon a time…Back when Internet access was primarily through dial-up connections, a time when firms like AOLwere titans of the Internet and even MySpace was yet to arrive on the scene, Internet penetrationwas the ultimate indicator of access.This was a time when ‘going online’ was not a regular part of life and certainly not the always-onexperience of today. Back then, the rate clearly showed just how many households that were bothdigitally-minded enough to seek access to the World Wide Web, and suitably affluent to afford it. Itmade for an interesting metric when compared to statistics like GDP, average salary, mobilepenetration (let us save the discussion for the aging of this metric for another time) and more.The Internet todayIn short, Internet penetration rate was a very telling statistic, however the online space of today haschanged massively. Not only has AOL shifted its position, and is now the owner of a globally-influencing media empire, but the frequency of locations where and devices used to access the webhave evolved way beyond the dial-up days.Today’s average Internet user could access the web from as many as five different locations in justone single day.Meet Fred. While taking his breakfast he grabs his iPad, logging into his personal email accountover the Wi-Fi in his flat. He sets off to work, taking the subway during which he whips out hisiPhone to check the reaction to last night’s big match. 242
  • 243. He gets to the office, just in time, and quickly scans his work inbox on his BlackBerry in the lift en-route to his desk on the 24th floor. Fred is online through out the day using the company’s wiredInternet to his desktop, while a lunch meeting sees him log in using his laptop and Starbucks’ Wi-Fi.The rest of his day is fairly uneventful and by 9.00 pm he is at home, catching up with friends overFacebook on his laptop whilst talk to his girlfriend on Skype.Today, like any ordinary day, Fred has accessed the Internet through 6 different IP addresses using 6different devices. Yet using a metric like Internet penetration, precious little of his day’s Internetactivity is measured.Assessing him through Internet penetration, Fred is classed as an Internet user, which he is,however his usage is considerably more advanced than his Grandma, for example, who – quiteadvanced for her age – accesses the web through her fixed-line Internet at home, but nowhere else.Yet the difference in the Internet access of Fred and his grandma is not reflected when looked atthrough Internet penetration rate.In reality, Fred and his grandma are on a different level of Internet access and usage, but fewmainstream statistics can adequately assess and represent this difference.The potential of mobileFixed-line is just one of the many ways we access the Internet today, and if we are to analyse andlook at the way nations use the web – as Internet penetration is used for – then other popular touchpoints and platforms must be included. The issue is more significant when stepping out of thewestern web, where connection to the Internet is pretty much ubiquitous amongst society.In regions like Latin America, Africa and Southeast Asia, Internet access is less widespread for anumber of reasons. Cost is one key factor, as fixed-line Internet requires hardware – such as PCs –which are often luxury items beyond the reach of many. There is a strong culture of pre-pay inmany developing markets, particularly visible when looking at mobile. ISPs require long-termagreements which many are reluctant to engage.Finally, those in remote areas suffer from lack of access to technology, if ISPs don’t have thenecessary infrastructure in place they can only offer a slow service, if anything at all.Mobile Internet offers the potential to hurdle many of these obstacles, however its usage is notrecognised in reports or analysis which assesses national access through Internet penetration rates.The futureOperators in developing markets are beginning to offer services at affordable prices through pre-paydeals. The infrastructure demands of mobile are far lower than fixed-line, and in most regions –even in developing markets – mobile enjoys near widespread service, although speeds do vary. 243
  • 244. All of this represents potential for increasing Internet access. Right now, though their ownership isincreasing, smartphones remain a niche that is not affordable to all. Android is helpingmanufacturers develop lower-priced yet sophisticated devices – which is likely to see the platformdominate in Asia – but a sizeable proportion of those people with mobile Internet access indeveloping areas are likely to also enjoy fixed-access at home.In Africa, for example, broadband is an alien concept to a great many in a region where mobileInternet-enabled smartphones remain unaffordable to the masses.The Akash is a government funded low-cost tablet with the potential to improve connectivity across India.For the time being, Internet penetration rate is a reasonable representation of those that havepersonal web access – be it mobile or PC-based. However, with large scale initiatives to providelow-price tablet computers in a number of developing markets – such as India and Thailand – underway, and smartphone ownership tipped to grow thanks to low-cost devices like Huawei’s $100IDEOS phone in Kenya, mobile is set to become a key platform to access the Internet. Given therigidity of current indicators, such as Internet penetration rate, little of the access and activity frommobile will be adequately reflected.Facebook in IndonesiaA good example of the shortcomings of current research is how Internet acess in Southeast Asia isanalysed. Reports and research frequently compare the use of services – such as total registrationsfor Facebook – against a country’s Internet penetration rate.The rate is used, alongside country population figures, to give an estimate of the number of citizenswith access to the web, a statistic that is referred to as the Internet user number, or ‘onlinepopulation’. With online population established, the number of users of a site – for exampleFacebook – can be compared to give an estimate of how popular it is in the country.There is one important factor missing from this equation…mobile. Southeast Asians, in particular,as passionate mobile social network users. For a great many Facebook users in Indonesia, forexample, just being on Facebook does not guarantee that they also have Internet access at home asthe research assumes. Internet cafes are popular hang-outs in the country and it is likely – thoughthis figure cannot be proven – that a great many users access the web from cafes, other publicInternet access points and their mobile phone.These factors help explain why, in Malaysia, the shortcomings of the comScore measurementsystem leaves questions unanswered. Such as, how increased mobile Internet access affects howfixed-line Internet users spend time online. 244
  • 245. Analyse smarterThe real issue is that too many reports and analysis makes use of the wrong metrics. Analysing anation’s usage of Facebook by comparing it to Internet penetration is an indicator, but it is noreliable, factual piece of data. It does not mean that 68% of Indians with Internet access are onFacebook, because in today’s world access is wider than ever before.In reality, there is no silver bullet to measure Internet access. Instead there are a number of differingfactors and measurements which together can help provide an indication of how and where peopleare going online.As developing regions increase their presence online, with the benefits of the web spreading tomore people in the world, the need for strong analysis and reliable use of data will only increase.With mobile poised to play a key role in providing access, it is time for new thinking and newmeasurements to track the huge opportunity that Internet access can bring to the world.SOURCES: IMAGE CREDITJOIN TNW MEDIA ON: FOLLOW @TNWMEDIA OR  RSSABOUT THE AUTHORJon Russell is the Asia Editor of The Next Web. Jon has been commenting on and writing aboutAsias internet, technology and start-up scenes since he swapped London for Bangkok in 2008. Youcan reach him through Twitter, Google+, LinkedIn or by emailing 245
  • 246. MECHANICAL TURKTop 10 Amazon Mechanical Turk Tips and TricksRetrieved from on March 12, 2012WHAT IS AMAZON MECHANICAL TURK?For those who dont know, Amazon Mechanical Turk, or MTurk, is a crowdsource programwhere you earn money online by performing basic tasks (known as "Hits") for employers(known as "Requesters"). You can be paid either in the form of cash (which Amazon paysinto your bank account, or by purchasing Amazon gift cards which you can spend at theirwesite. In my experience, Amazon Mechanical Turk can be one of the fastest ways tomake money online and my top 10 Amazon Mechanical Turk tips and tricks should helpyou to earn more, as well as lower the chances of you getting ripped off.Typical MTurk HITs that you might find on the site are simple, but ones that a machine isunable to do, for instance: rewriting sentences, completing surveys, writing originalarticles, copying text from scans and photos, transcribing audio files.(Mechanical Turk has a number of rivals, one example being Microworkers, read myarticles: The Pros and Cons of Making Money with Microworkers, or my Microworkers Tipsfor more details. Other sites like MTurk include Inbox Dollars and myLot. For further detailsof MTurk alternatives read my article: 5 Best Ways to Make Quick and Easy MoneyOnline)The Main Pros and Cons of Amazon Mechanical TurkPROs:You can work from home.You can pick and choose the jobs that you want to do.Its free to sign up.CONs:Amazon doesnt regulate it, so there are quite a few scams and rip offs and you dont haveany comeback.The payments can be stingy.MY TOP TEN AMAZON MECHANICAL TURK TIPS AND TRICKS1. Watch out for the scammers! 246
  • 247. Stay clear of any hits that ask you for your real email, full name, address, credit carddetails etc. You dont want to end up being spammed, or even worse, defrauded. GenuineAmazon Mechanical Turk requesters wont ask you for personal info. (For more details seemy article: How to avoid MTurk scams).2. Use forums such as Turker Nation and MTurk Forum to keep yourself informed.The MTurk Forums will keep you up to date with whats happening with AmazonMechanical Turk and and you can learn from other workers experiences. These forumsare set up and self-run by Mechanical Turk workers and though they wont give you anycomeback against the rip-off requesters and scammers, they may help you to avoid theworst of MTurk and direct you towards the best requesters and practices. Youll find TurkerNation here and MTurk Forum here.3. Download and use the Turkopticon toolbar.This is maybe the most important of my Mechanical Turk tips and tricks. The Turkopticontoolbar will allow you to see how previous Mechanical Turk workers have assessed aparticular requester. You can see helpful reviews from other Mechanical Turk workersbefore you decide to take a hit or not. Did they reject an MTurk hit without good reason,did they pay in reasonable time etc. (one scam that some unscrupulous requesters use isto reject your work on the grounds that it is inadequate in order to get out of paying). Thistool is worth having if youre a regular Mechanical Turk user, in my opinion, as it reallydoes work. There are toolbar versions for Firefox and Google Chrome browsers on theirwebsite, though I didnt see anything on their website for Internet Explorer. You candownload it here and read more about it in my article: The Turkopticon Toolbar and MakingMoney with Mechanical Turk (MTurk)4. Avoid the 1 cent hits on Mechanical Turk, unless they look like fun, or youredesperate.Even if a one second hit takes you only three minutes to complete, you are still looking at apay rate of just 12c an hour. That means youd have to spend an entire day working onMechanical Turk just to earn a single dollar. The 2 cent Mechanical Turk hits arent muchbetter. The only way that these hits pay is if all youre doing is clicking on something orcopying and pasting a word or phrase.5. Think through how long a task takes in Mechanical Turk and the relative pay rate.Its worth looking at whether its worth it before you get involved with an AmazonMechanical Turk hit. Some of them require a qualification test to be passed before you caneven begin working on the hit(s) proper. Some of them have extensive instructions,slowing you down and increasing the chance of you getting your submitted hits rejected. Ifthere are plenty of Mechanical Turk hits for you to do and the pays not too bad, it may stillbe worth you accepting the hit, but give the matter a little thought too.6. Surveys are often good payers in my experience.The surveys you find in Amazon Mechanical Turk pay better than most hits generally andyou are more likely to receive your money, as they are often conducted by colleges anduniversities, rather than virtually anonymous individuals. Some of the Mechanical Turksurveys will pay you $1 or more for 5 or 10 minutes work. Just be wary of the scam hitsthat sometimes dress themselves up as surveys, eg answer some questions about ourwebsite, fill in this form giving us your personal details etc. The other good payers inMechanical Turk, if you have writing skills, are the short articles hits that are often 247
  • 248. advertised, where you put together a 100-200 words for between $1 and $2. Most of thetime you can just reword information that you copy from Wikipedia. You can read moreabout this topic in my article: Using Amazon MTurk to make money online with onlinesurveys7. If it looks too good to be true, then it probably is!Unfortunately the big paying Amazon Mechanical Turk hits are usually put there byscammers. Generally speaking, nobody is going to pay you $10 in Mechanical Turk just totest their website. If it looks too good to be true, it probably is. Those Mechanical Turkrequesters who offer $10 or $20 for a 1 or 2 minute tasks, eg wanting you to check if theirwebsite is working, are pretty much always up to no good.8. Read the instructions carefully before you accept a Mechanical Turk hit.One of my most important Mechanical Turk tips. If you regularly end up having to returnan Amazon Mechanical Turk hit because you are unable, or dont want to complete it, thenthis will effect your "hit return rate" adversely. Alternatively you may complete and submit anumber of Mechanical Turk hits incorrectly, then get them rejected, which can be veryfrustrating, as well as a huge waste of time. This doesnt matter if you do it once or twice,but if you do it regularly, then it will limit the range of Mechanical Turk hits that you cantake.9. Use the Sort By and Search options to find the Amazon Mechanical Turk hits thatyou are afterFor instance, if you were looking on Mechanical Turk for a new survey that paid over 50c,youd type "survey" in the search box and set the hit value to 50c. You can then put theresults in order with the newest hits first. Searching like this can save you a lot of time onMechanical Turk. There are over 100,000 MTurk hits on offer sometimes and you dontwant to end up wading through them one at a time.10. Link your bank account to Amazon if you want to get paid in cash from yourMechanical Turk AccountAmazon keep you posted on how much money youve earned with Mechanical Turk asyou go along (though be prepared for the fact that many Mechanical Turk requesters wontpay you immediately). The Mechanical Turk money will appear in your regular Amazonaccount in a section called Amazon Payments. You can convert this money into gift cardmoney which you can spend in Amazon. Alternatively, if you want it in cash, then you haveto link a bank account to your Amazon account. 248
  • 249. Digital DivideRetrieved from February 26, 2012 from: digital divide refers to the gap between people who possess regular access to technology, (suchas computers and their related functions like ability to get on the Internet), and those who do nothave this access. The term originated in the 1990s and was much used in early days by the USPresident Clinton’s Administration to discuss what could be done about bridging this gap. There aremany ways to look at or consider the digital divide. For people like President Clinton, the divideseparated the “haves and have-nots” within the US. Other people evaluate how a perceived dividemay affect countries, populations, or races.Internet and computer use has undoubtedly increased in the United States and the digital divide maybe smaller within certain populations. However, it remains a fact that poorer people may not be ableto afford technology, and poorly funded schools aren’t always able to offer regular use oftechnology to their students. In contrast, students in middle class and upper class families, and inschools that have medium to excellent funding, may have technology at home and school. Thisgives them considerable advantages over those whose homes and schools don’t have the sameofferings.Another point of concern in the US is the way access to technology may divide large minoritygroups from Caucasians. Smaller percentages of African American and Hispanic citizens regularlyuse or have access to information technology. Since there exists so much possible benefit oflearning how to use computers and how to take advantage of web materials, one argument is thatthe digital divide keeps people in certain social groups poor and ignorant to a degree. The ReverendJesse Jackson referred to it as an apartheid of sorts.As significant as the digital divide may be in countries like the US or Canada, the differencesbetween access to technology in these countries and in most developing nations is even morestriking. Even heavily industrialized nations like China have far fewer people able to regularly usecomputers and access the Internet. Poorer nations are divided even more from richer nations in thisrespect, and many argue that the wealth of information available to poorer nations through theInternet could help improve lives and put an end to poverty.To this end there are many charitable and government run organizations that help to shrink thedigital divide by providing computers or funding to get computers to individuals or educationalinstitutions. They may address the divide in a specific country that is developing too. However, thiscan be problematic. In countries with severe poverty, many feel that first efforts should go towardproviding clean water, medical care and food as needed instead of giving people technology access.Moreover, in areas that don’t have electricity sources, digital materials can be relatively useless, andsome argue trying to end the digital divide in extremely poor countries may not be possible untilthese countries achieve certain quality of living standards. 249
  • 250. Ubiquitous ComputingRetrieved from On March 6, 2012 The word "ubiquitous" can be defined as "existing or being everywhere at the same time," "constantly encountered," and "widespread." When applying this concept to technology, the term ubiquitous implies that technology is everywhere and we use it all the time. Because of the pervasiveness of these technologies, we tend to use them without thinking about the tool. Instead, we focus on the task at hand, making the technology effectively invisible to the user. Ubiquitous technology is often wireless, mobile, and networked, making its users more connected to the world around them and the people in it. Our Definition Based on existing knowledge and observations and experiences from our own work, we have developed the following definition of ubiquitous computing, especially as it applies to teaching and learning: We define ubiquitous computing environments as learning environments in which all students have access to a variety of digital devices and services, including computers connected to the Internet and mobile computing devices, whenever and wherever they need them. Our notion of ubiquitous computing, then, is more focused on many-to-many than one-to-one or one-to-many, and includes the idea of technology being always available but not itself the focus of learning. Moreover, our definition of ubiquitous computing includes the idea that both teachers and students are active participants in the learning process, who critically analyze information, create new knowledge in a variety of ways (both collaboratively and individually), communicate what they have learned , and choose which tools are appropriate for a particular task. Why Is Ubiquitous Computing Important? 250
  • 251. Ubiquitous computing is changing our daily activities in a variety of ways.When it comes to using todays digital tools users tend to • communicate in different ways • be more active • conceive and use geographical and temporal spaces differently • have more controlIn addition, ubiquitous computing is • global and local • social and personal • public and private • invisible and visible • an aspect of both knowledge creation and information dissemination 251
  • 252. SECOND SCREENThe Super Bowl and the Battle for theSecond ScreenPosted by Rob Lewis on Sun, February 5, 2012 7:15 AM ·Retrieved from On March 6, 2012Bell Canada has been fighting with the CRTC over deals the company has made tobroadcast NHL hockey and NFL football games exclusively to its own wireless subscribers.The CRTC ruled in December that BCE had gained an unfair advantage through thosedeals – and ordered it to make that content available to rival Telus “at reasonable terms.”Enter the National Football League and the the most-watched sporting event in NorthAmerica, the Super Bowl.The NFL has jumped into the fight saying that its contract with BCE (which owns BellCanada, CTV and TSN) prohibits any Canadian wireless provider except BCE fromgaining access to football broadcasts, including this weekend’s Super Bowl.According to an article in the Globe and Mail yesterday BCE has quietly renegotiated itsdeal with the NHL, and said it will share those mobile rights with other wireless carriers.But the NFL refuses to allow Bell to share its games, saying it doesn’t want its contentspread among several different broadcast partners.In the case of this weekends Super Bowl, its unlikely that any true sports fan wouldchoose to watch the big game on a smartphone over a big screen television anyways. Themore interesting battle will be what football fans are doing on their second screen.While football fans may not have a choice on what channel they tune into for live gameaction, they have plenty of options for tracking stats, watching US-feed Super Bowlcommerciasl, or betting online on the game.In the case of the third option, BCEs biggest competitor in sports may become theirsecond screen homepage thanks to a Canadian startup. Sportsnet has partnered withInGamer Sports to offer a "social fantasy" game.The Captain Morgan Playoff Challenge is a single game sports pool played in real timewhere you pick a squad of players and compete against friends. Editing your roster eachquarter which keeps you engaged from kick-off to final whistle making it the idealcomplement to watching the game live. Think of it as a modern day replacement for theobligatory Box Pool at a Super Bowl party.Ill leave it to Sportsnets Evanka Osmak to explain. 252
  • 253. FLASH MOBWhat A Flash Mob Is & How You Can ParticipateOctober 19, 2010 By Tina SieberRetrieved from on March 10, 2012A Flash Mob is a large group of people who gather at a public location to perform a pre-defined action, typically a brief dance, and disperse rapidly after the event has concluded.Flash Mobs are an internet phenomenon of the 21st century. Although Flash Mobs don’thappen online, they are organized using social media, viral emails, or websites in general.Consequently, the first ‘official’ gathering of this nature was attempted in Manhatten in May2003, the early days of social media. The phenomenon has since spread across the globeand Flash Mobs are open to anyone to join.Would you like to participate in a Flash Mob? This articles shows you how to find flashmobs and a few videos from past successful Flash Mobs.How Does It Work?Flash Mobs are initiated online. The organizers set up a website, mailing list, and/or a viralmessage that provides all necessary instructions for potential participants. This of courseincludes the date, time, and meeting point in the real world, as well as the action toperform, for example a video of the dance moves.An example of an upcoming worldwide Flash Mob is Thrill The World, a tribute to MichalJackson. Since 2006 it has been held on the weekend before Halloween. This year it willbe held in countries around the globe on Saturday, October 23rd, in an attempt to break aGuinness World Record. 253
  • 254. Retrieved from on March 13, 2012Book SummarySmart mobs emerge when communication and computing technologies amplifyhuman talents for cooperation. The impacts of smart mob technology alreadyappear to be both beneficial and destructive, used by some of its earliest adoptersto support democracy and by others to coordinate terrorist attacks. Thetechnologies that are beginning to make smart mobs possible are mobilecommunication devices and pervasive computing - inexpensive microprocessorsembedded in everyday objects and environments. Already, governments havefallen, youth subcultures have blossomed from Asia to Scandinavia, newindustries have been born and older industries have launched furiouscounterattacks.Street demonstrators in the 1999 anti-WTO protests used dynamically updatedwebsites, cell-phones, and "swarming" tactics in the "battle of Seattle." A millionFilipinos toppled President Estrada through public demonstrations organizedthrough salvos of text messages.The pieces of the puzzle are all around us now, but havent joined together yet.The radio chips designed to replace barcodes on manufactured objects are part ofit. Wireless Internet nodes in cafes, hotels, and neighborhoods are part of it.Millions of people who lend their computers to the search for extraterrestrialintelligence are part of it. The way buyers and sellers rate each other on Internetauction site eBay is part of it. Research by biologists, sociologists, and economistsinto the nature of cooperation offer explanatory frameworks. At least one keyglobal business question is part of it - why is the Japanese company DoCoMoprofiting from enhanced wireless Internet services while US and European mobiletelephony operators struggle to avoid failure?The people who make up smart mobs cooperate in ways never before possiblebecause they carry devices that possess both communication and computingcapabilities. Their mobile devices connect them with other information devices inthe environment as well as with other peoples telephones. Dirt-cheapmicroprocessors embedded in everything from box tops to shoes are beginning topermeate furniture, buildings, neighborhoods, products with invisibleintercommunicating smartifacts. When they connect the tangible objects andplaces of our daily lives with the Internet, handheld communication media mutateinto wearable remote control devices for the physical world.Media cartels and government agencies are seeking to reimpose the regime of thebroadcast era in which the customers of technology will be deprived of the powerto create and left only with the power to consume. That power struggle is whatthe battles over file-sharing, copy-protection, regulation of the radio spectrumare about. Are the populations of tomorrow going to be users, like the PC ownersand website creators who turned technology to widespread innovation? Or willthey be consumers, constrained from innovation and locked into the technologyand business models of the most powerful entrenched interests? 254
  • 255. SEO (SEARCH ENGINE OPTIMIZATION)TERM #23: SEO Introduction – What Is SEOWhenever you enter a query in a search engine and hit enter you get a list of web resultsthat contain that query term. Users normally tend to visit websites that are at the top ofthis list as they perceive those to be more relevant to the query. If you have ever wonderedwhy some of these websites rank better than the others then you must know that it isbecause of a powerful web marketing technique called Search Engine Optimization(SEO).SEO is a technique which helps search engines find and rank your site higher than themillions of other sites in response to a search query. SEO thus helps you get traffic fromsearch engines.This SEO tutorial covers all the necessary information you need to know about SearchEngine Optimization - what is it, how does it work and differences in the ranking criteria ofmajor search engines.1. How Search Engines WorkThe first basic truth you need toknow to learn SEO is that search engines are not humans. While this might be obvious foreverybody, the differences betweenhow humans and search engines view web pages arent. Unlike humans, search engines aretext-driven. Although technology advances rapidly, search engines are far from intelligentcreatures that can feel the beauty of a cool design or enjoy the sounds and movement inmovies. Instead, search engines crawl the Web, looking at particular site items (mainlytext) to get an idea what a site is about. This brief explanation is not the most precisebecause as we will see next, search engines perform several activities in order to deliversearch results – crawling, indexing, processing, calculating relevancy, and retrieving.First, search engines crawl the Web to see what is there. This task is performed by a pieceof software, called a crawler or a spider (or Googlebot, as is the case with Google). Spidersfollow links from one page to another and index everything they find on their way. Havingin mind the number of pages on the Web (over 20 billion), it is impossible for a spider tovisit a site daily just to see if a new page has appeared or if an existing page has beenmodified, sometimes crawlers may not end up visiting your site for a month or two. 255
  • 256. What you can do is to check what a crawler sees from your site. As already mentioned,crawlers are not humans and they do not see images, Flash movies, JavaScript, frames,password-protected pages and directories, so if you have tons of these on your site, youdbetter run the Spider Simulator below to see if these goodies are viewable by the spider.If they are not viewable, they will not be spidered, not indexed, not processed, etc. - in aword they will be non-existent for search engines.After a page is crawled, the next step is to index its content. The indexed page is stored ina giant database, from where it can later be retrieved. Essentially, the process of indexing isidentifying the words and expressions that best describe the page and assigning the page toparticular keywords. For a human it will not be possible to process such amounts ofinformation but generally search engines deal just fine with this task. Sometimes theymight not get the meaning of a page right but if you help them by optimizing it, it will beeasier for them to classify your pages correctly and for you – to get higher rankings.When a search request comes, the search engine processes it – i.e. it compares the searchstring in the search request with the indexed pages in the database. Since it is likely thatmore than one page (practically it is millions of pages) contains the search string, thesearch engine starts calculating the relevancy of each of the pages in its index with thesearch string.There are various algorithms to calculate relevancy. Each of these algorithms has differentrelative weights for common factors like keyword density, links, or metatags. That is whydifferent search engines give different search results pages for the same search string.What is more, it is a known fact that all major search engines, like Yahoo!, Google, Bing,etc. periodically change their algorithms and if you want to keep at the top, you also needto adapt your pages to the latest changes. This is one reason (the other is your competitors)to devote permanent efforts to SEO, if youd like to be at the top.The last step in search engines activity is retrieving the results. Basically, it is nothingmore than simply displaying them in the browser – i.e. the endless pages of search resultsthat are sorted from the most relevant to the least relevant sites.2. Differences Between the Major Search EnginesAlthough the basic principle of operation of all search engines is the same, the minordifferences between them lead to major changes in results relevancy. For different searchengines different factors are important. There were times, when SEO experts joked that thealgorithms of Bing are intentionally made just the opposite of those of Google. While thismight have a grain of truth, it is a matter a fact that the major search engines likedifferent stuff and if you plan to conquer more than one of them, you need to optimizecarefully.There are many examples of the differences between search engines. For instance, forYahoo! and Bing, on-page keyword factors are of primary importance, while for Googlelinks are very, very important. Also, for Google sites are like wine – the older, the better,while Yahoo! generally has no expressed preference towards sites and domains withtradition (i.e. older ones). Thus you might need more time till your site gets mature to beadmitted to the top in Google, than in Yahoo!. 256
  • 257. AUGMENTED REALITYUniversal Studios unveils Harry Potterattraction plans for L.A.Retrieved from on March 3, 2012A version of the Wizarding World of Harry Potter, which opened at Universal StudiosOrlando last year, will be built at Universal Studios Hollywood. It is expected to costseveral hundred million dollars, create more than 1,000 jobs and open in 2016 at theearliest.December 07, 2011|By Ben Fritz, Los Angeles TimesAfter defeating Voldemort and his Death Eaters in seven bestselling books and eight hitmovies, Harry Potter is taking on perhaps his greatest challenge yet: boosting the LosAngeles economy.Universal Studios on Tuesday took the wraps off plans to build a Southern Californiaversion of the Wizarding World of Harry Potter, which drove a 68% increase in attendanceat its Orlando theme park during the first three months of the year compared with thesame period in 2010.Ron Meyer, Universals president, said his company would spend "several hundred milliondollars" to create the attraction, which is expected to include a re-creation of HogwartsCastle along with Potter-themed rides, shops and restaurants.The plan was unveiled Tuesday morning at an elaborate ceremony at Universal StudiosHollywood attended by Gov. Jerry Brown, Los Angeles County Supervisor Zev Yaroslovsky,and executives from Universal and Warner Bros., which made the "Potter" films andcontrols licensing rights to author J.K. Rowlings characters. Los Angeles Mayor AntonioVillaraigosa sent a congratulatory video message from Beijing, where by coincidence hewas helping announce the opening of a new theme park in China.Comcast Corp.-owned Universal will create more than 1,000 jobs in the process, withmany more expected to be added indirectly at hotels, restaurants and other tourism-related businesses. Executives said the new attraction would be built within the existingUniversal Studios park boundaries, which will likely require the demolition or repurposingof existing rides.The Los Angeles County Economic Development Corp. estimated that every 1 millionadditional visitors who come to Universal Studios Hollywood for the Harry Potterattraction will generate $417 million in spending in the county."This is a grand slam for the Los Angeles tourism industry," said Mark Liberman,president of the Los Angeles Convention and Visitors Bureau, known as LA Inc. "Its goingto immediately be at the top of any attraction L.A. has ever seen."The Wizarding World of Harry Potter at Universal Orlando has drawn more than 10million visitors since it opened in June 2010. Visitors have bought more than 1 millionglasses of butterbeer, a non-alcoholic drink made famous in the Potter books. Mugs of thesweet, frosty beverage were served at Tuesdays event. 257
  • 258. As part of Tuesdays announcement, Universal and Warner also said the Orlando Potterattraction would be significantly expanded.The Los Angeles attraction wont open for a while, however. Universal Parks & ResortsChairman Tom Williams said in an interview that the 20-acre Wizarding World in Floridatook more than four years to build. The Universal Studios Hollywood attraction wouldlikely take at least that long, putting the premiere in 2016 at the earliest.In addition, Universal cant break ground until a planned $3-billion overhaul of its themepark and film and television studio lot is approved by regulatory authorities.When it debuts, the legions of Potter fans from around the world who flock to theattraction could help Universal Studios Hollywood gain ground on its larger SouthernCalifornia rival in Anaheim. Disneyland had 16 million visitors in 2010 and its siblingdestination California Adventure drew 6.3 million, according to the ThemedEntertainment Assn. Universal Studios Hollywood had 5 million attendees during thesame period, the trade group said."If we take the authenticity of the experience in Orlando and put it in the worldsentertainment capital, youre going to see streams of people coming from countries aroundthe world and affect the whole economic chain of Los Angeles," said Universal StudiosHollywood President Larry Kurzeweil.Many of the rides currently at Universal Hollywood are based on older films such as "KingKong," "Terminator" and "WaterWorld," though a new "Transformers" attraction willdebut next spring.Warner Bros. Chairman Barry Meyer said his studio spoke to numerous potentialcandidates about the rights to build a Potter-themed attraction in Southern Californiabefore signing a long-term agreement with Universal. A knowledgeable person notauthorized to discuss the matter publicly said Walt Disney Co. talked to Warner aboutadding Harry Potter to Disneyland."The millions of fans who have read the books and seen the movies are very demanding,and were very concerned about not disappointing them," Meyer said. "What Universalbuilt in Orlando met that bar in a dramatic fashion."Brown, who unlike the business executives in attendance spoke without looking atprepared remarks, said the new Potter attraction was welcome news at a time when manyare pessimistic about the states future."Yes, we have had some tough times but the movie industry keeps hope alive and keeps ustogether," he said. "We are truly a state of imagination, and this great Harry Potter parkjust pushes us that much further down the road."Times staff writer Hugo Martin contributed to this report.VIEW THIS APPLICATION HERE: 258
  • 259. GOOGLE HANGOUTSOverview Details DiscussSearch Google+ helpGoogle+HangoutsHangouts are the best way for you to say, “I’m online and want to hangout!” Hangouts lets you:Chill with friends that are scrolling through the web, just like you!Use live video chat that puts you in the same room together!Coordinate plans, whether its working on a project or meeting up for coffee. Maybe you’re bored.Start a hangout, invite your circles, see who’s around!Learn how to start a hangout.Everyone can watch YouTube videos together in a hangout. Just click the YouTube button. Thensearch for and select a video that you want to watchas a group. Anyone in the hangout can play, pause, or change a video.To cut down on echos, everyone is muted by default while the YouTube player is open. You canclick the Push to Talk button underneath the video to talk.The volume control of the YouTube player is specific to each person. That means you can set whatvolumes you are comfortable with without affecting other people in the hangout.If you mute the YouTube video, the Push to Talk button will disappear and your mic will beactivated. If you unmute your mic, the YouTube video will be muted.Screen sharing lets you give other people the ability to see what’s on your computer screen. Forexample, if theres a picture open on your computer screen, meeting participants can look at itwithout having to download anything.To share:1. Click Screenshare at the top of your screen.2. In the window that pops up, choose your desktop or choose the window you want to present. 3.Click Share Selected Window. 259
  • 260. Watch this video here: 260
  • 261. GENERATION FLUXArticle location: January 9, 2012Tags: Leadership, Innovation, Careers, Work/LifeThis Is Generation Flux: Meet The PioneersOf The New (And Chaotic) Frontier OfBusinessBy Robert SafianRetrieved from March 9, 2012Members of Generation Flux can be any age and in any industry: From left, Raina Kumra, BobGreenberg, danah boyd, DJ Patil, Pete Cashmore, Beth Comstock,and Baratunde Thurston. | Photo by Brooke Nipar, Styling: Krisana Palma; Grooming: StephaniePetersonDJ Patil pulls a 2-foot-long metal bar from his backpack. The contraption, which he calls a"double pendulum," is hinged in the middle, so it can fold in on itself. Another hinge on one end isattached to a clamp he secures to the edge of a table. "Now," he says, holding the bar vertically, atits top, "see if you can predict where this end will go." Then he releases it, and the bar begins toswing wildly, circling the spot where it is attached to the table, while also circling in on itself. Thereis no pattern, no way to predict where it will end up. While it spins and twists with surprisingvelocity, Patil talks to me about chaos theory. "The important insight," he notes, "is identifyingwhen things are chaotic and when theyre not."In high school, Patil got kicked out of math class for being disruptive. He graduated only bypersuading his school administrator to change his F grade in chemistry. He went to junior collegebecause thats where his girlfriend was going, and signed up for calculus because she had too. Hetook so long to do his homework, his girlfriend would complain. "Its not like Im going to become amathematician," he would tell her. 261
  • 262. Chaotic disruption is rampant, not simply from thelikes of Apple,Patil, 37, is now an expert in chaos theory, among other mathematical disciplines. He has appliedFacebook, and Google.computational science to help the DefenseDepartment with threat assessment and bioweapons containment; he worked for eBay on websecurity and payment fraud; he was chief scientist atLinkedIn, before joining venture-capital firm Greylock Partners. But Patil first made a name forhimself as a researcher on weather patterns at the University of Maryland: "There are some times,"Patil explains, "when you can predict weather well for the next 15 days. Other times, you can onlyreally forecast a couple of days. Sometimes you cant predict the next two hours."The business climate, it turns out, is a lot like the weather. And weve entered a next-two-hours era.The pace of change in our economy and our culture is accelerating--fueled by global adoption ofsocial, mobile, and other new technologies--and our visibility about the future is declining. Fromthe rise of Facebook to the fall of Blockbuster, from the downgrading of U.S. government debt tothe resurgence of Brazil, predicting what will happen next has gotten exponentially harder.Uncertainty has taken hold in boardrooms and cubicles, as executives and workers (employed andunemployed) struggle with core questions: Which competitive advantages have staying power?What skills matter most? How can you weigh risk and opportunity when the fundamentals of yourbusiness may change overnight?When conditions are chaotic, Patil explains, you must apply different techniques. "Command-and-control hierarchical structures are being 262
  • 263. DANAH BOYD, 34Senior Researcher, Microsoft ResearchStudied at Brown, MIT Media Lab, and UC Berkeley; named "High Priestess of theInternet" by the Financial Times; has advised Intel, Google, Yahoo, and more;worked on V-Day, a not-for-profit focused on ending violence against women andgirls."People ask me, Are you afraid youre going to get fired? Thats the whole point: not to beafraid." More » [1]DJ PATIL, 37Data Scientist, Greylock PartnersResearcher at Los Alamos; Defense Department fellow; virtual librarian for Iraq;web- security architect for eBay; head of data team at LinkedIn, where his teamcreated People You May Know."I dont have a plan. If you look too far out in the future, you waste your time."More » [2]Look at the global cell-phone business. Just five years ago, three companiescontrolled 64% of the smartphone market: Nokia, Research in Motion, and Motorola.Today, two different companies are at the top of the industry: Samsung and Apple. Thissudden complete swap in the pecking order of a global multibillion-dollar industry isunprecedented. Consider the meteoric rise of Groupon and Zynga, the disruption inadvertising and publishing, the advent of mobile ultrasound and other "mHealth"breakthroughs (see "Open Your Mouth And Say Aah! [3]). Online-education efforts areeroding our assumptions about what schooling looks like. Cars are becoming rolling,talking, cloud-connected media hubs. In an age where Twitter and other social-media toolsplay key roles in recasting the political map in the Mideast; where impoverished residents 263
  • 264. of refugee camps would rather go without food than without their cell phones; where alltypes of media, from music to TV to movies, are being remade, redefined, defended, andattacked every day in novel ways--there is no question that we are in a new world.Any business that ignores these transformations does so at its own peril. Despite recession, currencycrises, and tremors of financial instability, the pace of disruption is roaring ahead. The frictionlessspread of information and the expansion of personal, corporate, and global networks have plenty ofroom to run. And heres the conundrum: When businesspeople search for the right forecast--the roadmap and model that will define the next era--no credible long-term picture emerges. There is onecertainty, however. The next decade or two will be defined more by fluidity than by any new, settledparadigm; if there is a pattern to all this, it is that there is no pattern. The most valuable insight isthat we are, in a critical sense, in a time of chaos.To thrive in this climate requires a whole new approach, which well outline in the pages thatfollow. Because some people will thrive. They are the members of Generation Flux. This is less ademographic designation than a psychographic one: What defines GenFlux is a mind-set thatembraces instability, that tolerates--and even enjoys--recalibrating careers, business models, andassumptions. Not everyone will join Generation Flux, but to be successful, businesses andindividuals will have to work at it. This is no simple task. The vast bulk of our institutions--educational, corporate, political--are not built for flux. Few traditional career tactics train us for anera where the most important skill is the ability to acquire new skills.DJ Patil is a GenFluxer. He has worked in academia, in government, in big public companies, andin startups; he is a technologist and a businessman; a teacher and a diplomat. He is none of thosethings and all of them, and who knows what he will be or do next? Certainly not him. "That doesntbother me," he says. "Ill find something."The New Economy Is For RealMore than 15 years ago, this magazine was launched with a cover that declared: "Work Is Personal.Computing Is Social. Knowledge Is Power." Those words resonate today, but with a new, deepermeaning. Fast Companys covers during the dotcom boom of the 1990s described "Free AgentNation" and "The Brand Called You." We became associated with the "new economy," with thebelief that the world had changed irreparably, and that yesterdays rules no longer applied. But then 264
  • 265. the dotcom bubble burst in 2000, and the idea of a new economy was discredited."In a big company, you never feel fast enough," says Comstock. Notes Thurston, "To see what youcant see coming, youve got to embrace larger principles." | Photo by Brooke NiparNow we know that what we saw in the 1990s was not a mirage. It was instead a shadow, apremonition of a new business reality that is emerging every day--and this time, perhaps chastenedby that first go- round, were prepared to admit that we dont fully understand it. This new economycurrently revolves around social and mobile, but those may be only the latest manifestations of aglobal, connected world careening ahead at great velocity.Some pundits deride the current era as just another bubble. They point out that new, heady techcompanies are garnering massive valuations: Facebook, Groupon, LinkedIn. And beyond the alphadogs, the list of startups with valuations above $200 million is long indeed: Airbnb, Dropbox,Flipboard, Foursquare, Gilt Groupe, Living Social, Rovio, Spotify--the roster goes on and on.We are under constant pressure to learn new things.It can be daunting. It can be exhilarating.Setting aside the fact that the majority of these enterprises, unlike the darlings of the late-1990s,have significant revenue, so what if some companies are overvalued? That still doesntBARATUNDE THURSTON, 34 Director of Digital, The Onion Harvardphilosophy major turned consultant turned stand- up comedian. Mayor of the Yearon Foursquare. The promo letter for his new book, How to Be Black, begins, "If youdont buy this book, youre racist.""I cant wait for the middle- management level to die off and the next generation gets inthere. Then well have a revolution." More » [4] 265
  • 266. BETH COMSTOCK, 51Chief Marketing Officer, GE TV news reporter turned PR pro turned marketingpowerhouse. Shes responsible for Ecomagination and Healthymagination, GEefforts that account for billions of dollars in sales."Today everyone feels out of control. Some people say, I declare bankruptcy. But theyrenot embracing change. Theyre giving up." "discount the way mobile, social, and other breakthroughs are changing our way of life, not just inAmerica but around the globe. And in theprocess, these changes are remaking geopolitical and business assumptions that have been in placefor decades. This was not true in 2000. But it is now. Chaotic disruption is rampant, not simplyfrom the likes of Apple, Facebook, and Google. No one predicted that General Motors would gobankrupt--and come back from the abyss with greater momentum than Toyota. No one in the car-rental industry foresaw the popularity of auto-sharing Zipcar--and Zipcar didnt foresee the rise ofoutfits like Uber and RelayRides, which are already trying to steal its market. Digital competitiondestroyed bookseller Borders, and yet the big, stodgy music labels--seemingly the ground zero fordigital disruption--defy predictions of their demise. Walmart has given up trying to turn itself into abank, but before retail bankers breathe a sigh of relief, they ought to look over their shoulders atSquare and other mobile- wallet initiatives. Amid a reeling real-estate market, new players likeTrulia and Zillow are gobbling up customers. Even the law business is under siege from companieslike LegalZoom, an online DIY document service. "All these industries are being revolutionized,"observes Pete Cashmore, the 26- year-old founder of social-news site Mashable, which hasexploded overnight to reach more than 20 million users a month. "Its come to technology first, butit will reach every industry. Youre going to have businesses rise and fall faster than ever."You Dont Know What You Dont Know"In a big company, you never feel youre fast enough." Beth Comstock, the chief marketing officerof GE, is talking to me by phone from the Rosewood Hotel in Menlo Park, California, where shesvisiting entrepreneurs in Silicon Valley. She gets a charge out of the Valley, but her trips also remindher how perilous the business climate is right now. "Business-model innovation is constant in thiseconomy," she says. "You start with a vision of a platform. For a while, you think theres a line ofsight, and then its gone. Theres suddenly a new angle."Within GE, she says, "our traditional teams are too slow. Were not innovating fast enough. We needto systematize change." Comstock connected me with Susan Peters, who oversees GEs executive-development effort. "The pace of change is pretty amazing," Peters says. "Theres a need to be lesshierarchical and to rely more on teams. This has all increased dramatically in the last couple ofyears." Page 5 of 16This Is Generation Flux: Meet The Pioneers Of The New (And Chaotic) Frontier Of Business 12. 3. 14. 오전 12:29 266
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  • 268. Executives at GE are bracing for a new future. The challenge they face is the same one staringdown wide swaths of corporate America, not to mention government, schools, and other institutionsthat have defined how weve lived: These organizations have structures and processes built for anindustrial age, where efficiency is paramount but adaptability is terribly difficult. We are finelytuned at taking a successful idea or product and replicating it on a large scale. But inside theselegacy institutions, changing direction is rough. From classrooms arranged in rows of seats totenured professors, from the assembly line to the way we promote executives, we have been trainedto expect an orderly life. Yet the expectation that these systems provide safety and stability is a trap.This is what Comstock and Peters are battling."The business community focuses on managing uncertainty," says Dev Patnaik, cofounder and CEOof strategy firm Jump Associates, which has advised GE, Target, and PepsiCo, among others."Thats actually a bit of a canard." The true challenge lies elsewhere, he explains: "In anincreasingly turbulent and interconnected world, ambiguity is rising to unprecedented levels. Thatssomething our current systems cant handle. 268
  • 269. "Theres a difference between the kind of problems that companies, institutions, and governmentsare able to solve and the ones that they need to solve," Patnaik continues. "Most big organizationsare good at solving clear but complicated problems. Theyre absolutely horrible at solvingambiguous problems-- when you dont know what you dont know. Faced with ambiguity, theirgears grind to a halt.You dont need to be a jack-of-all-"Uncertainty is when youve defined the variable but dont know its value. Like when you roll a diebut dont know its value. Like when you roll a dietrades to flourish now. But you doand you dont know if it will be a 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6. need to be open-minded. But ambiguity iswhen youre not even sure whatthe variables are. You dont know how many dice are even being rolled or how many sides theyhave or which dice actually count for anything."Businesses that focus on uncertainty, says Patnaik, "actually delude themselves into thinking thatthey have a handle on things. Ah, ambiguity; it can be such a bitch."Be Not AfraidWhats "a bitch" for companies can be terror for individuals. The idea of taking risks, of branchingout into this ambiguous future, is scary at a moment when the economy is in no hurry to emergefrom the doldrums and when unemployment is a national crisis. The security of the 40-year careerof the man in the gray-flannel suit may have been overstated, but at least he had a path, a ladder.The new reality is multiple gigs, some of them supershort (see "The Four-Year Career" [6]), withconstant pressure to learn new things and adapt to new work situations, and no guarantee that youllstay in a single industry. It can be daunting. It can be exhausting. It can also be exhilarating. "Fearholds a lot of people back," says Raina Kumra, 34. "Im skill hoarding. Every time I update myresume, I see the path that I didnt know would be. You keep throwing things into your backpack,and eventually youll have everything in your tool kit."Kumra is sitting in a Dublin hotel, where earlier she spoke on a panel about the future of mobilebefore a group of top chief information officers. She is not technically in the mobile business; nor isshe a software engineer or an academic. She actually works for a federal agency, the BroadcastingBoard of Governors, as codirector of innovation for the group that oversees Voice of America andother government-run international media. How she got there is a classic journey of flux.Kumra started out in film school. She made two documentaries, including one in South America andIndia, and then took a job as a video editor for Scientific American Frontiers. "After each trip toshoot footage," she says, "Id come back and find that the editing tools had all changed." So shedecided to learn computer programming. "I figured I had to get my tech on," says Kumra, whosigned up for New York Universitys Interactive Telecommunications Program. She then movedinto the ad world, doing digital campaigns at BBH, R/GA, and Wieden+Kennedy before launchingher own agency. Along the way she picked up a degree from Harvards design school, taught at theUniversity of Amsterdam, and started a not-for-profit called Light Up Malawi. 269
  • 270. "So many people tell me, I dont know what you do," Kumra says. Its an admission echoed bymany in Generati