This	
  work	
  was	
  carried	
  out	
  with	
  the	
  aid	
  of	
  a	
  grant	
  from	
  the	
  Interna5onal	
  Developm...
Understanding social connections
•  Can	
  we	
  iden5fy	
  communi5es	
  of	
  people	
  using	
  
social	
  connec5ons?	...
Understanding social connections
•  Can	
  we	
  iden5fy	
  communi5es	
  of	
  people	
  using	
  
social	
  connec5ons?	...
What is a community?
•  A	
  community	
  is	
  a	
  group	
  of	
  people	
  who	
  have	
  
stronger	
  intra-­‐group	
 ...
So we asked:
•  Do	
  administra5ve	
  boundaries	
  based	
  on	
  history	
  and	
  
geography	
  reflect	
  actual	
  co...
What are the administrative boundaries
in Sri Lanka?
•  9	
  Provinces	
  
•  25	
  Districts	
  
•  331	
  Divisional	
  ...
What are the administrative boundaries
in Sri Lanka?
•  9	
  Provinces	
  
•  25	
  Districts	
  
•  331	
  Divisional	
  ...
What are the administrative boundaries
in Sri Lanka?
•  9	
  Provinces	
  
•  25	
  Districts	
  
•  331	
  Divisional	
  ...
What are the administrative boundaries
in Sri Lanka?
•  9	
  Provinces	
  
•  25	
  Districts	
  
•  331	
  Divisional	
  ...
Which DSD talks to which DSD?
•  Each	
  link	
  represents	
  
the	
  raw	
  number	
  of	
  
outgoing	
  and	
  
incomin...
A different picture emerges when call
volume is normalized by population
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
●  Strongly	
  connected...
Identifying communities
11
Identifying communities: methodology
•  The	
  social	
  network	
  is	
  segregated	
  such	
  that	
  
overlapping	
  co...
Actual communities found by the
algorithm
●  The	
  communi5es	
  we	
  found	
  are	
  
centered	
  around	
  geographic	...
Actual communities found by the
algorithm
●  Southern	
  and	
  Northern	
  
provinces	
  have	
  the	
  highest	
  
simil...
Actual communities found by the
algorithm
●  Southern	
  and	
  Northern	
  
provinces	
  have	
  the	
  highest	
  
simil...
Zooming into a community
●  Community detection
is done within
identified communities
●  These communities
are less less r...
How communities are connected
	
  
	
  
•  Community	
  consis5ng	
  of	
  Northern	
  province	
  
had	
  the	
  least	
 ...
How communities are connected with
each other
Region Connectedness
(%)
1. Ratnapura, South Kegalle, North Eastern
Colombo ...
Future work
•  Explore	
  the	
  rela5onship	
  between	
  social	
  
network	
  communi5es	
  and	
  their	
  mobility	
 ...
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Understanding social connections

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Mobile network big data is used to explore the social interaction patterns in Sri Lanka

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Understanding social connections

  1. 1. This  work  was  carried  out  with  the  aid  of  a  grant  from  the  Interna5onal  Development  Research  Centre,  O>awa,  Canada.     Understanding  social  connec/ons   Kaushalya  Madhawa,  LIRNEasia   Responsible  use  of  mobile  meta-­‐data  to  support  public  purposes   Jetwing  Lagoon,  Negombo   08  August  2014    
  2. 2. Understanding social connections •  Can  we  iden5fy  communi5es  of  people  using   social  connec5ons?   •  Do  communica5on  pa>erns  reveal  the  socio-­‐ economic  status  of  a  popula5on?   •  Are  people’s  communica5on  and  mobility   pa>erns  co-­‐related?   1
  3. 3. Understanding social connections •  Can  we  iden5fy  communi5es  of  people  using   social  connec5ons?   •  Do  communica5on  pa>erns  reveal  the  socio-­‐ economic  status  of  a  popula5on?   •  Are  people’s  communica5on  and  mobility   pa>erns  co-­‐related?   2
  4. 4. What is a community? •  A  community  is  a  group  of  people  who  have   stronger  intra-­‐group  connec5ons  than  inter-­‐group   connec5ons   3
  5. 5. So we asked: •  Do  administra5ve  boundaries  based  on  history  and   geography  reflect  actual  communi5es  in  2014?   •  How  can  mobile  network  big  data  be  used  to   iden5fy  these  actual  communi5es?   4
  6. 6. What are the administrative boundaries in Sri Lanka? •  9  Provinces   •  25  Districts   •  331  Divisional   Secretariat   Divisions  (DSD)   •  14021  Grama   Niladhari  Divisions   (GND)     5
  7. 7. What are the administrative boundaries in Sri Lanka? •  9  Provinces   •  25  Districts   •  331  Divisional   Secretariat   Divisions  (DSD)   •  14021  Grama   Niladhari  Divisions   (GND)     6
  8. 8. What are the administrative boundaries in Sri Lanka? •  9  Provinces   •  25  Districts   •  331  Divisional   Secretariat   Divisions  (DSD)   •  14021  Grama   Niladhari  Divisions   (GND)   7
  9. 9. What are the administrative boundaries in Sri Lanka? •  9  Provinces   •  25  Districts   •  331  Divisional   Secretariat   Divisions  (DSD)   •  14021  Grama   Niladhari  Divisions   (GND)     8
  10. 10. Which DSD talks to which DSD? •  Each  link  represents   the  raw  number  of   outgoing  and   incoming  calls   between  two  DSDs         No. of calls Low High 9
  11. 11. A different picture emerges when call volume is normalized by population           ●  Strongly  connected   components  are  visible       No. of calls Low High 10
  12. 12. Identifying communities 11
  13. 13. Identifying communities: methodology •  The  social  network  is  segregated  such  that   overlapping  connec5ons  between   communi5es  are  minimized.   •  Strength  of  a  community  is  determined  by   modularity   •  Modularity  Q              =      (edges  inside  the  community)  –          (expected  number  of  edges  inside  the  community)             M.  E.  J.-­‐Newman,  Michele-­‐Girvan,  “Finding  and  evalua5ng  community  structure  in  networks”,  Physical  Review  E,  APS,  Vol.  69,  No.  2,  p.  1-­‐16,  204.       12
  14. 14. Actual communities found by the algorithm ●  The  communi5es  we  found  are   centered  around  geographic   neighbourhoods.     ●  For  Sri  Lanka,  the  op5mal   number  of  communi5es   discovered  by  the  algorithm   was  11       13
  15. 15. Actual communities found by the algorithm ●  Southern  and  Northern   provinces  have  the  highest   similarity  to  their  respec5ve   provincial  boundaries.     ●  Colombo  district  is  clustered  as   a  single  community  and   Gampaha  is  merged  with  North   Western  Province   14
  16. 16. Actual communities found by the algorithm ●  Southern  and  Northern   provinces  have  the  highest   similarity  to  their  respec5ve   provincial  boundaries.     ●  Colombo  district  is  clustered  as   a  single  community  and   Gampaha  is  merged  with  North   Western  Province   15
  17. 17. Zooming into a community ●  Community detection is done within identified communities ●  These communities are less less related to DSD boundaries in Colombo district 16
  18. 18. How communities are connected     •  Community  consis5ng  of  Northern  province   had  the  least  connectedness  with  other   communi5es.   •  Community  consis5ng  of  Ratnapura  district   and  a  part  of  Kegalle  is  the  most  connected   community.   17
  19. 19. How communities are connected with each other Region Connectedness (%) 1. Ratnapura, South Kegalle, North Eastern Colombo 74 2.Badulla, Monaragala 71 3. Anuradhapura, East Kurunegala, North Matale 71 4.Kalutara 70 5. Gampaha, Puttalam, West Kurunegala 65 6.Trincomalee 65 7.Kandy, Nuwara Eliya, North Kegalle, South Matale 63 8.Colombo without North Eastern part belongs that now belongs to 1 63 9. Galle, Matara, Hambantota 62 10. Batticaloa, Polonnaruwa, Ampara 60 11. Jaffna, Kilinochchi, Mannar, Mullaitivu 56 11 10 9 7 8 6 1 2 3 4 5 connectednesswithothercommunities Low High 18
  20. 20. Future work •  Explore  the  rela5onship  between  social   network  communi5es  and  their  mobility   profiles   •  Understand  the  distribu5on  of  socio-­‐ economic  status  within  communi5es   19
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