Tampere Wear Center & Research equipment 2014


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Tampere Wear Center (TWC) concentrates on both scientific and practical aspects of wear and tribology, trying to bridge the gap between scientific basic research and applied industrial research and product development. The aim of TWC is to provide in-depth insight into the mechanisms of wear and thereby facilitate the development of new wear resistant materials and to find solutions to the practical wear problems constantly faced by the industry.

TWC has excellent infrastructure for wear and tribology research, as well as highly qualified scientists and research engineers for the needs of both long-term scientific research and product development for the industry. TWC conducts research in close collaboration with several internationally recognized partners.

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Tampere Wear Center & Research equipment 2014

  1. 1. Tampere Wear Center & Research Equipment Kati Valtonen Project Manager Tampere University of Technology Department of Materials Science Tampere Wear Center
  2. 2. Tampere University of Technology (TUT) – At the Leading Edge • Established in 1965 • Started operating in the form of a foundation in 2010 • 9,900 students (2013) • Collaborates with 230 universities around the world • Quality assurance system audited by The Finnish Higher Education Evaluation Council in 2014
  3. 3. Department of Materials Science Internationally high-level know-how on all materials based on strong interdisciplinary basic research
  4. 4. Department of Materials Science • The only higher education unit in Finland covering all material groups – Personnel about 160, 11 professors, Head of the Department Prof. Erkki Levänen – Over 900 M.Sc. (Eng.), 80 Lic.Tech., and 60 Ph.D. thesis and more than 6000 publications since 1969 – International Degree Programme in Materials Science • High-level basic research of the structure, properties, processing, and use of materials – Researcher with knowledge of and expertise in all groups of materials – Versatile and up-to-date research and testing equipment • Strong collaboration with industry and academic units – Research funding comes mainly from industry, SHOKs, Tekes, Academy of Finland, and the EU • Networks internationally and participates in international research projects – scientific collaboration and research exchange
  5. 5. Tampere Wear Center - TWC
  6. 6. Tampere Wear Center - TWC • Concentrates on both scientific and practical aspects of wear and tribology • Strengthens research in the field of wear and tribology of materials • Networks internationally • Develops wear-related problem-solving services for industry • Versatile and up-to-date research and testing equipment • Researchers with knowledge and expertise on all groups of materials • Numerical contact modeling and experimental verification of the models • Special expertise areas heavy abrasion, impact wear, fretting and tribology of machine elements, such as gears, bearings, brakes, seals, and frictional joints
  7. 7. TWC – Wear Research • TWC has excellent infrastructure for wear research, as well as highly qualified scientists and research engineers for the needs of both long- term scientific research and product development for the industry • Wear research is conducted in close collaboration with several internationally recognized partners, such as the National Research Council of Canada (NRC), the Austrian Excellence Center for Tribology (AC2T), VITO, TEKNIKER, the University of Sheffield, the University of Southampton, the University of Manchester, Luleå University of Technology, and Tallinn University of Technology. Of these, NRC, AC2T and the University of Southampton have also been recently targets of research exchange. • One example of TWC’s international activities is the recently founded Nordic Hard Rock Tribology Network, RockTrib, embracing several key research institutes in the field of hard rock tribology in Nordic countries, including Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), SINTEF, Luleå University of Technology, Uppsala University, Dalarna University, and VTT.
  8. 8. TWC projects 1/2 • FIMECC BSA: Design beyond present codes – Optimization, prediction and design guidelines for improved wear life of novel steels and metallic multimaterials – Surface fatigue and extreme load carrying capacity of gears • FIMECC HYBRIDS: Multifunctional thick coatings and composites – Metallic coatings for process environments – Multifunctional MMC coatings – Low-friction coatings – Abrasive coatings – Damage-tolerant ductile ceramic coatings – Thick ceramic coatings / bulk linings – Corrosion resistant coatings/structures against acidic liquid environments • FIMECC HYBRIDS: Polymeric multifunctional sliding materials – Oil free sliding, rolling, and flow contacts – Lubricated sliding bearings and fixed connected surfaces • FIMECC BSA & HYBRIDS: Fundamentals and modelling
  9. 9. TWC projects 2/2 • FIMECC DEMAPP: Wear resistant materials and solutions – Characterization and development of the microstructure, properties and performance of wear resistant materials for selected environments – Modeling and simulation of wear processes – Novel coating processes for wear protection – Friction and wear of polymers • FIMECC DEMAPP: Friction and energy – High friction low wear contacts – Low friction in process environment • FIMECC LIGHT: Low density materials – Slurry-erosion testing of GFRP laminates – Dynamically loaded wear resistant steel- polymer hybrids • Research services for industry and other units
  10. 10. Research equipment • Wear testing: Pin-on-disk/Ball-on-disk, Crushing pin-on-disk, Uniaxial crusher, Dual pivoted jaw crusher, Impeller-tumbler, Erosion tester, High- speed slurry-pot type erosion tester, Cavitation erosion tester, High velocity particle impactor, Ball-on-block, Hammer mill, High-speed sliding test rig, Single disc refiner, Pin-on-plate, Biomaterial crusher, Block-on-ring, Rubber wheel abrasion testers, etc. • Tribology and machine elements test rigs: Test rigs for journal, thrust, and rolling bearings, FZG, Twin-disc test rig, Fretting wear and fatigue test rigs, Vibration Testing, etc. • Electron microscopes (UHR FEG-SEM, TEM) • Hopkinson Split Bar • Digital image correlation system • Mechanical testing • Thermal spraying • Other equipment
  11. 11. CETR UMT-2 Pin/Ball-on-disk Commercial Pin-on-disk / Ball-on-disk equipment; fulfills ASTM G99 –95a standard Elevated-Temperature Chamber: • Temperature: -20-350°C • Revolve disk speed: 0.1 - 1000 rpm • Max. disk size: 70 mm • Standard specimens: •Pins: Diameter of 6.35 and 10 mm •Balls: Diameter of 6.35 and 9.5 mm • Humidity/Gases Chamber (no controls) • Possibility to use lubricants • Humidity control: 5-95%RH High-Temperature Chamber: • Temperature up to 1000°C • Revolve disk speed: 0.1 - 1000 rpm • Max. disc size: 50 mm • Standard specimens: •Pins: Diameter of 6.35 and 10 mm •Balls: Diameter of 6.35 and 9.5 mm
  12. 12. Crushing Pin-on-disk • Pin is repeatedly pressed against the gravel bed and the disk with a pneumatic cylinder (200-500N) • Pin does not come into direct contact with the disk at any time ® wear of the components due to abrasive ploughing and cutting on the pin and disk surfaces • During the test, the abrasive size decreases at different rates, depending on the pin-disk combination. • Simulates cone or jaw crusher Disk: * Diameter of 160 mm * Thickness of 2-155 mm * Rotating velocity control Specimen: * Diameter of 36 mm * Height of 35 mm * Flat area 1000 mm²
  13. 13. Uniaxial Crusher • The equipment crushes the abrasive uniaxially between two specimens with a high pressure • Controlled amount of the abrasive • Simulates a mineral crusher • Specimen: area of 1000mm², height of 35 mm and diameter of 36 mm • Impacts with the hydraulic cylinder: • 6 bar (max) 86 kN • 5 bar 69 kN • 4 bar 53 kN • 3 bar 39 kN • 2 bar 23 kN
  14. 14. Dual pivoted jaw crusher • A novel reduced-size laboratory scale jaw crusher for studying the mechanisms of abrasive wear during mineral crushing – Replaces/complements the standardized test ASTM G 81-83 • Key design features: – control of jaw movement without changing the test geometry, enabling accurate control of the compression-sliding ratio – versatile instrumentation for monitoring the wear processes, including piezoelectric force sensors, high speed video systems, etc. • Specimen – small jaw plate size 75*25*10 mm concentrates the abrasion to a small area – abrasive particle size 6-14 mm
  15. 15. Impeller-tumbler impact- abrasive wear tester • During the test, an impeller rotates inside a rotating tumbler filled with gravel. Three samples are attached to the impeller. As the impeller and the tumbler rotate, gravel moves inside the tumbler and impacts on the specimens. • Impeller rotating speed up to 700 rpm • Tumbler rotating speed up to 120 rpm • Specimen: 75*25*10 mm • Variables: gravel size distribution, type, and amount
  16. 16. High-speed slurry-pot type erosion tester • Testing of wear resistant materials for mining and dredging pumps • Testing of mineral abrasivity in slurry or in dry conditions • Specimens: – Profile: round or square – Thickness 18.5 mm / 15 mm – Length 65.5 mm from shaft • Slurry: – Up to 10 l of water – Abrasive size 0-10 mm – Selectable amount of abrasive • Shaft: – Diameter 60 mm – Rotation speed up to 2000 rpm – Specimen tip speed up to 20 m/s
  17. 17. Erosion tester Wear testing of materials and coatings at room temperature with centrifugal accelerator • Impact angle: 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, or 90° • Impact velocity: 0-80 m/s • Abrasive typically quartz • Abrasive size: up to 1 mm • Sample size: 20*15 mm, thickness 5 mm • Samples quantity: up to 15 samples
  18. 18. Test Method for Cavitation Erosion Using Vibratory Apparatus • Standard test ASTM G32-10 • Vibra-Cell VCX-500 ultrasonic processor – Allows process control and monitoring from 1°C to 100°C Replacable Ti-6Al-4V tip for cavitation testing. Test parameters Frequency 20 kHz Amplitude 50 μm Distance to sample 0.6±0.1 mm Water temperature 25±1 °C Tip diameter 13 mm
  19. 19. High Velocity Particle Impactor • Barrel diameter: 9 mm • Shooting distance: 0.5...1.5 m • Pressure system: pressurized air up to 16 bar • Video recording: high speed camera NAC MEMRECAM up to 80 000 fps • Light system: up to 4 500 W Trap wall Target assembly Speed measurement device Smooth bore Pressure control Pressurized air tank Specimen • Projectiles: e.g. metallic or ceramic ball bearing balls, cylinders, bullets, rocks, … • Projectile’s speed: 30…200 m/s • Target’s angular position: 0°...90° • Developed for the model verification
  20. 20. Ball-On-Block Impact Wear Testing Device • Ball-on-block is a high-energy impact wear testing device that produces repeatedly high-energy impacts to the surface of the specimen • Impacts are created by shooting a ball to the specimen using a pneumatic cylinder • Simulates wear on a SAG-mill • Ball: – mass 8 kg and diameter 125 mm – Impact velocity 8-12 m/s (Ek = 256 J – 576 J) – material for example tempering steel • Specimen: – size 200x200x75 mm or 200x200x50 mm – various materials tested such as steels, rubbers, metal matrix composites, hard metals
  21. 21. Hammer-mill Type Impact Wear Testing Device • Two rotating hammers • The abrasive is fed between the hammer and the specimen from a container through a feeder tube • Hammers: – Speed: 5,1-9,0 m/s – Impact energy: 21,9-66,9 – Typical speed 7 m/s and impact energy 50 J • Specimen: – 80mm x 80mm – 250mm x 250mm – Thickness 15-45mm
  22. 22. High-speed sliding test rig • Simulates the high-speed sliding conditions in modern paper- making processes • Up to four samples can be tested at once • Slurry composition adjustable • Automated slurry level adjustment and several self- monitoring features ® test runs can be set up to run for days • Wear rates are lower than those provided by the ASTM G 65 standard test
  23. 23. Biomaterial crusher • Biomaterial crusher is used to test the wear of cutting blades. The equipment will be used in field tests. • Biomaterial crusher is fed from the top with belt conveyor • Feeding to cutting blades with hydraulic press • The 14 blades can be changed one by one • Crusher is controlled with programmable logic • The capasity of the crusher is about one cubic meter of biomaterial in one hour
  24. 24. Surface fatigue wear • Attached to MTS • Holder moves after every step • Intender ball or spike
  25. 25. Other wear equipment Dry Sand Rubber Wheel Abrasion Testing Device Slurry Abrasion Testing Device Block-on-Ring
  26. 26. Tribology and machine elements test rigs • Journal bearing test rig • Thrust bearing test rig • Gears and lubricants (FZG) test device • Test environment for power transmission components like gearbox, 100 kW • Rolling bearing test rig • High pressure twin-disc test rig • Fretting wear and fatigue test rig – sphere-on-plane contact • Fretting wear and fatigue test rig – complete contact • Advanced vibration and noise instruments • Tribology equipments – Optical profiler – Viskometer – Microscopes – Ferrography – Pin-on-disc test device
  27. 27. Journal bearing test rig Contacts: Juha Miettinen, juha.s.miettinen@tut.fi Arto Lehtovaara, arto.lehtovaara@tut.fi Test bearings and acting forces Test targets – evaluation of bearing performance - friction, power loss - failure modes, life - lubricants, lubrication condition - temperatures, fluid film pressures - bearing materials and configurations Specifications: - sliding speed 0.05 … 16 m/s - projected pressure 0 … 15 MPa - oil temperature, pressure and flow controls - shaft misalignment control - no support bearings
  28. 28. Thrust bearing test rig Test targets: evaluation of thrust bearing performance - friction and power loss - load capasity - bearing materials and configurations - failure modes Specifications: - rotating speed 0 – 2000 rpm - external lubrication unit with oil filtering and temperature, flow and pressure control Contacts: Juha Miettinen, juha.s.miettinen@tut.fi Arto Lehtovaara, arto.lehtovaara@tut.fi
  29. 29. Test targets: testing gear contact and lubrication properties - friction and power loss - durability testing - failure mechanisms, pitting, scuffing - vibration and noise diagnostics Specifications: - closed loop type rig - loading torque 0 ... 1000 Nm - rotating speed 0 ... 3000 rpm - external lubrication unit with oil filtering and temperature, flow and pressure control Contacts: Juha Miettinen, juha.s.miettinen@tut.fi Arto Lehtovaara, arto.lehtovaara@tut.fi FZG Gear test rig
  30. 30. Test targets: performance and durability tests of different power transmission components - lubrication condition - failure mechanisms - prototype testing - vibration and noise diagnostics Specifications: - generator brake type rig - isolated concrete foundation - machine rail floor allows installation changes - noise isolated test room - max. power transmission 100 kW - rotating speed 0 ... 2400 rpm Contacts: Juha Miettinen, juha.s.miettinen@tut.fi Arto Lehtovaara, arto.lehtovaara@tut.fi Power transmission test rig Versatile measurement possibilities
  31. 31. Roller bearing test rig Test targets: evaluation of roller bearing performance - friction and power loss - lubricants, lubrication condition Specifications - bearing outer diameter 90 mm - normal and axial loading - oil (bath) temperature control or - external lubrication unit with oil filtering and temperature, flow and pressure control Contacts: Juha Miettinen, juha.s.miettinen@tut.fi Arto Lehtovaara, arto.lehtovaara@tut.fi
  32. 32. Test targets: gear and rolling/sliding contact testing - contact friction - fatigue durability - lubrication condition Specifications: - adjustable elliptical rolling/sliding contact - contact pressure 0 ... 2.5 GPa - static and dynamic loading - disc grinding transversal - automated operation and sequence - advanced instrumentation - contact resistance measurement Contacts: Juha Miettinen, juha.s.miettinen@tut.fi Arto Lehtovaara, arto.lehtovaara@tut.fi Twin-Disc test rig
  33. 33. Test targets: fretting in complete contacts (i.e. ’sharp-ended’ flat-on-flat type contacts) - fretting and plain fatigue S-N curves - fretting wear Specifications: - large contact 200 mm2 - nominal contact pressure 0 … 200 MPa - fully reversing or fluctuating bending loading - frequency 0 … 50 Hz - automated operation (unoccupied testing) Contacts: Janne Juoksukangas, janne.juoksukangas@tut.fi Arto Lehtovaara, arto.lehtovaara@tut.fi Complete contact fretting test rig
  34. 34. Sphere on plane fretting test rig Test targets: Fretting experimentation with Hertzian point contact - fretting fatigue - fretting wear - friction - partial and gross sliding conditions. Specifications: Large contact radius: 0.2 … 0.5 m Loading frequency: 40 Hz Normal force: 500…3300 N Displacement amplitude: 5…60 µm Contacts: Jouko Hintikka, jouko.hintikka@tut.fi Arto Lehtovaara, arto.lehtovaara@tut.fi
  35. 35. Contacts: Juha Miettinen, juha.s.miettinen@tut.fi Arto Lehtovaara, arto.lehtovaara@tut.fi Vibration Testing • Vibration equipment for monitoring, diagnostics and testing • Industrial and laboratory applications • LMS system for machinery vibration and modal testing • IMC data acquisition systems • B&K and LDS shakers • Versatile sensors for different purposes • Strain gage equipment, wireless • Acoustic emission vibration and sound equipment • Versatile analysis software
  36. 36. Scanning Electron Microscope Zeiss ULTRAplus • Ultra high resolution field emission SEM • Detectors: inlens SE, EsB, AsB, Everhart Thornley SE, and STEM • Resolution 1.0 nm@15 kV and 1.7 nm@1 kV • Accelerating voltage 100 V - 30 kV; beam current up to 40 nA • Charge compensator for non-conductive samples • INCAx-act Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (EDS) • HKL Premium-F Channel EBSD system with ultrafast Nordlys F400 detector • SIS Scandium image analysis and processing software • K1050XT RF Turbo plasma asher
  37. 37. Analytical Transmission Electron Microscope Jeol JEM 2010 Analytical Transmission Electon Microscope (TEM) is equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) and digital camera system. This microscope is used primarly for studing the structure and chemistry of materials at high spatial resolution. • LaB6 electron source • Point resolution 0.23 nm • ± 30° of eucentric specimen tilt • convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) and selected area diffraction (SAED) NORAN VANTAGE Energy Dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) with Si(Li) detector GATAN ORIUS SC600 digital camera system • 7 megapixel CCD sensor • Peltier cooling
  38. 38. Characterization of wear • Optical and stereo microscopes • Retsch AS 200 analytical sieve shaker • Precica XB4400 ja XT1220 weighers • Veeco WYKO NT1100 optical profilometer
  39. 39. Hopkinson Split Bar, HSB • Based on the propagation of elastic waves in slender bars • Type of loading: Compression, tension, or shear. • Duration of the loading pulse [µs]: 50 - 600 • Strain rate range [s-1]: 2·102 - 104 • Loading range [kN]: 0 - 250 • Temperature range [°C]: -190 - 1000
  40. 40. High rate abrasion with HSB
  41. 41. High Speed Video Systems • Cordin 535-16 • High Resolution Rotating Mirror CCD Framing Camera System. • Number of Frames: 16 • Maximum framing Rate: 1 million • Minimum Interframe time: 1.0 us • Minimum Exposure Time: 800 ns • Resolution: 1000 x 1000 pixels • Pixel size: 7.4 x 7.4 mm • Dynamic Range: 10 bit Memrecam fx K5 • Provides ultra high light sensitivity, ultra high speed and mega pixel resolution • Megapixel Sensor • Frame rates up to 168,000fps • Ultra-High Light Sensitivity— ISO 5,000 Colour & 32,000 Monochrome • 1280 x 1024 resolution
  42. 42. 3D Digital Image Correlation Systems Two independent LaVision StrainMaster 3D DIC systems that can be operated independently. Low rate system • 2 cameras: Imager E-Lite 5MPix CCD cameras. – 12bit images, 12 fps at full resolution • Additional Zeiss Discovery v.8 stereo microscope with horizontal mounting system High rate system • 2 Cameras: Photron SA-X2 – 12 bit images, 1MPix maximum resolution. 12.500 fps at max.res. Higher fps at reduced resolution,e.g. 200kHz at 256*152. – 16GB of internal memory, recording time around 0.7 to 10 seconds depending on the resolution and fps • A rigid mounting system for the cameras and lights and high speed trigger unit
  43. 43. Thermal spraying at TUT • Plasma spraying (Plasmatechnic A3000) • Arc spraying (Sulzer Metco 6RC) • Wire flame spraying (Sulzer Metco 12E) • Powder flame spraying (Sulzer Metco 6P-II and Castolin DS 8000) • Detonation spraying (Perun P D-gun) • High velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) spraying (Sulzer Metco DJ Standard and DJ Hybrid) • High velocity air fuel (HVAF) spraying (Uniquecoat Technologies M3 Supersonic Spray Gun) • Low-pressure cold spraying (Dymet 304K) • High-pressure cold spraying (CGT Kinetiks 3000) Spraying method Process temperature (°C) Particle velocity (m/s) Plasma 12000 200 - 400 Arc 4000 100 Flame 3000 40 Detonation 4000 900 HVOF 3000 800 Cold 25 - 800 550 - 1200FLAME PLASMA HVOF ARC
  44. 44. SETEC 14 SAMPE Europe Technical Conference & Table Top Exhibition 10.-11.9.2014 Vapriikki, Tampere Scientific conference for Smart and functional textiles, Well-Being, Thermal comfort in clothing, Design, Thermal Manikins and Modelling 7.-9.9.2014 Tampere Hall, Tampere www.tut.fi/mol NORDTRIB 2016 14.-17.6.2016 Aulanko, Hämeenlinna, Finland
  45. 45. Tampere University of Technology Department of Materials Science Tampere Wear Center www.tut.fi/mol www.tut.fi/twc