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Eric MacDonald - 3D Printing of Multi-Functional Structures

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Eric MacDonald - 3D Printing of Multi-Functional Structures

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Eric MacDonald - 3D Printing of Multi-Functional Structures

  1. 1. Progress in 3D Printed Multi-functionality Eric MacDonald, PhD PE Friedman Chair for Manufacturing, Youngstown State University Associate Director, W. M. Keck Center for 3D Innovation, UTEP
  2. 2. Outline
  3. 3. London Museum of Science and Manchester Museum of Industry in exhibit 3D Printed Gun from University of Texas Law Student (confiscated) 3D Printed Satellite from UTEP / UNM COSMIAC Intro: 3D Printing in International Spot Light
  4. 4. Intro: ASTM F42 Categories ■  Vat Photopolymerization ■  Material Extrusion ■  Powder Bed Fusion ■  Material Jetting ■  Binder Jetting ■  Sheet Lamination ■  Directed Energy Deposition AM Technologies Available within the UTEP Keck Center Major Research in Multifunctional 3D Processes and Applications Major research in Arcam EBM Investing in Lasers – SLM, Aconity Recent investment in Binder jetting ExOne – ceramics, metals, RF
  5. 5. Intro: ASTM F42 Categories ■  Vat Photopolymerization ■  Material Extrusion ■  Powder Bed Fusion ■  Material Jetting ■  Binder Jetting ■  Sheet Lamination ■  Directed Energy Deposition AM at YSU and the America Makes Innovation Factory Youngstown, OH Research focus on smart tooling, sand casting, computer vision for closed loop control, metal repair,. Starting 3D printed electronics.
  6. 6. Intro: Vat Photopolymerization ■  AM process with a vat of photocurable polymer cured selectively by laser or projector. ■  Benefits •  Surface finish •  Resolution (75 microns) •  uSL (5 microns) •  Ambient processing ■  Issues •  Materials limitations •  Post cleaning
  7. 7. Intro: Materials Extrusion ■  AM process that selectively extrudes a thermoplasitc ■  Based on Stratasys FDM patents (expired patent –> proliferation) •  Most popular ■  Benefits •  Office friendly •  DIY community •  Large volume ■  Issues •  Resolution •  Surface finish •  Z axis anisotropy
  8. 8. Intro: Powder Bed Fusion ■  AM process where thermal energy selectively melts/sinters the top surface of a powder bed. ■  SLS, SLM, DMLS, EBM •  Polymers, metals & ceramics ■  Benefits •  Multiple materials (metals, nylon) •  Strength •  Fully dense ■  Issues •  Wasted powder •  Powders processing
  9. 9. Intro: Materials Jetting ■  AM process in which photocurable material is inkjetting and immediately cured with a UV lamp •  Wax or Photopolymers •  Multiple nozzles •  Single nozzles ■  Benefits •  Multiple colored materials •  Ink jet resolution ■  Issues •  Materials limitations
  10. 10. Intro: Binder Jetting ■  AM process depositing binder with inkjetting onto a powder bed and thermally cured – often infiltrated for full density. ■  Zcorp (Dead) •  ExOne •  Voxeljet •  HP Fusionjet ? ■  Benefits •  Multiple colors per layer •  Wide range of materials ■  Issues •  Post furnace cycle •  Strength (Z Corp)
  11. 11. Intro: Sheet Lamination ■  AM process in which laminate material is bonded and selectively removed •  Paper – glue •  Plastic – glue / heat •  Metal – UC welding ■  Benefits •  Materials choices –  Aluminum (UC) •  Strength (UC) ■  Issues •  Waste •  Additional steps
  12. 12. Intro: Directed Energy Deposition ■  AM process in which material and energy are applied coincidently to the layer. ■  Benefits •  Feature addition and repair •  Wire & Powder Materials •  Lasers & Electron Beams ■  Optomec LENS – –  Good resolution but slower ■  Sciaky –  Large build (19’x4’x4’) –  Fast (20 Lbs / hour) –  Lower resolution ■  Ambit
  13. 13. UTEP closer to San Diego than Houston YSU < six hours from NYC, Chicago, Pitt, Cleveland, DC, Philly Intro: Where are El Paso and Youngstown?
  14. 14. •  Founded in 2000 – 13,000 sq. ft. facility with over 50 3D printers •  R&D projects with over 100 industrial clients and ten federal agencies •  More than 50 student researchers and seven full-time staff •  Broad and expanding patent portfolio •  Everything we do uses 3D printing technologies 14 Intro: UTEP’s Keck Center
  15. 15. •  Founded in 2000 – 13,000 sq. ft. facility with over 50 3D printers •  R&D projects with over 100 industrial clients and ten federal agencies •  More than 50 student researchers and seven full-time staff •  Broad and expanding patent portfolio •  Everything we do uses 3D printing technologies 15 Intro: YSU’s CIAM Center
  16. 16. Intro: 3D Printing in International Spot Light http://www.journals.elsevier.com/additive-manufacturing/ ■  Ryan Wicker Editor in Chief ■  Eric MacDonald, Deputy Editor ■  Mireya Perez, Managing Editor ■  Introducing fast-publication, science-based, peer-reviewed journal for academia / industry ■  Inaugural issue in Summer 2014 ■  Topics: •  Design and Modeling •  AM processes and process enhancement •  Multiple and novel materials •  Special applications with multi-functionality
  17. 17. Materials: Twin Screw Extruder Matrix Material Additives Extruder Unit Extruded Composites 3D Printed Structures 3D Printer Extrude thermoplastic feedstock (3D printer specialty ink): • Increase Material Strength, Hardness, Flexibility, Stretchability • Optimize Permittivity / Permeability • Increase Thermal Conductivity • Improve Radiation Shielding •  Tungsten impregnation •  High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)
  18. 18. Materials: Heavy Metal Composites •  Tungsten powder in Polycarbonate –  Trade-off between: •  Weight •  Strength •  Thermal / electrical conductivity •  Radiation attenuation –  3D printed geometries for shielding –  Optimize unused volume for protection Radiation shielding
  19. 19. Additives Permittivity Extruded CaTiO3 165 Yes SrTiO3 233 Yes TiO2, anatase 48 Yes TiO2, rutile 114 Yes NaCl 5.9 Yes Fe3O4 Permeability Yes Tungsten Rad. Shield Yes Zeonex Low Loss Yes Extrusion of E&M Polycarbonate Goals: Radiation Shielding Low Loss Antennas Electrically Large Antennas Electromechanical Devices Materials: RF and Magnetic Materials
  20. 20. Materials: Flexibility / Stretchability •  UTEP Proprietary Polymer Blend –  ABS/SEBS Blend –  Tunable strain –  Wires embed structurally ABS Grade MG94 blended with Kraton SEBS-g-MA. Tunable strain from 3.32 ± 0.7 % to 1506.57 ± 90.1%
  21. 21. Complementary Manufacturing 3D Printing for Dielectric Structures Enhanced thermoplastics Technology: 3D Printed Electronics In low Earth Orbit Ceramics Photo- polymers wires dispensing machining lasers motorsconformal 3d sensors 3d sensors Satellites
  22. 22. Technology: Ultra sonic / thermal embedding
  23. 23. copper wire 3D printed thermoplastic substrate Laser Micro-Welding Technology: Replacing Conductive Inks Replace inks with bulk copper: -  High conductivity -  Good density (80 micron wires) -  Low cost relative to silver inks -  Laser welding for connections 100 microns
  24. 24. anvil double-sided tape ABS substrate metal mesh polyimide film vertically oscillating horn scanning direction 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 AverageYieldStrength(MPa) Theoretical Actual Technology: Serendipitous enhancements Mechanical reinforcement: -  Essentially a composite -  Structurally integrated wires -  Improving anisotropy
  25. 25. Technology: Milled Foils for Intricate Patterns 0.075” 0.080” 0.020” 0.125”35 micron thick copper foil is equivalent to PCB plating. Smooth surface is well-suited for RF apps at high frequency.
  26. 26. Technology: Original Multi3D Manufacturing
  27. 27. Technology: Independent Wire Embedding •  Lockheed Martin / Wolf Robotics Factory of the Future •  Point wise Composition Control •  “Borrowing” UTEP Wire Embedding •  Displayed at Defense Manufacturing Conference Exhibition 600 micron diameter copper wire
  28. 28. Technology: Next Gen Multi3D Foil  applica)on  will  milling   •  Consolidated  single  gantry  fabrica)on  system.   •  Tool  exchanger     •  Five  degrees  of  freedom   •  200  °C  Build  Chamber   •  Full  opera)on  on  schedule  for  Oct  16   Pellet  fed  extrusion  /  tool    exchange   Wire   embedding  
  29. 29. Technology: Big Area AM (BAAM) with Multi3D Grant  for  Integra)ng  hybrid  wire  embedding  into  Oak  Ridge  technology   Base  fabrica)on  born  from  Oak  Ridge   and  LMC.   Commercialized  by  Cincinna),  Inc  and  car   design  and  fabrica)on  by  Local  Motors,  Inc    
  30. 30. Demonstrations: Conformal Electronics
  31. 31. Demonstrations: Satellite Electronics To avoid this wiring clutter… Wiring bus in structure Bus connector Solar panels in walls
  32. 32. Demonstrations: 3D Printed Propulsion •  Busek Pulsed Plasma Thrusters •  requiring high voltage (1-10kV) •  non-toxic Teflon propellant •  Dielectric strength and leakage testing •  Propulsion (micro-newton) testing at Glenn NASA. Propulsion Test Plate
  33. 33. Demonstrations: 3D Printed Thermal Mgmt Textured Radiator intended for space applications 3D Printed Graphite
  34. 34. 34 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 30− 20− 10− 0 Attached Balun Mesh Balun Embedded Balun Spiral Iteration 2 Return Loss Frequency [GHz] S11[dB] -90 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 -18 -16 -14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 Azimuth (degrees) NormalizedMagnitude(dB) Radiation Pattern Archimedian Spiral - Embedded Balun (f = 2.3 GHz) LHCP RHCP -90 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 -22 -20 -18 -16 -14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 Azimuth (degrees) NormalizedMagnitude(dB) Radiation Pattern Archimedian Spiral - Attached Balun (f = 2.3 GHz) LHCP RHCP -90 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 -14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 Azimuth (degrees) NormalizedMagnitude(dB) Radiation Pattern Archimedian Spiral - Mesh Balun (f = 2.3 GHz) LHCP RHCP Demonstrations: Archimedes Antenna Results
  35. 35. Demonstrations: Conformal Patch Antennas Again,  Patch  A  was  designed  for  5.85  GHz,  and  Patch  B  for  5.65   GHz  with  no  fringing  factor.     Measurement   showed   the   actual   resonances   to   occur   at   6.27   GHz  and  6.18  GHz  although  the  S11  curve  was  much  higher  as   compared  to  the  foil  patches.   A B 5 5.2 5.4 5.6 5.8 6 6.2 6.4 6.6 6.8 7 7.2 7.4 7.6 7.8 8 8.2 8.4 8.6 8.8 9 30− 20− 10− 0 Mesh Patch A Mesh Patch B Conformal Mesh Patch Antennas Frequency [GHz] S11[dB]
  36. 36. Demonstrations: 3D Printed UAVs
  37. 37. Demonstrations: 3D Printed Motor
  38. 38. Computer Vision: Defects Easily Identified Precise geometric data is captured from image for comparison against GCODE and CAD.
  39. 39. Computer Vision: Fourier Analysis Frequency content describes roughness of surfaces or uniformity of powder. Smooth Surfaces Rough Surfaces 2D Freq Spectrum
  40. 40. Computer Vision: Video Feature Tracking Tracking of heads, tips, salient process features.
  41. 41. Computer Vision: Electron Beam Tracking Geographical data collected from real time in IR video of electron beam melting of one layer of a cylinder in an evacuated build chamber. Detecting difference from frame to frame. Fumes causing false detections but easily filtered. Identical video with persistent dots. 4X speed.
  42. 42. Computer Vision: Thermographic Evaluation Open Source computer vision, one image per layer. Standard camera and $200 FLIR Lepton camera. Tool path modified to hide “hot” extruder after each layer.
  43. 43. 2D side profiling with high resolution geometry verification. Computer Vision: Geometric Verification
  44. 44. Computer Vision: Debris Detection
  45. 45. Precise pixel-level measurement of existing layers during print. Virtual and dynamic calipers. Three layers are monitored for width changes during subsequent layers Computer Vision: Layer Width Measurement
  46. 46. Conclusion: Campus Architecture Inspired by a 1916 National Geographic photo essay of the Kingdom of Bhutan Buddhist Himalayan Architecture When YSU president Jim Tressel speaks, I instinctively want to deliver a open field tackle. GO PENGUINS! UTEP YSU

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