Too many descriptions cloud our responses “ Have identified 75 different types of bullying behavior…” Field, T. (1996). Bully in sight . Wantage, Oxfordshire: Wessex Press.
Personal: Often Intentional but sometimes Character Disorder Types of Behaviors: Malicious mix of humiliation and sabotage (WBI) Rumors, innuendo, aggressive, unreasonable Subordinates, colleagues, superiors (Davenport, Schwartz, & Elliott, 1999) Gathering others in continuous malevolent actions to force others out of job. (Namie & Namie, 2000)
Unintentional/Insensitive Lack of awareness of consequences of behavior, cultural misunderstanding Types of Behaviors Inappropriate comments Excluding members of teams Shouting, public humiliation A lack of courtesy or politeness (Crawshaw, 2007; Brooks et.al 2010; Pearson & Porath, 2010)
Weak Human Resources departments with little authority cannot enforce rules ( 80% of HR professionals report being bullied )
Being Bullied at Work? Now What? Creative Responses to Workplace Aggression Presentation #142 KATHLEEN SCHULWEIS, Cphil, CPCC, PCC Confidence Connections ™ Friday, June 4, 2010 7th International Conference on Workplace Bullying and Harassment
teasing, verbal abuse, blame , humiliation, personal and professional denigration, overt threats, harassment (e.g.Racial, or sexual) aggressive e-mails or notes, exclusion or isolation, sabotage of career blackmail manipulation of job specifications s,
Workplace bullying and harassment are age-old problems with myriad causes and solutions. Focusing on a singular cause leads to singular solutions.
Personal Aggression is caused by character disorders. Creates individual (private and personal) solutions. Targets are victims of isolated incidences. Organizations are not responsible for handling aggressors; victims do not hold organizations accountable.
Unintentional Aggression is caused by a lack of awareness or insensitivity. Perpetrators are individuals who are easily trained to behave appropriately. Targets of incivility need to be flexible and trust that company training programs and safeguards will be effective. Organization is assumed to be a civil and collegial environment.
Instrumental Aggression has roots in the culture and mores of an organization. Compounding factors include weak supervision, unclear avenues of authority, ambiguous job descriptions and no clear consequences for aggressors. Organization has a high tolerance for aggressive behavior and a reputation for retaliation against complainers.
These types of bullying and harassment are not mutually exclusive -depends on the strength of the organizational culture. Without a comprehensive analysis of the different causes it is impossible to determine the best responses to aggression.
Clarify relationships between the different types and recommended interventions
Study impact of specialized anti-bully training programs on company culture
Study the relationship between company missions & values and the prevalence of bullying and harassment