Wales Pp June 18 Final Togo


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  • Too many descriptions cloud our responses “ Have identified 75 different types of bullying behavior…” Field, T. (1996). Bully in sight . Wantage, Oxfordshire: Wessex Press.
  • Personal: Often Intentional but sometimes Character Disorder Types of Behaviors: Malicious mix of humiliation and sabotage (WBI) Rumors, innuendo, aggressive, unreasonable Subordinates, colleagues, superiors (Davenport, Schwartz, & Elliott, 1999) Gathering others in continuous malevolent actions to force others out of job. (Namie & Namie, 2000)
  • Unintentional/Insensitive Lack of awareness of consequences of behavior, cultural misunderstanding Types of Behaviors Inappropriate comments Excluding members of teams Shouting, public humiliation A lack of courtesy or politeness (Crawshaw, 2007; Brooks 2010; Pearson & Porath, 2010)
  • Instrumental Aggression Orwellian elimination rituals (Bullied Academics Blog, 2009; Cassell, M. 2010)
  • Weak Human Resources departments with little authority cannot enforce rules ( 80% of HR professionals report being bullied )
  • Wales Pp June 18 Final Togo

    1. 1. Being Bullied at Work? Now What? Creative Responses to Workplace Aggression Presentation #142 KATHLEEN SCHULWEIS, Cphil, CPCC, PCC Confidence Connections ™ Friday, June 4, 2010 7th International Conference on Workplace Bullying and Harassment
    2. 2. A Black Hole <ul><li>Myriad descriptions </li></ul>teasing, verbal abuse, blame , humiliation, personal and professional denigration, overt threats, harassment (e.g.Racial, or sexual) aggressive e-mails or notes, exclusion or isolation, sabotage of career blackmail manipulation of job specifications s,
    3. 3. Shifting Perspective <ul><li>Personal </li></ul><ul><li>Unintentional </li></ul><ul><li>Instrumental </li></ul>
    4. 4. Personal Cause: Psychological TYPE 1
    5. 5. Unintentional TYPE 2 Cause: Lack of Awareness
    6. 6. Instrumental TYPE 3 Fame Fortune Position Power Cause: Ambition - Culture
    7. 7. How this Benefits Practitioners <ul><li>Broadens Responses </li></ul>
    8. 8. Type 1 Personal Aggression Responses
    9. 9. Responses to Type 1 Aggression <ul><li>SOLUTION: </li></ul><ul><li>Confront </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t confront </li></ul><ul><li>Document </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t document </li></ul><ul><li>Report </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t report </li></ul><ul><li>Try to negotiate </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerate it </li></ul><ul><li>Leave </li></ul><ul><li>Seek medical help </li></ul><ul><li>PROBLEM: </li></ul><ul><li>Ignores incivility and instrumental aggression </li></ul><ul><li>Creates and blames the victim </li></ul><ul><li>Company has no role or responsibility in problem </li></ul><ul><li>Confusing and contradictory solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Every incident is seen as an isolated incident </li></ul><ul><li>Company help is designed to discourage </li></ul><ul><li>Target is responsible </li></ul><ul><li>Company culture is Irrelevant </li></ul><ul><li>Policies are Irrelevant </li></ul>
    10. 10. Type 2 Unintentional Aggression Responses
    11. 11. Responses to Type 2 Aggression <ul><li>SOLUTION: </li></ul><ul><li>Company responsible for creating harmony </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple training opportunities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Training may mitigate legal consequences of complaints </li></ul><ul><li>Mediate conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Civility policies </li></ul><ul><li>PROBLEM: </li></ul><ul><li>Hides personal and instrumental aggression </li></ul><ul><li>Mediation blames both parties </li></ul><ul><li>Assumes perpetrators will identify selves and improve </li></ul><ul><li>Company has little responsibility beyond training </li></ul><ul><li>No/little accountability for improved behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Civility policies ignore problems </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t empower target </li></ul><ul><li>No monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Companies use training to ward off lawsuits but doesn’t change behavior </li></ul>
    12. 12. Type 3 Instrumental Aggression Responses
    13. 13. Responses to Type 3 Aggression <ul><li>SOLUTION: </li></ul><ul><li>Look for cultural causes: examine mission & values of organization </li></ul><ul><li>Include “social contract” assumptions (Myth of Fairness) in your analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Uncover role confusion </li></ul><ul><li>Create leadership/supervisory training to clarify roles </li></ul><ul><li>Create policies consistent with culture of organization </li></ul><ul><li>Hire those with values that match company culture </li></ul><ul><li>Training that is consistent with company culture </li></ul><ul><li>Give up fantasy of a harmonious workplace </li></ul><ul><li>PROBLEM: </li></ul><ul><li>Change may not be possible without a major culture shift </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant culture may not want to change </li></ul><ul><li>Company may enjoy reputation </li></ul><ul><li>People mistake competition for aggression </li></ul><ul><li>Change is from the top down </li></ul><ul><li>May require new leaders & new employees </li></ul><ul><li>Employees have no policy protection </li></ul><ul><li>Hides personal and unintentional types of aggression </li></ul>
    14. 14. Summary <ul><li>Workplace bullying and harassment are age-old problems with myriad causes and solutions. Focusing on a singular cause leads to singular solutions. </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Aggression is caused by character disorders. Creates individual (private and personal) solutions. Targets are victims of isolated incidences. Organizations are not responsible for handling aggressors; victims do not hold organizations accountable. </li></ul><ul><li>Unintentional Aggression is caused by a lack of awareness or insensitivity. Perpetrators are individuals who are easily trained to behave appropriately. Targets of incivility need to be flexible and trust that company training programs and safeguards will be effective. Organization is assumed to be a civil and collegial environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Instrumental Aggression has roots in the culture and mores of an organization. Compounding factors include weak supervision, unclear avenues of authority, ambiguous job descriptions and no clear consequences for aggressors. Organization has a high tolerance for aggressive behavior and a reputation for retaliation against complainers. </li></ul><ul><li>These types of bullying and harassment are not mutually exclusive -depends on the strength of the organizational culture. Without a comprehensive analysis of the different causes it is impossible to determine the best responses to aggression. </li></ul><ul><li>Further research </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify relationships between the different types and recommended interventions </li></ul><ul><li>Study impact of specialized anti-bully training programs on company culture </li></ul><ul><li>Study the relationship between company missions & values and the prevalence of bullying and harassment </li></ul>
    15. 15. Citations (Page 1 of 3) <ul><li>Bowie, V.(2003) Defining Violence at work: A New Typology . In M. Gill, B. Fisher, & V. Bowie (Eds.), </li></ul><ul><li>Violence at Work: Causes, Patterns and Prevention . Collumpton, UK: Willan Publishing </li></ul><ul><li>2. Brooks, etal, Incivility in the Workplace , 2010. </li></ul><ul><li>Bultena, C.D., R.B Whatcott, 2007. Bushwacked at Work: A Comparative Analysis of Mobbing & Bullying </li></ul><ul><li>at Work . Proceedings of ASBBS. V15. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Bullied Academics Blog, 2009. </li></ul><ul><li>Cassell, M.A. 2010. Bullying In Academe: Prevalent, Significant, and Incessant . ABR & ITLC Conference </li></ul><ul><li>Proceedings. </li></ul><ul><li>Coyne, I., E. Seigne, & P. Randall, 2000. Predicting workplace victim status from personality . European </li></ul><ul><li>Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, V9. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Crawshaw, L. 2007. Taming the Abrasive Manager . Wiley </li></ul><ul><li>Einarsen, S., M.S. Aasland, & A. Skogstad, 2007. Destructive leadership behavior: A definition and </li></ul><ul><li>conceptual model . Leadership Quarterly, V18. </li></ul><ul><li>Einarsen, S., H. Hoel, D. Zapf, & C L. Cooper, ed., 2003. Bullying & Emotional Abuse in the Workplace . </li></ul><ul><li>2003. </li></ul><ul><li>Fast, N.J., S. Chen, 2009. When the Boss Feels Inadequate . Psychological Science. Association for </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological Science. V20. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Citations (Page 2 of 3) <ul><li>Ferris, G. R. Zinko, R. Brouer, M. R. Buckley, M. Harvey (2007). Strategic bullying as a supplementary, </li></ul><ul><li>balanced perspective on destructive leadership . The Leadership Quarterly, V18. </li></ul><ul><li>12. Field, T. (1996). Bully in sight . Wantage, Oxfordshire: Wessex Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Fletcher, T.D., D.A. Major, D.D. Davis. 2006. The Interactive Relationship of Competitive Climate and </li></ul><ul><li>Trait Competitiveness with Workplace Attitudes, Stress, and Performance . Journal of Organizational </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior. V29. </li></ul><ul><li>Galinsky, A.D., J.C. Magee, M.E. Inesi, D.H. Gruenfeld. Power and Perspectives Not Taken . 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological Science. Association for Psychological Science, V17. </li></ul><ul><li>15. Giacalone, R. A., J. Greenberg. Antisocial Behavior in Organizations. 1997. Sage Publications </li></ul><ul><li>16. Lewis, D, M. Sheehan, C. Davies. Uncovering Workplace Bullying. J Workplace Rights. V 13. </li></ul><ul><li>17. Leymann, H (1990) Mobbing and psychological terror at workplaces . Violence and Victims, V5. </li></ul><ul><li>18. Pearson, C & Porath, C.2009. The Cost of Bad Behavior. Penguin Books, NY </li></ul><ul><li>Saam, N. 2009. Interventions in workplace bullying: A multilevel approach. European Journal of Work and </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational Psychology. </li></ul><ul><li>Salin, D. 2003. Bullying and Organizational Politics in Competitive and Rapidly Changing Work </li></ul><ul><li>Environments . International Journal of Management and Decision Making. V4. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Citations (Page 3 of 3) <ul><li>Salin, D. 2003. Ways of Explaining Workplace Bullying: A Review of Enabling, Motivating and </li></ul><ul><li>Precipitating Structures and Processes in the Work Environment . Human Relations V56. Sage </li></ul><ul><li>Publications. </li></ul><ul><li>22. Solomon, M. 1990. Working with Difficult People. Prentice Hall. NY </li></ul><ul><li>Sperry, L. 2009. Workplace mobbing & bullying: A consulting psychology perspective and overview . </li></ul><ul><li>Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice & Research. V61. </li></ul><ul><li>24. Westhues, K 2009, </li></ul><ul><li>25. Wheatley, M & D.T. Wasieleski </li></ul><ul><li>26. Yamada, D. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Kathleen Schulweis, Cphil, CPCC, PCC <ul><li>Anti-Workplace Aggression Coaching </li></ul><ul><li>The Confidence Connections™ Confidence-Building Program </li></ul><ul><li>The Art and Science of Presentations™ for Professionals </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t Sell Yourself Short: Winning for Professionals </li></ul><ul><li>Executive Coaching & Training </li></ul><ul><li>Confidence Building Teleseminars for individuals & groups </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate Leadership Training </li></ul><ul><li>Upcoming: Leadership Tips: A Twitter Publication </li></ul> Executive Coach Author Compassionate, Discerning, No-nonsense Coaching