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Mentoring Diverse StudentsUniversity of Texas – El Paso     Lorraine Gutiérrez     January 10, 2012
Introductions – Who am I?
Plans for today   Provide an overview of mentoring and    promising practices   Examine how mentoring can reduce the ris...
Mentors and Mentoring    A mentor is a person in an individual’s chosen profession who is    actively working to integrat...
Careful mentoringcan help avoidmany pitfalls.
Mentoring includes                    Advising                    Supporting                    Tutoring               ...
Benefits of mentoring to students        Improved academic performance        Increased productivity        Improved pr...
Good mentoring: Quotes from students   My advisor is very nice and warm-hearted. I got a lot of useful advice on    acade...
Benefits of mentoring to faculty   Attract good students   Amplify your own    success   Develop your    professional n...
Students’ perspectives on mentoringchallenges   Every advisor should sit down with their advisee and discuss the program ...
Mentoring in a Diverse World      The global environment       and changes in society       make mentoring a diverse     ...
Stereotypes and their impactStereotypes are…    social expectations   associated with a   group identity such as:   gend...
Stereotypes and Performance     Self Fulfilling Prophecy or “Pygmalion Effect”        When teachers are told to expect s...
Identity and Perceptions  Perceptions canbe influenced byvery subtle cues,such as a name oremail address orclothing Even...
Stereotypes and Perceptions  Pittinsky, Shih, & Ambady (2000) --        109 Participants randomly assigned to 3 groups  ...
Results – average Math SAT Score
Stereotypes and PerformanceStereotypesabout groups can affect the performanceof group members aka “Stereotype threat:”   ...
Small Cues can Result in StereotypeThreat        “this      is    a   test      of    intelligence”        “this      is...
Gender Stereotypes and Interactions    Stereotypes can be implicit           – Woman in Mechanics Environment          ...
How does Stereotype Threat work?       Distraction       Cognitive burden       Anxiety       Physiological discomfort...
Impacts on students        Student’s often react to     stereotype threat in the     following ways:               Disen...
Wise Mentoring Can Lessen StereotypeThreat     Trustworthy feedback      explicitly links         High expectations     ...
Reducing the Impact of Stereotypes   Encourage common identities (e.g., graduate    student, member of a particular lab)...
Promising Practices New Student Orientation Programs “Buddy” Programs that match more advanced  grad students with new o...
Promising Practices        Provide supports for mentors                 Involve faculty in selection of students        ...
Small Group Discussiono   In your small group, discuss the    following:    o   What are some of the “challenges” for     ...
Addressing these challenges…   What is one thing you can try to address    mentoring challenges this semester?
MORE Mentoring Resources   MORE website www.more.umich.edu        Bibliography        Downloadable documents        Li...
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Mentoring Diverse Students, Winter 2012

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Workshop for UTEP faculty held by Dr. Lorraine Gutierrez from the University of Michigan's MORE Program in January 2012.

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Mentoring Diverse Students, Winter 2012

  1. 1. Mentoring Diverse StudentsUniversity of Texas – El Paso Lorraine Gutiérrez January 10, 2012
  2. 2. Introductions – Who am I?
  3. 3. Plans for today Provide an overview of mentoring and promising practices Examine how mentoring can reduce the risks of unconscious bias Discuss your experiences with effective advising and mentoring practices, and identify possible “promising practices” to address student challenges Create an action plan to enhance your mentoring experiences
  4. 4. Mentors and Mentoring A mentor is a person in an individual’s chosen profession who is actively working to integrate a new person into a professional role. A mentor feels some responsibility for the successful development of the student’s career.  Mentoring is an interpersonal relationship that contributes to the student’s sense of competence, confidence and effectiveness.  Mentoring advances the person’s scholastic and professional goals in directions they desire. Effective mentoring involves understanding and acknowledging the student’s different identities and communities.Alvarez, A. N., et. al. (2009). Tapping the Wisdom Tradition: Essential Elements to Mentoring Students of Color. Paglis, L.,et. al. (2006). Does Adviser Mentoring Add Value? Williams-Nickelson, C. (2009). Mentoring Women Graduate Students: AModel for Professional Psychology.
  5. 5. Careful mentoringcan help avoidmany pitfalls.
  6. 6. Mentoring includes  Advising  Supporting  Tutoring  Sponsoring  Modeling
  7. 7. Benefits of mentoring to students  Improved academic performance  Increased productivity  Improved professional skills  Higher self confidence  Expanded social and professional networks
  8. 8. Good mentoring: Quotes from students My advisor is very nice and warm-hearted. I got a lot of useful advice on academic and career, and s/he is always patient to help me. S/he gave me excellent advice and inquired as to how things were going, giving me a chance to ask questions and start discussions. They treat me with respect. I understand my position as a graduate student working for accomplished individuals, yet they treat me with the respect I deserve as well. That is invaluable. My advisor helped me understand the balance between research and coursework and hence get a good understanding of managing my time effectively. My advisor is super-smart, and can usually help resolve technical problems when I get stuck. Overall, my advisor is a caring person who does his/her best to listen to feedback and learn from it. My advisor is willing to spend time to talk about career development with his/her students, and s/he really knows the most effective way to train his/her students to achieve their career goals.
  9. 9. Benefits of mentoring to faculty Attract good students Amplify your own success Develop your professional network Satisfaction of seeing your students succeed Expand your knowledge of the field and life experiences
  10. 10. Students’ perspectives on mentoringchallenges Every advisor should sit down with their advisee and discuss the program requirements, both short and long term. One of biggest problems of new graduate students is to set his/her academic advisor as soon as possible in order to have both academic and financial supports. However, it is very difficult for first year graduate student to get financial support. I do not feel the program cares about how a student is doing. There is no formal proper follow-up on student progress, and there is no evaluation of who deserves more to be awarded financial aid. Students generally tend to stick with students from their own community. As such it becomes sometimes difficult to interact with many of them. Also, unfortunately in my department graduate students do not tend to go outside their labs, and so sometimes the environment is a little stifling. There seems to be a lot of tension between faculty & students, with students feeling that they have no one to talk to when they have a problem with their advisor, unless they want to risk their reputation by going to the dean or other faculty! Provide clear guidance in research. This has not been achieved because faculty are not directly involved in research; rather, they rely on post-docs to keep the labs running well. However, when such post-docs are not interested in helping others, this model falls apart.
  11. 11. Mentoring in a Diverse World The global environment and changes in society make mentoring a diverse student body increasingly important Studies show that students and faculty may be most comfortable working with people who they view as similar to themselves Effective mentoring requires working with students from many different backgrounds Smith, R. (2002). Race, Gender, and Authority in the Workplace. Annual Review of Sociology, 28, pp. 509-542
  12. 12. Stereotypes and their impactStereotypes are…  social expectations associated with a group identity such as: gender, race/ethnicity, culture, religion, profession, age, education, etc. Stereotypes affect…  perceptions and behaviors in ways that are automatic and unconsciousSteele, C., Spencer, S., Aronson, J. (2002). Contending with group image: Thepsychology of stereotype and social identity threat. Advances in Experimental socialPsychology, 34, 3790404
  13. 13. Stereotypes and Performance  Self Fulfilling Prophecy or “Pygmalion Effect”  When teachers are told to expect superior performance from certain students, these students perform better even when aptitude is equal across the students  Typically, student performance was significantly better than students who were not identified as high potentialJussim, L. and Harber, KD (2005) Teacher Expectations and Self-Fulfilling Prophecies: Knowns andUnknowns, Resolved and Unresolved Controversies. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 9(2), 13131-155.
  14. 14. Identity and Perceptions Perceptions canbe influenced byvery subtle cues,such as a name oremail address orclothing Even whenobjective data areavailable, memorycan be biasedPittinsky, T. L., Shih, M., & Trahan, A. (2006). Identity cues: Evidence fromand for intra-individual perspectives on stereotyping. Journal of Applied SocialPsychology, 36, 2215-2239.
  15. 15. Stereotypes and Perceptions  Pittinsky, Shih, & Ambady (2000) --  109 Participants randomly assigned to 3 groups  read a college application for “Emily Chen”  all read the same application  Asked to recall the student’s SAT Math Score; instead, she was described as:  An Asian-American High School Student, or  A Female High School Student, or  A High School Student.Pittinsky, T., Shih, M. & Ambady, N. (2000). Will a Category Cue Affect You?Category Cues, Positive Stereotypes and Reviewer Recall for Applicants. SocialPsychology of Education 4: 53–65.
  16. 16. Results – average Math SAT Score
  17. 17. Stereotypes and PerformanceStereotypesabout groups can affect the performanceof group members aka “Stereotype threat:” When individuals are made aware of a negatively stereotyped group identity (e.g. gender or race) test performance is poorer than when identity not mentionedEarlystudies were conducted with African Americanand European American college studentsHas been replicated over 300 times with differentgroups and with men and women with similar resultsSteele, C.M. (2010). Whistling Vivaldi, and other clues to how stereotypes 17affect us. NY: Norton.
  18. 18. Small Cues can Result in StereotypeThreat  “this is a test of intelligence”  “this is a test of mathematical ability”  “this is a test of natural athletic ability”  “this is a test of racial sensitivity”Shih, M., Bonam, C., Sanchez, D., & Peck, C. (2007). The social construction of race:Biracial identity and vulnerability to stereotypes. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic MinorityPsychology, 13, 125-133.
  19. 19. Gender Stereotypes and Interactions Stereotypes can be implicit  – Woman in Mechanics Environment  – Man in an Arts and Crafts Environment Individuals randomly assigned to male-female pairs to perform same task  Activity described as a “building” task or “arts & crafts” task In “building” task situation – men took charge and made the most suggestions In “arts and crafts” task – women took charge and made the most suggestionsShih, M., Sanchez, D., Ho, G. (2010). The Costs and Benefits of Switchingbetween Social Identities. In R. Crisp (Ed). The Psychology of Social andCultural Diversity. (pp. 62 – 84). Blackwell: Malden, MA
  20. 20. How does Stereotype Threat work?  Distraction  Cognitive burden  Anxiety  Physiological discomfort  UnderperformanceNguyen, H.-H. D., & Ryan, A. M. (2008). Does stereotype threat affect testperformance of minorities and women? A meta-analysis of experimental evidence.Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 1314-1334
  21. 21. Impacts on students  Student’s often react to stereotype threat in the following ways:  Disengage from the activity  Decrease their performance  Distance themselves from the group  Change fields or areas of studyGood, C., Aronson, J., & Harder, J. A. (2008). Problems in the pipeline: Stereotype threat and women’sachievement in high-level math courses. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 29, 17-28; Osborne, J.W., & Walker, C. (2006). Stereotype threat, identification with academics, and withdrawal from school: Why themost successful students of colour might be the most likely to withdraw. Educational Psychology, 26, 563-577.
  22. 22. Wise Mentoring Can Lessen StereotypeThreat Trustworthy feedback explicitly links  High expectations  High standards of assessment  Confidence in capacity of student Mentors can communicate that ability or intelligence is not “fixed” but “expandable”  If mentors stress expandability the gender gap in math is eliminated Cohen, G.L., Garcia, J., Apfel, N., & Master, A. (2006, Sept. 1). Science, 313, 1307- 1310; Aronson, Fried & Goode (2002), Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 38, 113-125
  23. 23. Reducing the Impact of Stereotypes Encourage common identities (e.g., graduate student, member of a particular lab) Hold high expectations of all students Provide role models from a variety of backgrounds Recognize that the graduate program is challenging for all students, regardless of identity or background Communicate how skills and abilities can be learned and developed
  24. 24. Promising Practices New Student Orientation Programs “Buddy” Programs that match more advanced grad students with new ones Mandatory yearly performance reviews  written and oral discussions of strengths and weaknesses Honest communication Frequent contact/interaction with students –  Academic activities: brown bags, colloquia, workshops  Social activities: pot lucks, movie nights, picnics Match students and faculty with similar intellectual interests Developing “mentoring plans” with students on an annual basisBrown, M. Davis, G., McClendon, S. (1999) Mentoring Graduate Students of Color: Myths, Models, and Modes.Peabody Journal of Education, 74, 2, 105-118; George, Y. & Neale, D. (2006) Report from study groupmeetings to develop a research and action agenda on STEM career and workforce Mentoring. AmericanAssociation for the Advancement of Science Directorate for Education and Human Resources Programs,December 2006.
  25. 25. Promising Practices Provide supports for mentors  Involve faculty in selection of students  Build mentoring into faculty workload  Reward mentoring through recognition, awards, and faculty reviews  Offer mentoring workshops and professional development  Acquaint faculty with recent research on mentoring practices Provide adequate program support for mentoring activitiesAdams, H. (1992). Mentoring: an essential factor in the doctoral process for minority students.National Consortium for Graduate Degrees for Minorities in engineering. Notre Dame: IN; Hill,R, Castillo, L, Ngu, L, Pepion, K. (1999). Mentoring ethnic minority students for careers inacademia. The counseling psychologist, 27 (6). 827–845.
  26. 26. Small Group Discussiono In your small group, discuss the following: o What are some of the “challenges” for students in your program? o What can a mentor do to address these challenges? o What can a department or school do to address these challenges?
  27. 27. Addressing these challenges… What is one thing you can try to address mentoring challenges this semester?
  28. 28. MORE Mentoring Resources MORE website www.more.umich.edu  Bibliography  Downloadable documents  Links to mentoring websitse

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