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  2. 2. This article is a result of a small-scale study with the purpose of investigatingteacher-student verbal interactions. The study report explains the relationshipbetween students-teachers and its impact on the performance of students. Ituses information from both teachers and students to explore how theperceptions of each other’s investment in the relationship affect the productivityof the relationship. The whole of the report tries to draw conclusions about towhat extent both of the variable are correlated and in which direction these twovariables are linked. Survey research method is being selected for this studyalong with self administered questionnaire to collect relevant and neededinformation. Researcher has remained successful in gathering valid and reliabledata and then to critically evaluating the data. At the end, Researcher hasfound the two variables linked closely together i.e. the interaction betweenteachers and students and its impact on the performance of student. In moresimple words, one may conclude about the study that, more the interactionbetween teachers-students will raise the performance level of students.This proposal is elaborating on a step-by- step procedures of a research work,which aims at analyzing and evaluating that how student teacher relationshipeffect the performance of students. The present study of instructor-studentinteraction, therefore, has the potential to create a clearer picture of theclassroom contexts and patterns of instructor-student interactions that areneeded not only at the university but at institute level for students to attaingood academic performance and positive attitudes. Such a study providesinformation that instructors can use to modify their instructor-studentinteractions in order to cater more adequately for the needs of students. Thepresent study also examined the nature and impact of two factors of learningproductivity – interpersonal instructor behavior and student aptitude – on theaffective and cognitive outcomes of students in universities. This researchprovided valuable information to the departments in which the data weregathered specifically for the teachers for improving classroom practices. Theresults of the study also provide guidance to other departments of theuniversity regarding achieving better student outcomes in education.
  3. 3. Objectives • To find out the performance of the students and their mutual interactions with the teachers • Highlighting the performance deficiencies resulted from the poor mutual interactions between the students and teachersTeacher-student interaction refers to interactions that occur between a teacherand a student. Teacher-student interactions have been, perhaps, the mostresearched and emphasized social interactions throughout the history of formal
  4. 4. education. Interacting with faculty—whether in the classroom, the laboratory,office hours, or other venues—is one of the key college experiences associatedwith student academic development.  Teachers influence appears more profound at institutions where association between faculty and students is normal and frequent, and students find teachers receptive to unhurried conversations out of class. (Jacob, 1957)  Some researchers attempt to correlate the relationship between student-teacher informal interaction and grade point average. However, difficult variables skew results. Faculty perceptions of students characteristics (Gamson, 1967), students entering academic aptitude (Wallace, 1966), amount (Astin & Panos, 1969) and quality (Terenzini & Pascarella, 1980, 1980) of student-faculty interaction.  Student involvement and when student-teacher formal and informal interactions are frequent and friendly, and when the interactions occur in diverse settings and roles, the students sense of competence and purpose is fostered (Chickering, 1969). Though research on university outcomes has increased, there are few empirical studies on student-faculty interaction.  Daniel (1985) listed active involvement in goal setting, class attendance, communication with professors, and participation in student activities as factors that contributed to students achievement of excellence in higher education.  College impact research has continually demonstrated a positive relationship between student-teacher interaction and a broad range of student educational outcomes, including academic achievement, educational aspirations, intellectual growth, and academic satisfaction (Astin, 1977, 1993; Endo & Harpel, 1982; Kuh & Hu, 2001; 1991).  Positive and close interactions between students and their professors precipitate students’ favorable educational experiences as well as their greater academic and personal development (Lau, 2003; Pascarella & Terenzini, 1991).  In the classroom, professors have considerable opportunities to affect students through the instructional practices they choose. According to Fassinger (1995), classroom participation is a function of numerous factors over which faculty have jurisdiction, including the extent of
  5. 5. student-student interaction and rewards (i.e., improved grades) for contributing to class discussions.  Astin (1993) completed a longitudinal study over a 25-year period, which included a national sample of approximately 500,000 students and 1300 institutions of all types. He found that student-teacher interaction was significantly correlated with every academic achievement outcome examined, namely: Grades, degree attainment, graduating with honors, and enrollment and attendance in graduate or professional school. Student teacher interaction beyond the class room is also positively correlated with student personal growth in the areas leadership, social activism, intellectual self esteem (Astin 1993).  Flannelly (1990) concluded from his study that students scores on academic quality of effort scales vary directly with the degree of teacher contact. He found that high levels of student-teacher contact coincide with high student scores on quality of effort measures. The students who reported higher levels of faculty contact also reported exerting more effort in their studies and greater use of educational resources. It was concluded that success or failure was, in large part, based on the interactions between faculty and students (Peglow and Walleri, 1990).The literature reviewed showed that teachers can aid in student academicachievement such as higher grades, students intellectual development, astudent’s willingness to attend the courses. Student teacher interaction isimportant because it encourages students to devote extra efforts on theireducational purposes. Such as their efforts of accomplishing higher grades,both the nature and frequency of contacts matters.
  6. 6. The dimensions used to measure the student performance are student’s gradesand their class attendance and in which variance is attempted to be explain bythe independent variable i.e. student teacher interaction and dimensions tomeasure the mentioned interaction are availability of teachers, meetings ofstudents with the teacher and student’s class participation.Higher the availability of the teachers higher the meetings with the students,higher the meetings with the students higher will be the class participation,higher the class participation higher the attendance would be, higher theattendance would be higher the grades would be, higher the grades higherwould be the overall students performance. HypothesisOn the basis of theoretical framework formulated the hypothesis drawn was:“Student Teacher interaction leads to higher student performance”The above is a testable statement of the relationship among two variables. Inabove hypothesis, the independent variable is interaction and the dependentvariable is student performance. We can statistically examine the relationshipbetween these two variables to see if there is a significant correlation betweenthe two or not.
  7. 7. Quantitative research is typically taken to be exemplified by the social surveyand by experimental investigations.The objective of this research is to explore the student teacher relationship.Method used for conducting study is “survey method”, that providesquantitative results. Self administered questionnaire were used to collectrelevant data. Research designPopulationThe population for this research study is bachelor level. The reason forselecting such population was because bachelor well aware of the moderneducation system. One more reason for selecting such population was the easyavailability of sample units to the researcher and it was comparatively easy toget the response from these bachelors because they can be easily available.Sampling procedureAfter selecting the population;  Samples are selected using convenience sampling technique in non- probability sampling. That means sample unite that are easily available were selected to conduct survey.  Sample size is12 students who are currently at bachelor levelResearch methodMethod used for conducting study is “survey method”, that providesquantitative results. Self administered questionnaire were used to collectrelevant data.Data AnalysisOnce the data have been collected, statistical technique was used to measurethe association between the two variables with a purpose of testing thehypothesis. For that one table have been made showing the student teacherinteraction level, student’s performance level and finally a table to analyzerelationship between both the variables.
  8. 8. TABLE & GRAPH S.no X Y X² Y² XY 1 17 9 289 81 153 2 16 10 256 100 160 3 16 7 256 49 112 4 28 7 784 49 196 5 12 9 144 81 108 6 17 8 289 64 136 7 13 9 169 81 117 8 14 6 196 36 84 9 13 7 169 49 91 10 11 9 121 81 99 11 14 8 196 64 112 12 18 7 324 49 126 Σ189 Σ 96 Σ 3193 Σ 784 Σ 1494 • r = 0.3 GRAPH
  9. 9. interaction vs student performance 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 17 16 16 28 12 17 13 14 13 11 14 18Evaluation of FindingsTable shows the relationship between two variables. Here comes analysis asboth variables have two categories. From this researchers concluded that thestudents who interacted more with their teacher were able to improve theirperformance in the course.the have high level of performance in their course by interacting more with theirresearch methods and technique teacher and have proved that student teacherinteraction and students performance are positively correlated that is “Student teacher interaction leads to higher students’ performance”Hypothesis has been empirically tested and become substantiated.Operationalization:In the research, Operationalization of the independent variable interaction anddependent variable performance have been done for finding a measurable,quantifiable, and valid index for variables (independent and dependentvariables), and also to find way to manipulate that variable in such a way as tohave two or more levels.Interaction:Interaction could be measured by the availability of the teacher for the studentsto help them and the number of meetings with the students and the classparticipation by the students.Availability:
  10. 10. In our research, we are talking about the availability of teachers that refers tothe time teachers have, to listen to their students’ academic problems, queriesin the class room and besides the class timings.Meetings:Meetings of teachers with the students refer to the conversation teachers havewith their students in their offices, interacting with their students on telephoneor via internet.Class participation:Class participation indicates the active engagement of students in curriculumactivities within the class timings. It includes the answer from the studentsasked by the teachers, students reply on a specific topic probed by the teacherand students questions to teachers with a purpose of clearing their ambiguitieson a certain topic.Performance:We can measure the performance of students by the grades of the students andthe student’s response to the teachers and the percentage of class attendanceand the students class room talk with the teachers.Grades:Grades of the students specify the performance of a student. For the purpose ofour study, student grades includes grades in exam conducted twice persemester, grades in general quizzes, grades in assignments given by theteachers and presentations to evaluate the learning of students.Class attendance:Class attendance refers to the number of classes students attend in a semester.
  11. 11. The findings of this study indicate that student teacher interaction level hasstatistically significant impact on the level of student’s performance and theimportance of student teacher interaction has become evident. Because theyfind their teacher to be extremely willing to entertain their queries and receptiveto their ideas. The students with high interaction level with their teacherbelieves that through participation in class discussion they just not getbenefited by the clarity of concepts of their course but also helps them gainingconfidence, interacting with their teacher builds a comfort level between thestudent and teacher that makes the student to attend the particular coursekeenly. Despite of the students who choose not to interact with faculty becausethey see no reason to do so; they are simply not aware of the potential benefitsof engaging faculty this research has found that students who frequentlyinteract with their teachers do have a positive impact on their grades andattendance and hence their overall academic performance and has proved thatstudent teacher interaction leads to higher student performance.
  12. 12. The study has verified the significance of students and teacher interaction, it isrecommended that
  13. 13.  Teacher must take care that the students reach their academic achievements and for that purpose have to decide how to divide his/her time and attention amongst their students so that the interaction between them can be assured. The teachers must give continuous and active encouragement in order to make students feel comfortable to approach the teacher. Teachers must seek to actively encourage intellectual curiosity and a love of learning and discovery for their student’s higher grades and attendance. Teachers must holds course related discussion in the class and make sure that every student take part in the discussion. Teachers can also have informal social interactions with students because such contact appears to provide an important foundation for student effort and from which students can begin to pursue more academically oriented interactions. Students and teachers must be present in the same location for substantive engagement to occur, institutions need to keep this obvious fact in mind as they design physical spaces and programs in order to create spaces that are attractive to both students and faculty, and to bring together respective activities on campus and smaller class sizes Institutions can also arrange workshops to notify that how imperative it is for both teachers and students to interact with them and how it can have a positive effect on their grades and attendance and therefore overall academic performance.
  14. 14. Appendix B  Astin, A., & Panos, R. (1969). The educational and vocational development of college students. Washington, DC: American Council on Education.  Churukian, G. A. (1982). Perceived learning in the classroom and teacher- student interpersonal relationships. Paper presented at Teacher Education 80-90 International Seminar, Groningen, Netherlands, and April, 1982. (ERIC Reproduction Service No. ED 218 273.)  Pascarella, E. T. (1980). Student-faculty informal contact and college outcomes. Review of Educational Research, 50(4), 545-595.  Flannelly, S.J. (1990). Student/faculty contact and academic quality of effort: Excerpted results from CSEQ Surveys. North Carolina University.  Kuh, G. D., & Hu, S. (2001). The effects of student-faculty interaction in the 1990s. The Review of Higher Education, 24(3), 309-332.  Zollman, A., Oldham, B., & Wyrick, J. (1989). Effects of computer- assisted instruction on reading and mathematics achievement of Chapter 1 students. Resources in Education. Columbus, o Report to the President on the Use of Technology to Strengthen K- 12 Education in the United States. (March, 1997). Retrieved Nov. 30, 2004 from http://edtech.ced.appstate.edu/class/5630/k- 12ed.html  Dickinson, D & Keefe, D. (introduction), How technology enhances howard gardners eightintelligences. America Tomorrow [online] 1998. Retrieved October 30, 2004 www.america- tomorrow.com/ati/nhl80402.htm  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interaction  http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/1/0/8 /3/5/p108351_index.html  http://orcmid.com/blog/2005/06/power-of-student-teacher- interaction.asp