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<ul><li>A fallacy is a bad argument that may seem to be correct but is rendered defective by an error in the reasoning.  <...
<ul><li>It involves sneaking doubtful or false premises into the argument, presuming something is true when it is not true...
 
<ul><li>It is also called accident </li></ul><ul><li>It goes from some statement that is often true to a statement about s...
<ul><li>Christians generally dislike atheists. You are a Christian, so you must dislike atheists. </li></ul><ul><li>Men ar...
<ul><li>In this fallacy we simply assume the truth of what we supposed to be trying to prove.  </li></ul><ul><li>It often ...
<ul><li>Studying too much for a test is often confusing, for the reason that if you study too much the material you are tr...
 
<ul><li>This is a simple trick. </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as presupposition, &quot;trick question&quot; </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Is my opponent prepared to renounce negative advertising?” </li></ul><ul><li>Have you stopped using drug? </li></u...
<ul><li>Also called false dilemma </li></ul><ul><li>In this fallacy we presume that on a given question there are only two...
<ul><li>You don't want to put sun cream on? What, you'd rather have cancer?!&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Slow down or yo...
<ul><li>The fallacy of false cause presumes that if event A happened before event B, event A must have caused event B. Thi...
<ul><li>The moon was full on Thursday evening. </li></ul><ul><li>On Friday morning I overslept.  </li></ul><ul><li>Therefo...
 
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L O G I C

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L O G I C

  1. 2. <ul><li>A fallacy is a bad argument that may seem to be correct but is rendered defective by an error in the reasoning. </li></ul><ul><li>A fallacy is a kind of error in reasoning. Fallacies should not be persuasive. Fallacies may be created unintentionally, or they may be created intentionally in order to deceive other people . </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>It involves sneaking doubtful or false premises into the argument, presuming something is true when it is not true. </li></ul>
  3. 5. <ul><li>It is also called accident </li></ul><ul><li>It goes from some statement that is often true to a statement about some particular thing to which because of its special circumstances, the statement does not apply. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Cutting people with a knife is a crime. </li></ul><ul><li> Surgeons cut people with knives. </li></ul><ul><li> Surgeons are criminals </li></ul>
  4. 6. <ul><li>Christians generally dislike atheists. You are a Christian, so you must dislike atheists. </li></ul><ul><li>Men are statistically more aggressive than women.  Therefore I am male, must be more aggressive than you, a female. </li></ul><ul><li>Women earn less than men earn for doing the same work. Miss Samia is a woman. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore Miss Samia earns less than male talk-show hosts. </li></ul>
  5. 7. <ul><li>In this fallacy we simply assume the truth of what we supposed to be trying to prove. </li></ul><ul><li>It often involves saying the something in two different ways. </li></ul>
  6. 8. <ul><li>Studying too much for a test is often confusing, for the reason that if you study too much the material you are trying to master is no longer clear. </li></ul><ul><li>We know that God exists because the Bible tells us so. And we know that the Bible is true because it is the word of God. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Freedom of speech is an essential right in a free society, since everyone should have the right to express him or herself with complete freedom.” </li></ul>
  7. 10. <ul><li>This is a simple trick. </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as presupposition, &quot;trick question&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>It involves phrasing the question in such a way that answering it commits the other person to a certain hidden presumption. </li></ul><ul><li>This argument is usually intended to trap the respondent into acknowledging something that he or she might otherwise not want to acknowledge </li></ul>
  8. 11. <ul><li>Is my opponent prepared to renounce negative advertising?” </li></ul><ul><li>Have you stopped using drug? </li></ul><ul><li>Have you tried to stop watching too much television? </li></ul><ul><li>Did you ever give up your evil ways?&quot;  </li></ul><ul><li>Have you stopped beating your wife yet?” </li></ul><ul><li>Have you stopped cheating on exams? </li></ul><ul><li>Are you going to admit that you’re wrong </li></ul>
  9. 12. <ul><li>Also called false dilemma </li></ul><ul><li>In this fallacy we presume that on a given question there are only two opposite positions, with no middle ground. </li></ul><ul><li>Strictly speaking, the prefix &quot;di&quot; in &quot;dilemma&quot; means &quot;two&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>A very common trick it seems to clarify and simplify but in fact tends to warp and confuse everything. </li></ul><ul><li>False dilemma can arise intentionally, when fallacy is used in an attempt to force a choice (&quot;If you are not with us, you are against us.&quot;) But the fallacy can arise simply by accidental omission—possibly through a form of wishful thinking or ignorance—rather than by deliberate deception </li></ul>
  10. 13. <ul><li>You don't want to put sun cream on? What, you'd rather have cancer?!&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Slow down or you'll kill someone </li></ul><ul><li>Well, it's time for a decision. Will you contribute $10 to our environmental fund, or you on the side of environmental destruction? </li></ul><ul><li>Either man was created, as the Bible tells us, or he evolved from inanimate chemicals by pure random chance, as scientists tell us. The latter is incredibly unlikely, so ...&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>If you don’t love America then just get the hell out. </li></ul>
  11. 14. <ul><li>The fallacy of false cause presumes that if event A happened before event B, event A must have caused event B. This is of course not true. Just because event B follows event A, that doesn’t prove that A caused B; something else might have caused B. </li></ul><ul><li>The fallacy committed when an argument mistakenly attempt to establish a causal connection. </li></ul><ul><li>It also involves superstitions. </li></ul>
  12. 15. <ul><li>The moon was full on Thursday evening. </li></ul><ul><li>On Friday morning I overslept. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, the full moon caused me to oversleep </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;You should go to Harvard, because Harvard graduates make more money.&quot;  </li></ul><ul><li>“ She got sick after she visited China, so something in China caused her sickness.” </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Napoleon became a great emperor because he was so short.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>A black cat crossed Joe's path yesterday, and he died last night from the bad luck.” </li></ul>

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