Northeast PHP - High Performance PHP
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Northeast PHP - High Performance PHP

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This is a talk that I gave at the Northeast PHP conference in Boston, MA on 8/11/12.

This is a talk that I gave at the Northeast PHP conference in Boston, MA on 8/11/12.

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  • StatsD Aggregates things by 5 second intervals by default

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  • 1. August 11th, 2012High Performance PHP Northeast PHP 2012 Jonathan Klein jonathan.n.klein@gmail.com @jonathanklein
  • 2. Agenda Who am I? Why Performance Matters Profiling PHP Applications Code Level Optimizations Big Wins Load Testing Takeaways
  • 3. Introduction• Web Performance Platform Lead at Wayfair• Boston Web Performance Meetup Group Organizer• Led a team that converted most of Wayfair’s storefront codebase from Classic ASP to PHP. 1. Rewrote ~100,000 lines of code• Wayfair Stats: 1. 450 reqs/sec for dynamic content (PHP pages) 2. 1600 reqs/sec for static content (including CDN) 3. Codebase has > 400,000 lines of PHP (some is 3rd party) 3
  • 4. The Value of Performance
  • 5. Real World Examples• Firefox: -2.2 seconds = 15.4% more downloads• Shopzilla: -5 seconds = 7-12% increase in revenue• Google: +400ms = 0.76% fewer searches• Amazon: +100ms = -1% revenuehttp://www.phpied.com/the-performance-business-pitch/ 6
  • 6. 80/20 Rule 80% of page load time takes place on the client 7
  • 7. We’re going to talk about the other 20%
  • 8. A fast page load is 2 secondsThis means you have 400ms to get that HTML off your server
  • 9. But network time could be ~100msThis means you have 400ms 300ms to build the page
  • 10. The average length of an eye blink is 100-400 milliseconds Full Page Load – 2 Seconds Base HTML – 400ms Server Generation Time – 300ms
  • 11. Profiling PHP Applications Monitoring and Tracing
  • 12. Monitoring/Tracing Tools• Paid: 1. Tracelytics (bought by AppNeta) 2. AppDynamics (building a PHP solution) 3. dynaTrace (building a PHP solution 4. New Relic• Free: 1. StatsD/Graphite 2. Xdebug 3. Nagios 4. Ganglia 13
  • 13. Monitoring/Tracing Tools• Paid: 1. Tracelytics (bought by AppNeta) 2. AppDynamics (building a PHP solution) 3. dynaTrace (building a PHP solution 4. New Relic• Free: 1. StatsD/Graphite 2. Xdebug 3. Nagios 4. Ganglia 14
  • 14. StatsDUDP Packets – extremely low overhead<?php$start = microtime(true);…script content…$end = microtime(true);MyStats::timing(foo.bar, $end - $start);?>http://codeascraft.etsy.com/2011/02/15/measure-anything-measure-everything/ 15
  • 15. Graphite• Written by Orbitz• Real-time graphing engine for StatsD data (among other things)• http://graphite.wikidot.com/• Architecture: http://www.aosabook.org/en/graphite.html 16
  • 16. Xdebug• PHP extension (need to install) - http://xdebug.org/• Code level tracing 1. Exposes hotspots• Significant overhead, use in DEV only!• Add ?XDEBUG_PROFILE=true to a URL• View results: 1. kcachegrind on linux 2. wincachegrind on Windows 20
  • 17. Lesson: Profile Your Code
  • 18. Code Level Optimizations
  • 19. Writing Efficient PHP• Set max value before loop: $max = count($rows); for ($i = 0; $i < $max; $i++) { echo $i; }• require_once() is slow• Minimize use of define()• Yes, single quotes are slightly faster than double quotes 27
  • 20. Almost Every Micro-Optimization is Worthless
  • 21. http://phpbench.com/
  • 22. http://phpbench.com/
  • 23. http://phpbench.com/
  • 24. Writing Efficient PHP• Set the max loop value before the loop: $max = count($rows); for ($i = 0; $i < $max; $i++) { echo $i; } Okay, this one is pretty good 32
  • 25. So Why Even MentionMicro-Optimizations?
  • 26. Lesson: Focus on the Big Wins“Premature optimization is the root of all evil” - Donald Knuth
  • 27. Big Wins
  • 28. Upgrade PHP 5.3 is ~20% faster than 5.2 http://news.php.net/php.internals/36484 5.4 is ~20-40% faster than 5.3 http://news.php.net/php.internals/57760 Upgrading 5.2  5.4 gives a 45-70% improvement! http://php.net/migration53 http://php.net/migration54 38
  • 29. PHP 5.4 is 5 Times Faster than PHP4 http://static.zend.com/topics/White-paper-PHP4-PHP5.pdf
  • 30. Use APC (Correctly) APC – Alternative PHP Cache 40
  • 31. Opcode Cache Performance• Vanilla settings  30-40% improvement• Turn off APC Stat  additional ~2x improvement! -- Understand what is happening herehttp://www.slideshare.net/vortexau/improving-php-application-performance-with-apc-presentation 41
  • 32. APC User Cache<?php$bar = Hello World!;apc_store(foo, $bar);?><?phpvar_dump(apc_fetch(foo));?>-------- Output --------string(12) "Hello World!" 42
  • 33. APC User Cache Optimizations• Avoid fragmentation - keep utilization under 10% 1. Assign 1GB, only fill 100MB• Compress objects that are > 10KB before storing• Reduce garbage collection in the source of apc_store()• Consider CDB 1. http://engineering.wayfair.com/moving-constants-out-of-apc-and-into-cdb/ 43
  • 34. Caching• Avoid hitting the database• Cache in APC/Memcached• 1:00 tomorrow: “Caching With Memcached” 44
  • 35. Fix All Errors• PHP 5.3: E_ALL | E_STRICT• PHP 5.4: E_ALL• Can also do error_reporting(-1); 45
  • 36. Child Processes• 4-6 processes per CPU core.• Beyond that just add servers. (Test your app) 46
  • 37. HipHop for PHP• Developed/Open Sourced by Facebook• Transforms PHP source code into highly optimized C++• Reduces CPU for Facebook’s servers by 50%http://developers.facebook.com/blog/post/2010/02/02/hiphop-for-php--move-fast/https://github.com/facebook/hiphop-php 47
  • 38. Load Testing
  • 39. JMeter• Open Source• Generate load via a GUI or command line• Can watch req/s peak out• Easy to use (just make sure you set the correct path to Java on your computer). 49
  • 40. Be Careful• JMeter looks a lot like a DOS attack• Make sure you know what is failing• Look at monitoring while test is running• Run in Production• Run a test, make a change, run it again 55
  • 41. Takeaways
  • 42. “How Fast Is Your Site?”
  • 43. This is a terrible question
  • 44. Why is it terrible?• Lack of context• Are we talking about average or a percentile?• Server side time or client?• Who is measuring it?• When is it being measured?• Real users or synthetic? 59
  • 45. We still have to answer it
  • 46. Pick Tight SLAs“The homepage of our site will load in<300ms at the 80th percentile, measuredby sampling 10% of our real users over a24 hour period every day at 8AM.” 61
  • 47. Pick Tight SLAs“The homepage of our site will load in<300ms at the 80th percentile, measuredby sampling 10% of our real users over a24 hour period every day at 8AM.” 62
  • 48. Things to Remember1. Measure and monitor your application2. Focus on big wins3. Run the latest (stable) version of PHP4. Make sure you are using APC correctly5. It’s always the database: go to “The Proper Care and Feeding of a MySQL Database” talk6. Caching is your friend: go to the “Caching With Memcached” talk7. Know what system resources you depend on 63
  • 49. There is a lot more
  • 50. Get In Touchhttp://www.meetup.com/Web-Performance-Boston/ wayfair.com/careers jonathan.n.klein@gmail.com @jonathanklein 65