Chapter 1 Multimedia Asset Directory Slide 9 Diagnosis Video Slide 10 PET Scans Animation Slide 14 Taking Vital Signs Video Slide 15 Taking Patient History Video Slide 21 Immunity Video
Define disease and disease-related terms
Define and discuss the manifestations of disease
Define terms used to describe disease
Explain diagnosis of disease
Define and discuss the chief causes of disease
Identify risk factors related to disease
Homeostasis – all cells, tissues, organs, and systems work to maintain equilibrium
Disease – disequilibrium
Pathophysiology – study of the physiological processes leading up to disease
Pathology – study of disease in general
Table 1-1: Ten Leading Causes of Death, 2004, U.S.
Table 1-2: Major Causes of Disease
Manifestations of Disease
Signs are objective evidence of disease observed on physical examination, such as abnormal pulse or respiratory rate, fever, sweating, and pallor
Symptoms are subjective indications of disease reported by the patient, such as pain, dizziness, and itching. Certain sets of signs and symptoms occur concurrently in some diseases and their combination is referred to as a syndrome.
Nature of a disease
Includes signs and symptoms
Syndrome – signs and symptoms occur concurrently
Syndrome Diagnosis Signs Symptoms
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Syndrome High Blood Pressure Decreased Oxygenation Dehydration – dry mucous membranes, poor skin turgor Dizziness Shortness of Breath Nausea and Vomiting Disease
Objective Evidence of Disease
Urinalysis, blood chemistry, electrocardiography, and radiography
Diagnostic-imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT scan), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, and nuclear medicine allow physicians to visualize structural and functional changes.
Objective Evidence of Disease (cont.)
Biopsy – surgical removal and analysis of tissue samples
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Descriptions of Disease
Prognosis: the predicted course and outcome of the disease
State the chances for complete recovery
Predict the permanent loss of function
Probability of survival
Descriptions of Disease (cont.)
The course of a disease
Acute: Quick onset, short duration, e.g., influenza, measles, and the common cold
Chronic: A disease may begin insidiously and be long-lived; e.g., arthritis, hypertension
Terminal: A disease that will end in death
Stage of Disease
Signs and symptoms subside
Recur in all severity
Returns weeks or months later
Outcome of Disease
Complications – Diseases from diseases, e.g., kidney failure secondary to diabetes
Sequela – Aftermath of disease, e.g., paralysis following polio
Mortality – Measure of death attributed to disease
Morbidity – Measure of disability
Etiology Causes of Disease Pathogenesis Microbes Genetics Environment Idiopathic Inflammation Lesion Change in structure or function Morbidity Mortality Sequela Complications
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Predispose an individual to the development of a disease.
A risk factor is not equivalent to a cause.
May be enviornmental, chemical, physiological, psychological or genetic.
Treatment of Disease
Includes procedures for the cure or reduction of symptoms
Depends on the nature of the disease, characteristics of the patient, and goals of the patient and physician.