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  1. 1. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Yu-Hong Jia, Ph.D Department of pathophysiology Dalian medical university
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Concept </li></ul><ul><li>Goal </li></ul><ul><li>Status </li></ul><ul><li>Contents </li></ul>
  3. 3. Ⅰ . CONCEPT <ul><li>Pathophysiology is a subject to explore the rule and mechanism of the origin and evolution of disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Applied physiology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clinical physiology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medical physiology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physiology of disease </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Ⅱ . GOAL, STATUS, CONTENTS <ul><li>Explore the general rule and mechanism of occurrence and development of disease </li></ul><ul><li>Explore the functional and metabolic alterations of sick body and the underlying mechanism </li></ul>1. Goal
  5. 5. INVESTIGATION <ul><li>Question 1: Which basal subjects do you think are most useful for clinical practice? </li></ul><ul><li>Answer: pathophysiology and pharmacology </li></ul><ul><li>Question 2: Which basal subjects do you think are most difficult to learn? </li></ul><ul><li>Answer: biochemistry and pathophysiology </li></ul>
  6. 6. 2. STATUS – A BRIDGE LINKING BASIC MEDICAL SCIENCE AND CLINICAL MEDICAL SCIENCE <ul><li>a synthesized marginal subject linked with many subjects of basic medical science. </li></ul><ul><li>a subject linked with clinical medical science </li></ul>? ? 2. Status Basic medical science Clinical medical science pathophysiology A bridge subject
  7. 7. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY - DIALECTICS ABOUT HUMAN knowledge on structure, function, metabolism Synthesize, analyze Normal body Sick body Knowledge after scientific thinking Stem from Apply to Anatomy, histology, physiology, biochemistry pathophysiology
  8. 8. hypokalemia <ul><li>K+ directly lost with intestinal juice </li></ul><ul><li>diarrhea->extra cellular fluid↓-> effective circulatory blood volume↓-> ADS↑->Na+ retention, K+ excretion -> loss of K+ through kidney↑ </li></ul>hypokalemia->myocardial resting membrane potential change->alteration of myocardial excitability, contractility, conductivity, automaticity->arrhythimia ? ? diarrhea arrhythmia
  9. 9. Pathophysiology is different from clinical subject Pathophysiology Clinical subject Kinds of disease Disorders of water and electrolyte metabolism Acid-base imbalance hypoxia shock gastroenteritis pneumonia Cause of disease Disturbance of normal physiological or biochemical process A wide range of extrinsic and intrinsic factors … …
  10. 10. Heart failure Heart pump Myocardial contractility and diastolic function load of myocardium Heart failure
  11. 11. CHRONIC BRONCHITIS Cough, stethocatharsis, with/without asthma, last for two or more than two years, exclusive of other disease of heart and lung. The cause of chronic bronchitis: infection Smoking cold Immunological factor Diagnosis criteria:
  12. 12. 3. contents pathophysiology conspectus of disease basic pathological process Organic pathophysiology Cellular and molecular pathophysiology
  13. 13. CONSPECTUS OF DISEASE <ul><li>Concept of disease </li></ul><ul><li>Etiology of disease </li></ul><ul><li>Pathogenesis of disease </li></ul><ul><li>Outcome of disease </li></ul>
  14. 14. BASIC PATHOLOGICAL PROCESS <ul><li>Refers to some common and collective functional and/or metabolic and/or structural alterations presented in many kinds of disease. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. hypoxia, edema, stress, acidosis, fever, and so on </li></ul>
  15. 15. ORGANIC PATHOPHYSIOLOGY <ul><li>Mainly discuss the basic processes and mechanisms of the insufficiency or failure of important organs in the body, i. e., heart, lung, liver, kidney and brain. </li></ul>
  16. 16. CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR PATHOPHYSIOLOGY <ul><li>Signal transduction and disease </li></ul><ul><li>Cell apoptosis in disease </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>What is pathophysiology? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is pathophysiology important? </li></ul><ul><li>What contents are arranged in the book of pathophysiology? </li></ul>
  18. 18. HOW TO LEARN PATHOPHYSIOLOGY <ul><li>Grasp the major points: causes, pathogenesis, alterations in metabolism and functions </li></ul><ul><li>Use dialectical thinking and methods, such as views of contradictory and unification, transformation, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Selectively review related knowledge learned previously, such as physiology, biochemistry, molecular biology, immunology, pathology, and so on. </li></ul><ul><li>Pay attention to the lecture in class. </li></ul>
  19. 19. thank you!