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# Inferring

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### Inferring

1. 1. Inferring
2. 2. Goals for this Webinar <ul><li>Be able to explain the difference between an </li></ul><ul><ul><li>inference and an opinion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inference and an assumption. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inference and a predication </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Choose the inferring strategy that fits your thinking style and use it to practice inferring. </li></ul>
3. 3. Inference -vs- Opinion <ul><li>Opinion - what you think about a text. This is based on your experiences and understanding. </li></ul><ul><li>Inference - figuring out what the author thinks of a topic. It is based on the information the author gives you as well as your own personal understanding. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Educated guess not just an opinion </li></ul></ul>
4. 4. Example <ul><li>Snow White </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence that the witch is an antagonist, a bad character </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poisonous apple, evil plans for Snow White, wears black, wants to be the “fairest”, goes nuts when she is not the “fairest.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If I think that all people who wear black are bad, I am expressing an opinion. It is not based on fact. </li></ul>
5. 5. Inference -vs- Assumption <ul><li>An assumption is an inference not based on facts in the text. It is a random inference. It is not consider the clues or information the author gives. </li></ul><ul><li>An inference is a based on the evidence from the text and, to a lesser extent, on your background knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Too many novice readers base inferences totally on what they know and ignore the author’s information. </li></ul>
6. 6. Example <ul><li>When reading the story about the professor offering a B for not taking the test you assumed, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The B was a good deal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How lucky the students were </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How stupid those students who remained to take the test really were </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This was not based on clues given by the author. It was an assumption based on your personal experience. </li></ul>
7. 7. Inference -vs- Prediction <ul><li>A predication is a specific type of inference. Making a prediction infers what will happen next based on what has already happened . Think: “What am I reading to find out?” </li></ul><ul><li>Predications need to be adjusted based on what does happen. Too many readers make outlandish predictions based on “what could happen.” These are not wise predication. </li></ul><ul><li>Predications need to be confirmed to help your reading. </li></ul>
8. 8. Examples of Logical Predictions Based on Text. <ul><li>If there is a question , predict you find an answer. </li></ul><ul><li>If there is a subheading , predict there will be information about that topic. </li></ul><ul><li>If “ therefore ” is used the author is telling you his or her conclusion. Pay attention to it. </li></ul>
9. 9. Examples of Logical Predictions Based on Text. <ul><li>Signal Words: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ for example” “such as” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ for instance” “in fact” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ to illustrate this point” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>You should predict that the paragraphs that follow will illustrate the main idea of a section. An example will follow. </li></ul>
10. 10. Examples of Logical Predictions Based on Text. <ul><li>Signal Words: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ in other words” “that is” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ consists of” “means” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A restatement of a definition or explanation in simpler language will be made. </li></ul>
11. 11. Examples of Logical Predictions Based on Text. <ul><li>Signal Words: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ however” “but” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ whereas” “on the other hand” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ in contrast” “in comparison” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ yet” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A difference or unexpected outcome is about to be presented </li></ul>
12. 12. Examples of Logical Predictions Based on Text. <ul><li>Signal Words: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ just as” “likewise” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ also” “just like” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ similarly” “in the same way” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ moreover” “furthermore” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A continuation or comparison of an earlier idea will be continued. </li></ul>
13. 13. Inferring - Method 1 <ul><li>Literal Facts, clues, or information from the text. </li></ul>+ Link facts to topic. How might the topic be connect? What else do you know about the facts from the text? = What does the author want me to infer about the topic, based on the facts or clues in the text?
14. 14. Inferring Method 2 Text Background Knowledge inference Think about evidence Think about what you know Make it a logical connection between the two
15. 15. Goals for this Webinar <ul><li>Be able to explain the difference between an </li></ul><ul><ul><li>inference and an opinion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inference and an assumption. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inference and a predication </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Choose the inferring strategy that fits your thinking style and use it to practice inferring. </li></ul><ul><li>If you have not met the goals, you need to go back through the webinar until you have met the goals. </li></ul>