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Inferring

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    Inferring Inferring Presentation Transcript

    • Inferring
    • Goals for this Webinar
      • Be able to explain the difference between an
        • inference and an opinion.
        • inference and an assumption.
        • inference and a predication
      • Choose the inferring strategy that fits your thinking style and use it to practice inferring.
    • Inference -vs- Opinion
      • Opinion - what you think about a text. This is based on your experiences and understanding.
      • Inference - figuring out what the author thinks of a topic. It is based on the information the author gives you as well as your own personal understanding.
        • Educated guess not just an opinion
    • Example
      • Snow White
      • Evidence that the witch is an antagonist, a bad character
        • Poisonous apple, evil plans for Snow White, wears black, wants to be the “fairest”, goes nuts when she is not the “fairest.”
      • If I think that all people who wear black are bad, I am expressing an opinion. It is not based on fact.
    • Inference -vs- Assumption
      • An assumption is an inference not based on facts in the text. It is a random inference. It is not consider the clues or information the author gives.
      • An inference is a based on the evidence from the text and, to a lesser extent, on your background knowledge.
      • Too many novice readers base inferences totally on what they know and ignore the author’s information.
    • Example
      • When reading the story about the professor offering a B for not taking the test you assumed,
        • The B was a good deal
        • How lucky the students were
        • How stupid those students who remained to take the test really were
      • This was not based on clues given by the author. It was an assumption based on your personal experience.
    • Inference -vs- Prediction
      • A predication is a specific type of inference. Making a prediction infers what will happen next based on what has already happened . Think: “What am I reading to find out?”
      • Predications need to be adjusted based on what does happen. Too many readers make outlandish predictions based on “what could happen.” These are not wise predication.
      • Predications need to be confirmed to help your reading.
    • Examples of Logical Predictions Based on Text.
      • If there is a question , predict you find an answer.
      • If there is a subheading , predict there will be information about that topic.
      • If “ therefore ” is used the author is telling you his or her conclusion. Pay attention to it.
    • Examples of Logical Predictions Based on Text.
      • Signal Words:
        • “ for example” “such as”
        • “ for instance” “in fact”
        • “ to illustrate this point”
      • You should predict that the paragraphs that follow will illustrate the main idea of a section. An example will follow.
    • Examples of Logical Predictions Based on Text.
      • Signal Words:
        • “ in other words” “that is”
        • “ consists of” “means”
      • A restatement of a definition or explanation in simpler language will be made.
    • Examples of Logical Predictions Based on Text.
      • Signal Words:
        • “ however” “but”
        • “ whereas” “on the other hand”
        • “ in contrast” “in comparison”
        • “ yet”
      • A difference or unexpected outcome is about to be presented
    • Examples of Logical Predictions Based on Text.
      • Signal Words:
        • “ just as” “likewise”
        • “ also” “just like”
        • “ similarly” “in the same way”
        • “ moreover” “furthermore”
      • A continuation or comparison of an earlier idea will be continued.
    • Inferring - Method 1
      • Literal Facts, clues, or information from the text.
      + Link facts to topic. How might the topic be connect? What else do you know about the facts from the text? = What does the author want me to infer about the topic, based on the facts or clues in the text?
    • Inferring Method 2 Text Background Knowledge inference Think about evidence Think about what you know Make it a logical connection between the two
    • Goals for this Webinar
      • Be able to explain the difference between an
        • inference and an opinion.
        • inference and an assumption.
        • inference and a predication
      • Choose the inferring strategy that fits your thinking style and use it to practice inferring.
      • If you have not met the goals, you need to go back through the webinar until you have met the goals.