Making Predictions


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This is a presentation I gave my students to introduce them to the cognitive reading strategy of making predictions.

Credits: Adapted from original by Beth Suderman -
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Additional material from: Comprehension Shouldn’t be Silent by Michelle J. Kelley and Nicki Clausen-Grace

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Making Predictions

  1. 1. Introducing Strategy#2 8/30/09 Elkhart Community Schools 1
  2. 2. How Well Do You Predict? 1. How many slides will this presentation have? 2. What are three words that will be mentioned in this presentation? (Predict doesn’t count!) 2
  3. 3. What Are Predictions? “Predictions are the connecting links between prior knowledge and new information in the book. It’s the interaction of these processes that coalesce—much like sparks firing before the bright flame ignites. . .” -Gillett and Temple, 1990 3
  4. 4. What does it mean to predict?  You use your prior knowledge and the text to set up expectations of what will happen or what information the text will contain.  You use your knowledge of the vocabulary, concept, text organization author or other connections.  You monitor your predictions as you read and adjust or confirm them as needed to better understand the text. 4
  5. 5. Why Learn the strategy of Predicting?  “When students make predictions, their understanding increases, and they are more interested in the reading material.”  “Students use their background knowledge as well as clues from the text . . . to predict and anticipate or logically ‘guess’ what the text will be about.” -Fielding, Anderson, Pearson, 1990 5
  6. 6. Predicting. . .  helps accesses your knowledge of a topic, concept, text structures and text  sets a purpose for reading  provides motivation—you read to confirm or contradict responses 6
  7. 7. Readers sometimes struggle because . . .  they don’t predict what the selection might be about.  they don’t think about what they already know about a topic.  they don’t form images as they read. “They open a book, look at words, and begin turning pages.” -Beers 7
  8. 8. How Does Predicting Help?  Predicting helps you set a purpose for reading and anticipate what you will read.  Making and reviewing predictions helps you interact with the text.  Predictions help connect your prior knowledge with the information being learned. 8
  9. 9. How Does Predicting Help?  Predictions help you develop mental models that you can use whenever you read.  Mental models help you remember what you’ve read.  Predicting helps you pay attention to the sequence of events in fiction.  By supporting your predictions with evidence from the text, you develop critical thinking skills and improve comprehension. 9
  10. 10. Predicting is Brain-- Compatible Learning It’s harder to learn material if it doesn’t grab your attention.  Readers need an emotional hook for learning which connects to their memory.  The “game” of guessing creates novelty and engages the reader. 10
  11. 11. The Brain Loves Predicting  The brain seeks meaning by organizing words, numbers and ideas into meaningful patterns.  Humans naturally look for the “pattern” and want to fill in missing pieces. 11
  12. 12. Types of Predictions  “I predict that Karana will kill the dog that attacked her brother.”  “If I bought 5 items at Target, I estimate the price will be about $25.00.”  “My hypothesis is that combining pure sodium and water will create an explosion.”  “As I listen to this symphony, I guess that the tempo of the of the second movement will be faster.” 12
  13. 13. Survey of Narrative Text (Fiction) Strategic readers preview:  the book cover the title and chapter headings  pictures and captions italicized or bold-faced words  the first few paragraphs (introduction) 13
  14. 14. Narrative Text • What type of genre will it be? • What will be the setting? • Who will be the characters? • What will be the problem? • How will the problem be solved? Look at this • What dialogue will you expect to picture . . . hear? • What organization will the text have? 14
  15. 15. Survey of Expository Text - (Nonfiction) Strategic readers look through the chapter to be read. They look at:  headings & subheadings  key words  illustrations and captions  charts, graphs, tables, diagrams  introductory paragraphs  end of chapter questions 15
  16. 16. Expository Text  What major topics will be covered?  What vocabulary will be used?  How will the text be organized?  Specialized predictions such as in math: What operations can you expect to use in this word problem? Why? 16
  17. 17. When Students. . . “Glance over text, they predict what they’ll see. They look for familiar words or topics which trigger thoughts from background knowledge and establish a purpose.” - Cairo 17
  18. 18. What predictions can you make about this picture? 18
  19. 19. Good readers support their predictions with evidence from the text  It’s not enough just to make a guess.  Proving a prediction to be true calls for careful reading of the text.  How can you support your predictions and prove they’re true? 19
  20. 20. Good readers adjust the predictions they’ve made as they gain new knowledge Strategic readers may record whether the predictions they made were confirmed or disproved by pointing to evidence from the text. Predictions are: Confirmed Changed 20
  21. 21. How Well Did You Predict? Check your answers: • How many slides were used? • What three words were used? How did you do? 21
  22. 22. Strategy#2 A way to boost comprehension! 22