Note that advanced bioenergy research in the UK is focused on approaches that do not put biofuel and food in competition for land.
In relation to chemicals: developing ‘green’ renewable replacements for the many chemicals upon which modern economies depend and currently come from unsustainable fossil carbon sources.
Glucoraphanin is a beneficial chemical that is found naturally in broccoli and is thought to help explain the link between eating broccoli and lower rates of heart disease and some forms of cancer. Glucoraphanin also leads to a boost in the body's antioxidant enzyme levels.
Presentation to the Norfolk Farming Conference
Sustainable Development for the emerging world + Sustainable Recovery for UK plc unlocking the potential of UK Agricultural R+D Norfolk Farming Conference February 2012 George Freeman MP Member of Parliament for Mid Norfolk Chairman of the APPG on Science & Technology in Agriculture Government Advisor on Life Sciences
Contents• The challenge• The opportunity – UK Life Sciences – UK Agricultural Science and Technology – Norfolk & the NRP• Government• Next Steps• The Prize George Freeman MP. Presentation to 2 Norfolk Farming Conference. Feb 2012.
The Challenge• Sustainable Recovery for UK plc• Sustainable Development for the emerging world• Foresight Report: The Future of Food and Farming• Global population size will increase from nearly 7bn today to 8bn by 2030, and c 9bn by 2050.• A generational challenge: we will need to produce twice as much food with half as much land, energy, water and labour.• “Sustainable intensification”• Increasing yield to meet rising demand will be difficult, and requires major investment. Expect 50% from genetic improvement, and 50% from improved agronomy. Key challenges: A. Balancing future demand and supply sustainably B. Ensuring that there is adequate stability in food supplies C. Achieving global access to food and ending hunger. D. Managing the contribution of the food system to the mitigation of climate change. E. Maintaining biodiversity and ecosystems while feeding the world. George Freeman MP. Presentation to 3 Norfolk Farming Conference. Feb 2012.
Increasing Biofuel Demand Sourced from: Bill Gates’ Annual Letter, Professor Gordon George Freeman MP. Presentation to Conway Norfolk Farming Conference. Feb 2012.
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation • “Farming is a great example of something critical to the poor that gets very little attention in rich countries.”• 2012 focus on innovation in Agriculture• Devoted almost $2 billion to helping poor farm families• Preliminary studies show that the rise in global temperature alone could reduce the productivity of the main crops by over 25 percent.• In total, only $3 billion per year is spent on researching the seven most important crops Case Study: In India rice farmers are switching to a new rice seed called Swarna- Sub1, which can survive in flooded fields. Their rice fields get flooded every three to four years, and in past flood years they ended up with almost no food to eat. Currently, 4 million tons of rice are lost to flooding every year in Bangladesh and India. But as farmers in the region adopt Swarna-Sub1, they will grow enough extra rice to feed 30 million people. Case Study: Working with the UK’s BBSRC, DfID and the Indian Government on a range of sustainable crop research projects George Freeman MP. Presentation to 5 Norfolk Farming Conference. Feb 2012.
The opportunity: UK Life Sciences• 4 major global markets: Chemicals. • UK has world class strengths in basic Energy. Food. Medicine. science and research and is Number 1• Growth! (China 8%, India 7%, Brazil, in the world for bioscience Russia 6%, Africa 5%) – 3% of world’s researchers. 6% of• 3 Life Sciences: Papers. 11% of citations. 14% of • Agriculture. most cited. • Cleantech. – 2 Unis in top 5. 12 Unis in top 100. • Biomedicine. 32 in top 200.• Huge UK export and growth potential – Biomedicine:• Linkages and Convergence: • Cambridge / London / Oxford • Agriculture and Climate Change – Plant science: • Nutrition and Health • Norwich / Cambridge / Reading / • Environment and Health London/Liverpool/Nottingham/ Rothamsted /Aberystwyth• UK has highly sophisticated Venture Finance markets – Cleantech:• Fast growth businesses creating the • Norwich / Cambridge / London / Bristol / South West sustainable jobs of tomorrow • Clusters of innovation in a rebalanced• Food represents a significant part of economy. the UK economy • Norwich / Cambridge / Oxford: George Freeman MP. Presentation to A11/A14 innovation corridor 6 Norfolk Farming Conference. Feb 2012.
The opportunity: UK agri science• Centres of Excellence But.... • Norwich • Cambridge • Historic under-investment from some parts of • Reading • Aberystwyth Government/industry • • London Liverpool • <10% of all UK Sci R+D • Nottingham • Rothamsted Research • Scotland • Previously fragmented• A range of tools – Basic Plant science • Lack of research strategy – Conventional breeding • Lack of industry partnership – Wide range of technologies including GM• Not just yield / productivity benefit NOW – Nutrition / “Nutriceuticals” BBSRC running £400M+ Global Food Security programme – Environmental to coordinate agri science research across Govt Depts,• Huge global potential: Agencies and the Research Councils, supported by capital – Prof Howard Atkinson, Leeds • GM nematode-resistant bananas investment e.g. £26M into NRP – Prof Jonathan Jones, Norwich • Blight resistant Potato BBSRC has also launched ‘industry clubs’ e.g. Crop – Prof Graham Moore, Norwich Improvement Research Club with companies including • £7 million grant to a consortium of researchers to increase the Syngenta and Velcourt as well as 4 Advanced Training diversity of traits available in wheat via a comprehensive pre- breeding programme- Partnerships between users and providers of high–level skills in the agri–food sector Others need to follow this lead George Freeman MP. Presentation to 7 Norfolk Farming Conference. Feb 2012.
GM: a technology in demand• Global food demand set to inc by 70% 2006 to 2050.• Benefits But..... – Yield. GM crops have been shown to increase yields by 6%-30% on the same land area. • Europe currently grows just 2 GM crops commercially. – Environment. (Water, Carbon, Pesticides, • EU anti-innovation‘Precautionary Principle’ Cultivation). GM crops have reduced pesticide use • As of March 2011, only 2 GM crops had been approved by 350mKg. for cultivation in Europe – maize and potato. – Development. 90% of GM crops grown by • Several member states have issued bans on cultivation smallest, poorest farmers of these crops.• 29 countries growing GM crops e.g. 98% of soya • BASF relocated R+D HQ from Europe to USA exported from South America is now GM • It takes on average almost 4 years for a GM import• 10% of global ag land in GM production (15m farmers) approval to be completed in Europe. (Twice as long as• 48% of crops in developing countries GM. (Will exceed comparable jurisdictions). Cost for applicant c E7- developed countries in 2015) 15million / crop.• Global area of biotech crops reached 160m HA in 2011 • Agricultural Productivity impact: next 10 years (up 12mHA on 2010) – EU: 4%• Global value of biotech seed $13.2bn in 2011 – USA: 15-20%• The global market for agri biotechnology is valued at – Brazil: 40% £90bn and is growing at 10-15% pa.• % of UK public concerned about GM has declined from 43% in 2001 to 22% in 2011.• Main UK public food concerns: Source: Reuters – Cost (61% of respondents) ISAAA Food Standards Agency, 2011 – Salt (51%) EuropaBio :guide to GM crops and policies – Key other: (30-50%) Fat/sugar/waste/hygiene/labelling/additives) – GM mentioned by 22%• >2trillion meals containing GM ingredients have been eaten over last 15 years without one health incident identified. George Freeman MP. Presentation to 8 Norfolk Farming Conference. Feb 2012.
The Opportunity: Norfolk and Norwich• Norwich Research Park – Major employer – 11,600 staff, 3,000 scientists, 14,200 students – £100m research fund, £46m/year invested by the BBSRC – 6 world class institutions within 1km radius, with global reputation. – 4th in the UK for number of “most highly cited scientists” by sector (after London and Oxbridge)Case Study: Prof Jonathan Jones, Sainsbury Laboratory• Studies basic mechanisms of plant disease and resistance since 1988• A centre of excellence for late blight research, which costs farmers up to £4bn a year worldwide• Conducting research since 2010 into GM blight-resistant potatoes• Testing whether resistance genes from wild potatoes enable plants to recognize whenthey are under attack.• Resistance genes then activate the plant’s natural defence mechanisms. Source: Prof. Jonathan Jones of the Sainsbury Laboratory George Freeman MP. Presentation to 9 Norfolk Farming Conference. Feb 2012.
The Opportunity: Norfolk and Norwich Institute of John Innes Food Research Centre The GenomeAnalysis Centre Sainsbury laboratory University of East Anglia Norwich Science Partnership - world class “sustainability” Norfolk and Norwich cluster in environment, food, health University Hospital George Freeman MP. Presentation to 10 Norfolk Farming Conference. Feb 2012.
4 Norfolk Case StudiesAgricultural Tech: New varieties: Biomedicine: Clean Energy:MutMap Beneforté Anglia DNA WindcropDeveloped with Japanese Based at the Norwich Based in Norwichscientists in the Sainsbury Broccoli Research ParkLaboratory at the John Innes Developed by British Installs and maintains small-Centre scientists at the Institute Offers a range of paternity scale wind turbines of Food Research and the testing services for theA new technique to identify and John Innes Centre commercial and retail Provides landowners withisolate traits in rice such as salt marketstolerance. access to green electricity- Bred to have two to three cutting costs and carbon times the level of the Feb 2011: Launch ofCould cut time to produce AssureDNA, the UKs first off emissionscommercial rice varieties by phytonutrient the shelf paternity testing kit,3Xfold or better. glucoraphanin than now available in Boots stores Founded in 2009 by John standard broccoli nationwide Moore, former LotusCan soon be applied to other Engineering commercialcrops Great for diet and health Expected turnover from director October 2011 to September 2012 of £2m On sale in Marks and Currently has 110 Spencer in the UK and operational sites, and by the Launching a new drug and throughout the USA. alcohol testing service in end of the first quarter of early 2012 2012 will be installing at a rate of 50 a month George Freeman MP. Presentation to 11 Norfolk Farming Conference. Feb 2012.
Government support?• Coalition protection for the Science Budget: • Life Sciences Strategy 2011 £4.6bn /annum til 2015. (Capital down: • Agricultural Science 2012 – £514m in 2011/12 – All Party Group on Ag Sci: Food Chain – £449m in 2012/13 – DEFRA / BIS Ag innovation – £416m in 2013/14 – BBSRC has a strategic interest in food security, – £447m in 2014/15 Bioenergy, industrial biotechnology and genomics• Breakdown of spend: – DfiD: Ag Sci as UK export for ‘Trade not Aid’ • £2.75billion to Research Councils / Space • Export drive via UKTI Agency • £1.6bn direct to Universities for R+D • DfiD – The Foresight Global Food and Farming report 2011 sees • £150m through HE Innovation funding to Uni’s significant role for GM and UK AgSci in global development • £100m to Learned Societies. – DFID – R+D funding across ALL disciplines (of which Ag is• Chancellor added an extra £470m on science about one quarter, and a small proportion is using GM) • 2011: £230m (£200m in Autumn statement) • 2015: potentially £410m – £70m for NRP (26M) and Babraham (44M) £m for – Collaborations (Gates Foundation, CGIAR, BBSRC, Translational Research Fellowships Alliance for the Green Revolution in Africa...100• Global Food Security programme - £400M/year varieties of drought resistant maize in Africa) – Challenge: industry links and translation.• Technology Innovation Centres (Catapult) – Cell therapy - Regenerative Medicine • Europe – CAP Reform – ((2012: Agricultural + Plant Science?)) – Science based Agricultural Innovation Framework George Freeman MP. Presentation to Norfolk Farming Conference. Feb 2012.
Next Steps• Political support and leadership for UK Agricultural R+D and Innovation. – Agriculture as a strategic priority – Science / evidence based policy on GM + associated technologies – Public opinion – Skills• Europe – Regulation – CAP reform• Support for inward investment / global exports – A Technology Innovation Centre for UK Ag / Plant Science – DfiD – Strategic collaborations with developing (Commonwealth?) nations. George Freeman MP. Presentation to 13 Norfolk Farming Conference. Feb 2012.
The Prize.....• A sustainable economic recovery for UK plc• A global role• Supporting the sustainable development of the nations (markets + allies) of tomorrow The county that gave Britain its first Prime Minister, the seeds of the Agricultural Revolution and its greatest military hero has a key role again. George Freeman MP. Presentation to 14 Norfolk Farming Conference. Feb 2012.