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Mp Lt5 Mp Lt5 Presentation Transcript

  • Media Planning Lecture 6 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • Advanced Measurements and Calculations Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • Various Concepts of Audience Measurements Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • Base Vs Audience Number Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • A base is a demographic group, such as women or men aged 35-49. • Audience number, e.g. no. of readers of Next Magazine, is the no. of exposure of the vehicle, which depends on how the media vehicle measures. • Different vehicles may have same target base but different audience numbers. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • Circulation Vs Audience Number Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • Circulation is the number of distribution of a publication, which does not tell any about the demographics of the audience, e.g. age, sex, household income, education, etc. • It is always less than the audience number because one copy of the publication can be viewed by several readers. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • Audit Bureau of Circulations (ABC) (http:// www.hkabc.com.hk/en/index.htm) is a non- profit, cooperative association which audits and reports the circulations of world-wide publications at regular intervals. Sunday, 27 December 2009
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  • • Audit Bureau of Circulations (ABC) (http:// www.hkabc.com.hk/en/index.htm) is a non- profit, cooperative association which audits and reports the circulations of world-wide publications at regular intervals. • It is widely accepted throughout the advertising agency. Again, it does not tell any about demographic data. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • Media planners are more interested in the number of demographic targets who will buy the product than any above-mentioned measures, i.e. base, circulation or audience number. MEDIA PLANNER TA (Demographic Data of TA) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • Advertising Exposure Vs Vehicle Exposure (Audience Number) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • Advertising exposure, or advertising page exposure, is the number of readers actually saw the advertisement. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • It is the utmost important ( ) data for media planners. However, like vehicle exposure, it may not be accurately measured and readily available as circulation. ... predict ~!! ... Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • As a result, advertising exposure, vehicle exposure and circulation are used complementarily ( ) when the related information is required. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • Audience Accumulation Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • Media vehicle or advertisement cannot be exposed to ALL audiences at one time. • Audience accumulation is the buildup of total audiences over different media vehicles for an advertisement over time, usually in a month. ~!!! advertising accumulation... Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • Audience Accumulation in Magazines Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • When the ad is placed in successive ( ) issues of the same magazine • When the ad is placed in the same month’s issue of different magazines • Pass along the magazine to as many readers as possible Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • Primary readers are those who either have purchased the magazine themselves or are members of the purchaser’s household. • Secondary, or pass-along, readers are those not in the purchaser’s household. They can be the purchaser’s friends, or those reading the publication in clinics, hair salon or the airplanes, i.e. out-of-home readers. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • In-home reader, whether a primary or pass- along reader, reads more pages of a publication and spends more time reading than the person outside the home. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • Audience Accumulation in Broadcast Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • While a program is being broadcast for a period, audiences are tuning in. • When the commercial is aired with same program within a four-week period • When the commercial is aired with different programs targeting the same audiences within the same four-week period. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • For broadcast media, there is no pass-along audience as with magazines. ... Pass ... Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • For broadcast media, there is no pass-along audience as with magazines. • Time is a major element in broadcast accumulation. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • tune-in • For broadcast media, there is no~~ pass-along audience as with magazines. • Time is a major element in broadcast accumulation. • Research shows that there are more tune- in audiences than tune-out audience for a program. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • For broadcast media, there is no pass-along audience as with magazines. • Time is a major element in broadcast accumulation. • Research shows that there are more tune- in audiences than tune-out audience for a program. • Therefore, broadcast audiences can be accumulated. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • Reach Vs Frequency Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • The number of different people who see an ad at least once is called reach. • Some people who are reached will see an ad only once; others will see it many times. The number of times the average person sees the ad is called frequency. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • Coverage Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • Coverage is the number or percentage of the population or households of the target market that is exposed to the media. • It measures the degree of delivery that a media vehicle can reach the target audience. TA ... Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • Newspaper Coverage Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • Newspaper coverage is the number of copies circulated (i.e. circulation) compared to the number of households in the circulation area. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • Suppose the average circulation of Apple Daily is 360,000, the no. of household in Hong Kong is 1.2 millions. Newspaper Coverage = 360,000 / 1,200,000 = 30% Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • Magazine Coverage Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • Magazine Coverage is the number of audience compared to the population size of the target market (segment). Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • TV and Radio Coverage Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • It is the number or percentage of homes with radio or televisions sets within the signal area of a given station. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • Whether a household choose to tune in depends on: Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • The programming of the station (i.e. whether it is interesting enough to attract them) ... ~~!! ... Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • The programming of the station (i.e. whether it is interesting enough to attract them) • The power of the station (more powerful stations can cover more homes than weaker stations) • The height of a station’s antenna ( ) and the pull of the home’s antenna which affect reception of signals • The number and nature of obstructions ( ) that might prevent the broadcast signal from being received, such as mountains, tall buildings, or bridges. • The service area of cable systems that carry a station’s signal Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • Cable TV Coverage Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • Cable TV does not share the signal problems as mentioned above for ordinary TV or radio station. Local examples of Cable TV companies include Cable TV by Wharf, NOW TV by PCCW. International examples include ESPN and CNN. • Cable TV coverage is the number or percentage of homes that are installed with the cable network. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • Internet Coverage Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • It is the percentage of a segment (usually adults) that can access the Internet at home or work. • On the other hand, websites would like to express their audience as a percent of those active Internet users. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • Outdoor Advertising Coverage Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • It is the percentage of the population that passes one or more of the outdoor media (depends on whether a particular location or outdoor advertising as a whole is studied) in a given period of time. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • One of the characteristics of outdoor advertising is that it has very high coverage because the advertisement is not time-dependent with the advertising period (that’s unlike publication or TV program). Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • IMPORTANT Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • While coverage for print media always underestimate the audience numbers, coverage for broadcast media, internet or outdoor advertising tends to overestimate the numbers. • It is because there are secondary (pass- along) readers for magazine or newspaper, while some homes which can access to the broadcast media or internet do not tune-in the stations. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • Composition Vs Coverage Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • Composition is the percentage of the audience number of the publication that is within the target market. • For example, Oriental Daily News covers 50% of the HK population aged 15-44 (Coverage = 50%), but only 33% of its audience number is within age 15-44. (Composition = 33%). • Coverage is based on population of the universe, while composition is based on audience number of the publication. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • High-coverage publication can certainly reach the target, but a significant part of the budget will be wasted on people who have no interest in the product. High-Coverage ... Coverage ... Next Magazine Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • On the other hand, high-composition magazine minimizes the waste but risks missing people who buy the product but do not happen to be readers of the publication. • Planners typically use a mixture of high-coverage and high-composition publications. High-Composition Coverage TA only... Sunday, 27 December 2009
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  • Broadcast Rating (Audience Rating or Rating) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • The rating estimates the audience that has tune-in a program during a specific time period. It is commonly expressed in number of rating point, each of which represents 1% of the household that can receive the broadcast. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • Household Using Television (HUT) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • HUT represents the total percentage of homes in a market that are watching television at a given point in time. Television viewing is affected by living habits: Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • In the morning, tune-in (HUT) tends to be low, because many men and women at work and children at school. Viewers are primarily retirees, unemployed workers, and stay-at-home parents with small children Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • In the afternoon, HUT rises dramatically because children return home form school Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • In the evening, HUT rises to maximum because adults return home from work Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • At night, HUT drops sharply. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • HUT ... HUT~~ Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • During summer, HUT rises a little bit in the morning session because more students stay at home. But it drops in the evening session because more adults go out for vacation trips. If expressed in points, HUT is the sum of the ratings of all programs broadcast within a given time. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • Gross Rating Points (GRPs) ( ) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • Definition Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • It is the sum of individual ratings (percentage) of media vehicles in a media plan, disregarding the duplication of audience. GRP GRP 40 3 1 GRP ~!!! Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • GRPs in Broadcast Media ( ) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • The GRPs concept originates from broadcast media, and it is best illustrated by an example: • In a week, nine 30-sec TV commercials will be broadcast at different time-slots. Then, Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • The GRPs concept originates from broadcast media, and it is best illustrated by an example: • In a week, nine 30-sec TV commercials will be broadcast at different time-slots. Then, Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • The GRPs concept originates from broadcast media, and it is best illustrated by an example: • In a week, nine 30-sec TV commercials will be broadcast at different time-slots. Then, Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • The GRPs concept originates from broadcast media, and it is best illustrated by an example: • In a week, nine 30-sec TV commercials will be broadcast at different time-slots. Then, Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • The GRPs concept originates from broadcast media, and it is best illustrated by an example: • In a week, nine 30-sec TV commercials will be broadcast at different time-slots. Then, Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • GRPs in Other Media ( ) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • The GRPs concept has been extended to other media such as magazine, newspapers, and outdoor. Sunday, 27 December 2009
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  • Gross Impressions ( ) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • Definition Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • It is the sum of individual audience size of media vehicles in a media plan, disregarding the duplication of audience. GRP x (Audience base / Universe) x 100 = (Gross Impression) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • It is the sum of individual audience size of media vehicles in a media plan, disregarding the duplication of audience. GRP x (Audience base / Universe) x 100 = (Gross Impression) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • It is the sum of individual audience size of media vehicles in a media plan, disregarding the duplication of audience. GRP x (Audience base / Universe) x 100 = (Gross Impression) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • It is the sum of individual audience size of media vehicles in a media plan, disregarding the duplication of audience. GRP x (Audience base / Universe) x 100 = (Gross Impression) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • Gross Impression for Print Media Sunday, 27 December 2009
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  • Reach ( ) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • Definition Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • It is the number or percentage of targets that will see the ad at least once over the advertising period. Reach 3 1 3 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • Reach and GRPs Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • Unlike GRPs, reach is an unduplicated number ( )– each person is counted only once. • Therefore, reach (if expressed in percentage) can never exceed 100%, while GRPs can continue building without limit. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • Why audience is counted only once? Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 1. Although it is controversial ( ) among media planners to argue on the number of advertising exposure that can make the ad effective, there is a significant difference between being exposed and not being exposed. 2. Radio and Television would parallel the audience reach of a monthly magazine. Sunday, 27 December 2009
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  • Reach  =  (4  /  10)  X  100  =  40 Sunday, 27 December 2009
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  • GRPs  =  (40  +  30  +  30  +  40)  =  140 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • Reach  =  (Number  of            /  Total  Viewers)  X  100 =  (7  /  10)  X  100  =  70 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • Frequency  =   Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • Frequency  =   7 Viewers~!!! Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • Frequency  = 7 Viewers~!!! Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • Frequency  =  14  /  7  =  2 7 Viewers~!!! Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • Kinds of Reach Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • 1. The four-week reach of an individual vehicle, such as a television program 2. More commonly, the combined reach of four or five vehicles that would be bought as a single package in an ad campaign. (Remember: Reach is a measure of vehicle exposure, not advertising exposure.) Sunday, 27 December 2009
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  • How Reach Builds over Time Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • When an ad is first exposed, it accumulates ( ) large number of target audience. • When the no. of exposure increases, the number of accumulated audience also increases but at a decreasing rate. • An example for a TV program is shown as follows: Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • GRPs   (Reach)   Reach Reach ~ Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • Frequency ( ) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • Frequency ( ) • Frequency measures the average number of times that the audiences are exposed over a period to an ad campaign. Reach    Frequency   (Reach) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • Calculation Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • Frequency = GRPs / Reach (%) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • Frequency = Total Duplicated Audience / Reach (number) (Total Duplicated Audience = Gross Impression) Reach  x  Frequency  =  GPRs  GRP    Reach   Frequency Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • For Example Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • GRPs = 80.1; Reach = 38 (%), then Frequency = 80.1/38 = 2.1 (times) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • Frequency Distribution Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • Frequency Distribution • The above calculation for frequency is only an average number. • In the following table, the number exposed at any frequency is unduplicated, meaning that these people are counted only once. Sunday, 27 December 2009
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  • Frequency = Total Duplicated Audience / Reach (number) (Total Duplicated Audience = Gross Impression) Sunday, 27 December 2009
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  • Relationship of Reach and Frequency Sunday, 27 December 2009
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  • GRPs = Reach x Frequency Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • Reach and Frequency • If we increase GRPs, reach and frequency will both increases but at different rates, depending on which particular plan is being used. ( GRPs Reach Frequency plan) • For example, some tends to increase the reach, while some contributes to increase in frequency. Sunday, 27 December 2009
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  • Reach and Frequency • Plan A delivers more audience members at 1 or 2 exposure level, but for 3 exposure level, Plan B is superior. • Plan B reaches more persons than does Plan A at 3+ exposure level. If the advertising effort requires higher frequency, then Plan B is the obvious choice. About 75% of the target will see the commercial at least once, while 40% will see it 3 or more times. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • For any plan, reach rises more slowly when GRPs keeps increasing. Meanwhile, frequency increases and, after certain level, rises more rapidly because reach increases slower. (Reach Frequency - ) Sunday, 27 December 2009
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  • Effective Frequency ( ) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • Effective Frequency ( ) • Effective frequency is defined as the amount of frequency (or repetition) the planner judges to be necessary for advertisements to be effective in communicating. • It is merely ( ) a judgment. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • One exposure of an advertisement to a target consumer group (within a purchase cycle) has little or no effect. ( ... ) Sunday, 27 December 2009
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  • • Because one exposure is usually ineffective, the main thrust ( ) of media planning should be on emphasizing frequency rather than reach. ( ) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • vodafone Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • Most of the research studies suggested that two exposures within a purchase cycle are an effective threshold ( ) level. ( ) Sunday, 27 December 2009
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  • • Three exposures within a purchase cycle, however, are felt to be optimal. ( ) Sunday, 27 December 2009
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  • • After three exposures within a purchasing cycle, advertising becomes more effective as frequency is increased, but at a decreasing rate. ( ) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • Lu Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • Wear-out ( ) of an advertising campaign is not caused by too much frequency. It is caused by copy and content problems. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • Generally, small and less-known brands will benefit most from increased frequency. ( ) Larger, well-known brands might or might not be helped by increasing frequency, depending on how close they are to advertising saturation levels ( ). Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • • Each brand might require a different level of frequency of exposure ( ). One cannot generalize from a given brand’s experiences to some other brand ( ). Specialized ( ) research is required to find the unique ( ) frequency level for a brand Sunday, 27 December 2009
  • heineken Sunday, 27 December 2009
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  • • Two brands spending on the same amount of money for advertising can have different responses to their frequencies. ( ) Sunday, 27 December 2009