Mp Lt5

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Mp Lt5

  1. 1. Media Planning Lecture 6 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  2. 2. Advanced Measurements and Calculations Sunday, 27 December 2009
  3. 3. Various Concepts of Audience Measurements Sunday, 27 December 2009
  4. 4. Base Vs Audience Number Sunday, 27 December 2009
  5. 5. • A base is a demographic group, such as women or men aged 35-49. • Audience number, e.g. no. of readers of Next Magazine, is the no. of exposure of the vehicle, which depends on how the media vehicle measures. • Different vehicles may have same target base but different audience numbers. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  6. 6. Circulation Vs Audience Number Sunday, 27 December 2009
  7. 7. • Circulation is the number of distribution of a publication, which does not tell any about the demographics of the audience, e.g. age, sex, household income, education, etc. • It is always less than the audience number because one copy of the publication can be viewed by several readers. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  8. 8. • Audit Bureau of Circulations (ABC) (http:// www.hkabc.com.hk/en/index.htm) is a non- profit, cooperative association which audits and reports the circulations of world-wide publications at regular intervals. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  9. 9. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  10. 10. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  11. 11. • Audit Bureau of Circulations (ABC) (http:// www.hkabc.com.hk/en/index.htm) is a non- profit, cooperative association which audits and reports the circulations of world-wide publications at regular intervals. • It is widely accepted throughout the advertising agency. Again, it does not tell any about demographic data. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  12. 12. • Media planners are more interested in the number of demographic targets who will buy the product than any above-mentioned measures, i.e. base, circulation or audience number. MEDIA PLANNER TA (Demographic Data of TA) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  13. 13. Advertising Exposure Vs Vehicle Exposure (Audience Number) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  14. 14. • Advertising exposure, or advertising page exposure, is the number of readers actually saw the advertisement. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  15. 15. • It is the utmost important ( ) data for media planners. However, like vehicle exposure, it may not be accurately measured and readily available as circulation. ... predict ~!! ... Sunday, 27 December 2009
  16. 16. • As a result, advertising exposure, vehicle exposure and circulation are used complementarily ( ) when the related information is required. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  17. 17. Audience Accumulation Sunday, 27 December 2009
  18. 18. • Media vehicle or advertisement cannot be exposed to ALL audiences at one time. • Audience accumulation is the buildup of total audiences over different media vehicles for an advertisement over time, usually in a month. ~!!! advertising accumulation... Sunday, 27 December 2009
  19. 19. Audience Accumulation in Magazines Sunday, 27 December 2009
  20. 20. • When the ad is placed in successive ( ) issues of the same magazine • When the ad is placed in the same month’s issue of different magazines • Pass along the magazine to as many readers as possible Sunday, 27 December 2009
  21. 21. • Primary readers are those who either have purchased the magazine themselves or are members of the purchaser’s household. • Secondary, or pass-along, readers are those not in the purchaser’s household. They can be the purchaser’s friends, or those reading the publication in clinics, hair salon or the airplanes, i.e. out-of-home readers. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  22. 22. • In-home reader, whether a primary or pass- along reader, reads more pages of a publication and spends more time reading than the person outside the home. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  23. 23. Audience Accumulation in Broadcast Sunday, 27 December 2009
  24. 24. • While a program is being broadcast for a period, audiences are tuning in. • When the commercial is aired with same program within a four-week period • When the commercial is aired with different programs targeting the same audiences within the same four-week period. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  25. 25. • For broadcast media, there is no pass-along audience as with magazines. ... Pass ... Sunday, 27 December 2009
  26. 26. • For broadcast media, there is no pass-along audience as with magazines. • Time is a major element in broadcast accumulation. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  27. 27. tune-in • For broadcast media, there is no~~ pass-along audience as with magazines. • Time is a major element in broadcast accumulation. • Research shows that there are more tune- in audiences than tune-out audience for a program. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  28. 28. • For broadcast media, there is no pass-along audience as with magazines. • Time is a major element in broadcast accumulation. • Research shows that there are more tune- in audiences than tune-out audience for a program. • Therefore, broadcast audiences can be accumulated. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  29. 29. Reach Vs Frequency Sunday, 27 December 2009
  30. 30. • The number of different people who see an ad at least once is called reach. • Some people who are reached will see an ad only once; others will see it many times. The number of times the average person sees the ad is called frequency. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  31. 31. Coverage Sunday, 27 December 2009
  32. 32. • Coverage is the number or percentage of the population or households of the target market that is exposed to the media. • It measures the degree of delivery that a media vehicle can reach the target audience. TA ... Sunday, 27 December 2009
  33. 33. Newspaper Coverage Sunday, 27 December 2009
  34. 34. • Newspaper coverage is the number of copies circulated (i.e. circulation) compared to the number of households in the circulation area. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  35. 35. • Suppose the average circulation of Apple Daily is 360,000, the no. of household in Hong Kong is 1.2 millions. Newspaper Coverage = 360,000 / 1,200,000 = 30% Sunday, 27 December 2009
  36. 36. Magazine Coverage Sunday, 27 December 2009
  37. 37. • Magazine Coverage is the number of audience compared to the population size of the target market (segment). Sunday, 27 December 2009
  38. 38. TV and Radio Coverage Sunday, 27 December 2009
  39. 39. • It is the number or percentage of homes with radio or televisions sets within the signal area of a given station. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  40. 40. • Whether a household choose to tune in depends on: Sunday, 27 December 2009
  41. 41. • The programming of the station (i.e. whether it is interesting enough to attract them) ... ~~!! ... Sunday, 27 December 2009
  42. 42. • The programming of the station (i.e. whether it is interesting enough to attract them) • The power of the station (more powerful stations can cover more homes than weaker stations) • The height of a station’s antenna ( ) and the pull of the home’s antenna which affect reception of signals • The number and nature of obstructions ( ) that might prevent the broadcast signal from being received, such as mountains, tall buildings, or bridges. • The service area of cable systems that carry a station’s signal Sunday, 27 December 2009
  43. 43. Cable TV Coverage Sunday, 27 December 2009
  44. 44. • Cable TV does not share the signal problems as mentioned above for ordinary TV or radio station. Local examples of Cable TV companies include Cable TV by Wharf, NOW TV by PCCW. International examples include ESPN and CNN. • Cable TV coverage is the number or percentage of homes that are installed with the cable network. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  45. 45. Internet Coverage Sunday, 27 December 2009
  46. 46. • It is the percentage of a segment (usually adults) that can access the Internet at home or work. • On the other hand, websites would like to express their audience as a percent of those active Internet users. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  47. 47. Outdoor Advertising Coverage Sunday, 27 December 2009
  48. 48. • It is the percentage of the population that passes one or more of the outdoor media (depends on whether a particular location or outdoor advertising as a whole is studied) in a given period of time. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  49. 49. • One of the characteristics of outdoor advertising is that it has very high coverage because the advertisement is not time-dependent with the advertising period (that’s unlike publication or TV program). Sunday, 27 December 2009
  50. 50. IMPORTANT Sunday, 27 December 2009
  51. 51. • While coverage for print media always underestimate the audience numbers, coverage for broadcast media, internet or outdoor advertising tends to overestimate the numbers. • It is because there are secondary (pass- along) readers for magazine or newspaper, while some homes which can access to the broadcast media or internet do not tune-in the stations. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  52. 52. Composition Vs Coverage Sunday, 27 December 2009
  53. 53. • Composition is the percentage of the audience number of the publication that is within the target market. • For example, Oriental Daily News covers 50% of the HK population aged 15-44 (Coverage = 50%), but only 33% of its audience number is within age 15-44. (Composition = 33%). • Coverage is based on population of the universe, while composition is based on audience number of the publication. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  54. 54. • High-coverage publication can certainly reach the target, but a significant part of the budget will be wasted on people who have no interest in the product. High-Coverage ... Coverage ... Next Magazine Sunday, 27 December 2009
  55. 55. • On the other hand, high-composition magazine minimizes the waste but risks missing people who buy the product but do not happen to be readers of the publication. • Planners typically use a mixture of high-coverage and high-composition publications. High-Composition Coverage TA only... Sunday, 27 December 2009
  56. 56. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  57. 57. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  58. 58. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  59. 59. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  60. 60. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  61. 61. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  62. 62. Broadcast Rating (Audience Rating or Rating) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  63. 63. • The rating estimates the audience that has tune-in a program during a specific time period. It is commonly expressed in number of rating point, each of which represents 1% of the household that can receive the broadcast. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  64. 64. Household Using Television (HUT) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  65. 65. • HUT represents the total percentage of homes in a market that are watching television at a given point in time. Television viewing is affected by living habits: Sunday, 27 December 2009
  66. 66. • In the morning, tune-in (HUT) tends to be low, because many men and women at work and children at school. Viewers are primarily retirees, unemployed workers, and stay-at-home parents with small children Sunday, 27 December 2009
  67. 67. • In the afternoon, HUT rises dramatically because children return home form school Sunday, 27 December 2009
  68. 68. • In the evening, HUT rises to maximum because adults return home from work Sunday, 27 December 2009
  69. 69. • At night, HUT drops sharply. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  70. 70. HUT ... HUT~~ Sunday, 27 December 2009
  71. 71. During summer, HUT rises a little bit in the morning session because more students stay at home. But it drops in the evening session because more adults go out for vacation trips. If expressed in points, HUT is the sum of the ratings of all programs broadcast within a given time. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  72. 72. Gross Rating Points (GRPs) ( ) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  73. 73. Definition Sunday, 27 December 2009
  74. 74. • It is the sum of individual ratings (percentage) of media vehicles in a media plan, disregarding the duplication of audience. GRP GRP 40 3 1 GRP ~!!! Sunday, 27 December 2009
  75. 75. GRPs in Broadcast Media ( ) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  76. 76. • The GRPs concept originates from broadcast media, and it is best illustrated by an example: • In a week, nine 30-sec TV commercials will be broadcast at different time-slots. Then, Sunday, 27 December 2009
  77. 77. • The GRPs concept originates from broadcast media, and it is best illustrated by an example: • In a week, nine 30-sec TV commercials will be broadcast at different time-slots. Then, Sunday, 27 December 2009
  78. 78. • The GRPs concept originates from broadcast media, and it is best illustrated by an example: • In a week, nine 30-sec TV commercials will be broadcast at different time-slots. Then, Sunday, 27 December 2009
  79. 79. • The GRPs concept originates from broadcast media, and it is best illustrated by an example: • In a week, nine 30-sec TV commercials will be broadcast at different time-slots. Then, Sunday, 27 December 2009
  80. 80. • The GRPs concept originates from broadcast media, and it is best illustrated by an example: • In a week, nine 30-sec TV commercials will be broadcast at different time-slots. Then, Sunday, 27 December 2009
  81. 81. GRPs in Other Media ( ) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  82. 82. • The GRPs concept has been extended to other media such as magazine, newspapers, and outdoor. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  83. 83. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  84. 84. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  85. 85. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  86. 86. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  87. 87. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  88. 88. Gross Impressions ( ) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  89. 89. Definition Sunday, 27 December 2009
  90. 90. • It is the sum of individual audience size of media vehicles in a media plan, disregarding the duplication of audience. GRP x (Audience base / Universe) x 100 = (Gross Impression) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  91. 91. • It is the sum of individual audience size of media vehicles in a media plan, disregarding the duplication of audience. GRP x (Audience base / Universe) x 100 = (Gross Impression) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  92. 92. • It is the sum of individual audience size of media vehicles in a media plan, disregarding the duplication of audience. GRP x (Audience base / Universe) x 100 = (Gross Impression) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  93. 93. • It is the sum of individual audience size of media vehicles in a media plan, disregarding the duplication of audience. GRP x (Audience base / Universe) x 100 = (Gross Impression) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  94. 94. Gross Impression for Print Media Sunday, 27 December 2009
  95. 95. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  96. 96. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  97. 97. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  98. 98. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  99. 99. Reach ( ) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  100. 100. Definition Sunday, 27 December 2009
  101. 101. • It is the number or percentage of targets that will see the ad at least once over the advertising period. Reach 3 1 3 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  102. 102. Reach and GRPs Sunday, 27 December 2009
  103. 103. • Unlike GRPs, reach is an unduplicated number ( )– each person is counted only once. • Therefore, reach (if expressed in percentage) can never exceed 100%, while GRPs can continue building without limit. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  104. 104. Why audience is counted only once? Sunday, 27 December 2009
  105. 105. 1. Although it is controversial ( ) among media planners to argue on the number of advertising exposure that can make the ad effective, there is a significant difference between being exposed and not being exposed. 2. Radio and Television would parallel the audience reach of a monthly magazine. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  106. 106. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  107. 107. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  108. 108. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  109. 109. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  110. 110. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  111. 111. Reach  =  (4  /  10)  X  100  =  40 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  112. 112. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  113. 113. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  114. 114. GRPs  =  (40  +  30  +  30  +  40)  =  140 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  115. 115. Reach  =  (Number  of            /  Total  Viewers)  X  100 =  (7  /  10)  X  100  =  70 Sunday, 27 December 2009
  116. 116. Frequency  =   Sunday, 27 December 2009
  117. 117. Frequency  =   7 Viewers~!!! Sunday, 27 December 2009
  118. 118. Frequency  = 7 Viewers~!!! Sunday, 27 December 2009
  119. 119. Frequency  =  14  /  7  =  2 7 Viewers~!!! Sunday, 27 December 2009
  120. 120. Kinds of Reach Sunday, 27 December 2009
  121. 121. 1. The four-week reach of an individual vehicle, such as a television program 2. More commonly, the combined reach of four or five vehicles that would be bought as a single package in an ad campaign. (Remember: Reach is a measure of vehicle exposure, not advertising exposure.) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  122. 122. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  123. 123. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  124. 124. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  125. 125. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  126. 126. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  127. 127. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  128. 128. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  129. 129. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  130. 130. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  131. 131. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  132. 132. How Reach Builds over Time Sunday, 27 December 2009
  133. 133. • When an ad is first exposed, it accumulates ( ) large number of target audience. • When the no. of exposure increases, the number of accumulated audience also increases but at a decreasing rate. • An example for a TV program is shown as follows: Sunday, 27 December 2009
  134. 134. GRPs   (Reach)   Reach Reach ~ Sunday, 27 December 2009
  135. 135. Frequency ( ) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  136. 136. Frequency ( ) • Frequency measures the average number of times that the audiences are exposed over a period to an ad campaign. Reach    Frequency   (Reach) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  137. 137. Calculation Sunday, 27 December 2009
  138. 138. Frequency = GRPs / Reach (%) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  139. 139. Frequency = Total Duplicated Audience / Reach (number) (Total Duplicated Audience = Gross Impression) Reach  x  Frequency  =  GPRs  GRP    Reach   Frequency Sunday, 27 December 2009
  140. 140. For Example Sunday, 27 December 2009
  141. 141. GRPs = 80.1; Reach = 38 (%), then Frequency = 80.1/38 = 2.1 (times) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  142. 142. Frequency Distribution Sunday, 27 December 2009
  143. 143. Frequency Distribution • The above calculation for frequency is only an average number. • In the following table, the number exposed at any frequency is unduplicated, meaning that these people are counted only once. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  144. 144. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  145. 145. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  146. 146. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  147. 147. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  148. 148. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  149. 149. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  150. 150. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  151. 151. Frequency = Total Duplicated Audience / Reach (number) (Total Duplicated Audience = Gross Impression) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  152. 152. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  153. 153. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  154. 154. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  155. 155. Relationship of Reach and Frequency Sunday, 27 December 2009
  156. 156. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  157. 157. GRPs = Reach x Frequency Sunday, 27 December 2009
  158. 158. Reach and Frequency • If we increase GRPs, reach and frequency will both increases but at different rates, depending on which particular plan is being used. ( GRPs Reach Frequency plan) • For example, some tends to increase the reach, while some contributes to increase in frequency. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  159. 159. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  160. 160. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  161. 161. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  162. 162. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  163. 163. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  164. 164. Reach and Frequency • Plan A delivers more audience members at 1 or 2 exposure level, but for 3 exposure level, Plan B is superior. • Plan B reaches more persons than does Plan A at 3+ exposure level. If the advertising effort requires higher frequency, then Plan B is the obvious choice. About 75% of the target will see the commercial at least once, while 40% will see it 3 or more times. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  165. 165. • For any plan, reach rises more slowly when GRPs keeps increasing. Meanwhile, frequency increases and, after certain level, rises more rapidly because reach increases slower. (Reach Frequency - ) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  166. 166. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  167. 167. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  168. 168. Effective Frequency ( ) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  169. 169. Effective Frequency ( ) • Effective frequency is defined as the amount of frequency (or repetition) the planner judges to be necessary for advertisements to be effective in communicating. • It is merely ( ) a judgment. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  170. 170. • One exposure of an advertisement to a target consumer group (within a purchase cycle) has little or no effect. ( ... ) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  171. 171. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  172. 172. • Because one exposure is usually ineffective, the main thrust ( ) of media planning should be on emphasizing frequency rather than reach. ( ) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  173. 173. vodafone Sunday, 27 December 2009
  174. 174. • Most of the research studies suggested that two exposures within a purchase cycle are an effective threshold ( ) level. ( ) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  175. 175. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  176. 176. • Three exposures within a purchase cycle, however, are felt to be optimal. ( ) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  177. 177. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  178. 178. • After three exposures within a purchasing cycle, advertising becomes more effective as frequency is increased, but at a decreasing rate. ( ) Sunday, 27 December 2009
  179. 179. Lu Sunday, 27 December 2009
  180. 180. • Wear-out ( ) of an advertising campaign is not caused by too much frequency. It is caused by copy and content problems. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  181. 181. • Generally, small and less-known brands will benefit most from increased frequency. ( ) Larger, well-known brands might or might not be helped by increasing frequency, depending on how close they are to advertising saturation levels ( ). Sunday, 27 December 2009
  182. 182. • Each brand might require a different level of frequency of exposure ( ). One cannot generalize from a given brand’s experiences to some other brand ( ). Specialized ( ) research is required to find the unique ( ) frequency level for a brand Sunday, 27 December 2009
  183. 183. heineken Sunday, 27 December 2009
  184. 184. Sunday, 27 December 2009
  185. 185. • Two brands spending on the same amount of money for advertising can have different responses to their frequencies. ( ) Sunday, 27 December 2009

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