Block Award Talk Revised

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Transcript

  • 1. The Well-Being on Planet Earth Jack Block Award Address Society for Personality and Social Psychology February 10, 2008
  • 2. Ed Diener Joseph Smiley Professor of Psychology, University of Illinois Senior Scientist The Gallup Organization
  • 3. My gratitude to:
    • Gallup Organization
      • Raksha Arora, Jim Clifton, Gale Muller,
      • Jim Harter, Bob Tortora
    • Daniel Kahneman
  • 4. How are we doing?
    • HiV
    • Global warming
    • Longevity increasing
    • Cold war is gone
    • How do the worlds’ citizens feel they are doing?
  • 5. Gallup World Poll
    • 130+ nations
    • Representative samples
    • 130,000+ respondents
    • Rural areas sampled
      • The best poll of world ever taken
    • Represents 96% of globe’s population
  • 6. Objective conditions?
    • Have gone hungry this year 24%
    • Cannot afford housing 21%
    • Smoked yesterday 21%
    • Unemployed 13%
    • Assaulted past year 8%
    • Infant morality 4%
    • Life expectancy 68 years
  • 7. Modern conveniences:
    • Running water in home 72%
    • Electricity in home 83%
    • T.V. in home 74%
    • Computer in home 26%
  • 8. Signs for hope and optimism Signs for need for improvement Most evident in juxtaposing nations
  • 9. Striking Disparities!
    • Longevity
    • Japan 82 years Botswana 36 years
    • Smoking
      • Nigeria 5% Cuba 39%
    • Assaulted Past Year
    • Japan .4% Burundi 33%
    • Gone Hungry Past Year
      • Austria .4% Chad 78%
  • 10. Cannot Afford Housing
    • Finland 3 %
    • Ireland 4 %
    • United Kingdom 6 %
    • Switzerland 8 %
    • USA 8 %
    • Denmark 9 %
    • Germany 10 %
    • France 11 %
    • Spain 13 %
    • Belarus 40 %
    • Sierra Leone 62 %
  • 11. Cannot Afford Medical Care
    • Japan 4 %
    • Canada 8 %
    • Jordan 15 %
    • Iran 19 %
    • USA 20 %
    • Turkey 45 %
    • Romania 50 %
  • 12. How are we doing on Subjective Well-being?
    • Ladder of life
    • Positive Emotions
    • Negative Emotions
      • Affect balance
    • Satisfaction with Important Domains
  • 13. 0: Worst Possible Life 10: Best Possible Life 9 7 8 6 5 4 3 2 1
  • 14.  
  • 15. High on Ladder
    • Denmark 8.0
    • Switzerland 7.5
    • Netherlands 7.5
    • Canada 7.4
    • New Zealand 7.3
    • United States 7.2
    • Venezuela 7.2
  • 16.
    • Lowest Life Ladder
    • Togo 3.2
    • Cambodia 3.6
    • Sierra Leone 3.6
    • Georgia 3.7
    • Zimbabwe 3.8
    • West Bank 4.7
  • 17. Affect Yesterday
    • Unpleasant Emotions
      • Anger
      • Sad and depressed
      • Worried and stressed
    • Pleasant Emotions
      • Enjoyment
      • Smiling and laughing
  • 18. Pleasant Emotions—Enjoyment etc.
    • High Low
    • New Zealand Armenia
    • Honduras Pakistan
    • Panama Bangladesh
    • Costa Rica Palestine
    • Puerto Rico Tajikistan
  • 19. Unpleasant Emotions— Sad, Angry, Depressed, etc.
    • Highest Lowest
    • Armenia Denmark
    • Palestine Sweden
    • Bolivia Austria
    • Sierra Leone Japan
    • Percent feelings lots yesterday
    • ~ 40 % ~ 13 %
  • 20. Satisfaction with domains (Health, standard of living, city, job)
    • High Low
    • Denmark Zimbabwe
    • Switzerland Haiti
    • Singapore Tanzania
  • 21. Dissatisfied with Standard of Living
    • Ukraine
    • Georgia
    • Romania
    • Russia
    • Zimbabwe
    • Most satisfied: Ireland
  • 22. What is the Good Society?
    • Ladder of Life evaluation correlates with:
    • GDP per person (wealth)
    • r = .83
    • Meeting basic needs (food etc.) r = .77
  • 23. Beyond Money: Predicting National Levels of Ladder of Life
      • Regression Betas
    • GDP/Capita .43
    • Optimism .37
    • Can count on others .25
  • 24. Beyond Money: Predicting Positive Emotions (Betas – all but GDP significant)
    • GDP/capita -.03
    • Count on someone for help .18
    • Freedom to choose .26
    • Learned something yesterday .68
  • 25. National Unpleasant Emotions
            • Beta
    • Income .15
    • Control of corruption -.36
    • Assaulted .27
  • 26. Well-Being Accounts for Policy Use These could enormously benefit psychology
  • 27. Examples of Policies
    • Economic
      • Satisfying work, unemployment
    • Health
      • Mental health
    • Social
      • School checkups, sex work, discrimination
    • Environmental
      • Airport noise, air pollution, commuting
  • 28. But what about: Adaptation? Personal, not societal?
  • 29.  
  • 30.  
  • 31. Affect Adaptation ??
    • Enjoyment, laughing, smiling
    • Pakistan 47%
    • New Zealand 88%
    • Anger, sadness, worry, and depression
    • Denmark 12%
    • Iran 43%
  • 32. Important Psychological Points
    • Common material standards seem to exist across the globe
    • Circumstances and conditions matter a LOT; it is not just individual set-point
    • Life evaluation and affect have somewhat different predictors
        • -- Wanting versus liking?
  • 33. Worldwide Standards Little Adaptation
    • .83 correlation of income and Ladder
  • 34. Happiness and Money?
    • Is it basic needs like food and water?
    • Or modern conveniences like electricity,
    • telephones, and the internet?
  • 35.
    • Ladder of Life Beta
        • Basic needs (food and shelter) .27
        • Modern conveniences (telly etc.) .58
    • Positive Affect
        • Basic needs (food and shelter) .37
        • Modern conveniences (telly etc.) -.19
  • 36. Strongest Correlates:
    • Ladder of life
      • Modern conveniences (electricity etc.)
    • Pleasant Emotions
      • People I can count on
    • Unpleasant Emotions
      • Assaulted past year
  • 37. Overall SWB Scorecard
    • Evaluating life
        • 40 percent dissatisfied
        • 40 percent doing fine
        • 20 percent doing very well
    • Affect Balance (PA – NA)
        • 20 % negative
        • 30 % positive
        • 50 % very positive
  • 38. Conclusions
    • Happiness is societal, not just personal
    • Worldwide material standards have developed
    • People do not fully adapt to societal conditions
    • Life evaluation seems like “Wanting,” whereas affect is perhaps “Liking”
  • 39.
    • We know some things that are associated with happy societies –
    • E conomic sufficiency
    • Trust and social support
    • Lack of corruption and intense conflict
    • A feeling of freedom
    • Learning new things
    • Beyond Money: Assessing Societies
  • 40.
    • Conclusions
    • National accounts of well-being can help policy makers create better societies,
    • and
    • Help psychologists sell their wares
    • (interventions and research findings)
  • 41.  
  • 42. Universal needs plus social comparison standards
    • Corruption, longevity, and hunger
    • R 2 = .74
    • Add modern conveniences (TV, computer, & internet)
    • R 2 = .78 Increase p < .05