Klein

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Klein

  1. 1. Low Positive Emotionality in Preschool-Aged Children and Risk for Depressive Disorders Daniel N. Klein Stony Brook University
  2. 2. Collaborators <ul><li>C. Emily Durbin </li></ul><ul><li>Elizabeth Hayden </li></ul><ul><li>Stewart Shankman </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Olino </li></ul><ul><li>Lea Dougherty </li></ul><ul><li>Gerard Bruder </li></ul><ul><li>Craig Tenke </li></ul><ul><li>Gabrielle Carlson </li></ul>
  3. 3. Temperament and Risk for Depression <ul><li>Theorists have long hypothesized that temperament predisposes to depression </li></ul><ul><li>Clark & Watson: low PE and high NE </li></ul><ul><li>Others have also emphasized the role of low PE-like constructs, such as hypohedonia (Meehl), and decreased activity in the approach system (Davidson) or the behavioral activation/facilitation system (Depue & Iacono; Gray; Fowles) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Stony Brook Studies of Child Temperament and Risk for Depressive Disorders <ul><li>Pre-school aged children: temperament stabilizes around age 3; depression is rare before middle childhood </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on observational measures of temperament/emotional style </li></ul><ul><li>Community sample to enhance generalizability </li></ul>
  5. 5. Nomological Net: Low PE and Risk for Depressive Disorders <ul><li>Maternal history of mood disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Hypercortisolemia </li></ul><ul><li>EEG asymmetries </li></ul><ul><li>Depressotypic cognitions </li></ul><ul><li>Prediction of later depressive symptoms </li></ul>
  6. 6. Sample 1 <ul><li>100 families with a 3-year old child </li></ul><ul><li>53% male; 85% white </li></ul><ul><li>Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery (Lab-TAB; Goldsmith) – 12 episodes </li></ul><ul><li>Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) to assess parental lifetime psychopathology </li></ul>
  7. 7. PE and NE Composites <ul><li>Positive Emotionality </li></ul><ul><li>Positive affect (facial, vocal, bodily) </li></ul><ul><li>Engagement/interest </li></ul><ul><li>Negative Emotionality </li></ul><ul><li>Sadness (facial, vocal, bodily) </li></ul><ul><li>Fear (facial, vocal, bodily) </li></ul><ul><li>Anger (facial, vocal, bodily) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Stability of Lab Assessed PE and NE from Ages 3-7 <ul><li>Re-evaluated 64 children at age 7 </li></ul><ul><li>PE and NE coded from videotapes of three laboratory tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Correlations between ages 3 and 7 were .46 for PE and .45 for NE </li></ul>Durbin et al. (2007) Emotion
  9. 9. Temperament and Maternal History of Mood Disorder <ul><li>Cox Proportional Hazards Model, simultaneous entry </li></ul><ul><li>DV = time to onset of Mood Disorder in mothers </li></ul><ul><li>Lifetime prevalence = 32% </li></ul><ul><li>Age 3 Positive Emotionality </li></ul><ul><li>HR = .79 (95% CI = .66 - .94), p = .009 </li></ul><ul><li>Age 3 Negative Emotionality </li></ul><ul><li>HR = .44 (95% CI = .09-2.25), p = .32 </li></ul>Durbin et al. (2005) J Abnorm Psychol
  10. 10. Sample 2: Morning Cortisol <ul><li>Hypersortisolemia – state marker of depression </li></ul><ul><li>AM cortisol – may be trait marker </li></ul><ul><li>Greater heritability; elevated in recovered depressed patients and persons with a family history of depression; predicts onset of MDD </li></ul><ul><li>98 three-year old children from a larger study </li></ul><ul><li>Collected salivary cortisol sample at home 30 minutes after waking and 30 minutes before bed </li></ul>Bhagwagar et al. (2003); Harris et al. (2002); Mannie et al. (2007)
  11. 11. Increased Morning Cortisol in Children with Low PE r= .25,p <.05 Dougherty et al. (in preparation)
  12. 12. EEG Asymmetries at Age 5 (Sample 1) <ul><li>Relative decrease in resting left frontal alpha activity in depressed individuals, remitted depressives, and infants of depressed parents (Davidson) </li></ul><ul><li>Relative decrease in resting right posterior alpha activity in depressed individuals and offspring of two depressed parents (Bruder) </li></ul><ul><li>At age 5, we assessed resting EEG in 46 children from top and bottom quartiles of PA at age 3 </li></ul>
  13. 14. Information Processing Biases at Age 7 (Sample 1) <ul><li>Best-established information processing abnormality in depression: memory biases for negative information and against positive information </li></ul><ul><li>Followed up 64 children at age 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Self Referent Encoding Task (SRET) after sad mood induction: positive and negative adjectives endorsed and recalled </li></ul>
  14. 15. Predicting Age 7 Depressotypic Memory Biases From Age 3 PE Hayden et al (2006) Develop Psychopathology .25 * PE age 3 4 .04 NE age 3 3 -.06 Depression age 7 2 .14 PPVT age 3 1 SRET Positive Processing (partial r) Variable Step
  15. 16. Depressive Symptoms at Age 10 (Sample 1) <ul><li>Followed up 53 children at age 10 </li></ul><ul><li>Mothers completed Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach), and Child Symptom Inventory-4 (Gadow & Sprafkin) </li></ul><ul><li>CBCL DSM depression (Lengua) and CSI depression scales correlated .59, hence were aggregated </li></ul>Dougherty et al. (under review)
  16. 17. Predicting Depressive Symptoms at Age 10 Dougherty et al. (under review) -.31 * PE age 3 -.03 .07 NE age 3 2 .46 ** CBCL anx/depr age 3 .06 Gender -.09 .25 Age 1 Partial r R 2 change Variable Step
  17. 18. Summary and Conclusions Low PE Age 3 EEG asymmetry AM cortisol Maternal MDD Depressive symptoms age 10 Depressive cognitive biases age 7
  18. 19. Further Questions <ul><li>Does PE predict the onset of depressive disorders? </li></ul><ul><li>Nature of PE-depression association (e.g., precursor or vulnerability factor?) </li></ul><ul><li>Moderators (e.g., NE or effortful control; candidate genes; parental criticism/hostility; gender) </li></ul><ul><li>Mediators (e.g., information processing biases; stress reactivity; interpersonal deficits) </li></ul>

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