Equity in WASH in India     Arun Mudgerikar & Aidan Cronin               UNICEF Asia Regional Sanitation and Hygiene Pract...
Equity Profile in India• Disparities in WASH exist   – across States, Castes, Religions, Rural-Urban, and Wealth     quint...
Disparities in rural sanitation – NSS 2010Scheduled Tribes                       Other Backward Castes                    ...
Disparities in urban sanitation – NSS 2010Scheduled Tribe                          Other Backward Castes                  ...
Disparities across States in urban water supply                  – NSS 20100%   10%   20%   30%     40%    50%    60%    7...
Disparities across States in rural water supply –                    NSS 20100%   10%   20%   30%    40%     50%      60% ...
Disparities across wealth quintiles     Rural sanitation - JMP                           Porrest 20%                      ...
Disparities across wealth quintiles             rural WS                         Porrest 20%                         100  ...
Disparities across wealth quintiles         Urban sanitation                             Porrest 20%                      ...
Distribution of population across States in      national wealth quintiles – NFHS 2005-06100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10  0...
Proposed strategy for inclusive programming•   Inclusive Behaviour Change: All C4D activities in WASH include specific emp...
Some of the notable initiatives from                   India•   Jharkhand: KAP findings study and GIS mapping of WASH amon...
Ways forward for for inclusive               programming• Clear identification of social economic and other  classificatio...
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Review of the status of equity in WASH programming in India

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Review of the status of equity in WASH programming in India

  1. 1. Equity in WASH in India Arun Mudgerikar & Aidan Cronin UNICEF Asia Regional Sanitation and Hygiene Practitioners WorkshopDhaka, Bangladesh (31st January-2nd February, 2012)
  2. 2. Equity Profile in India• Disparities in WASH exist – across States, Castes, Religions, Rural-Urban, and Wealth quintiles. – within politically recognized excluded classes – but the disparities among wealth quintiles are cross cutting• These are reflected in WASH coverage in respective classifications – Rural-urban gap reflects need for accelerating rural sanitation – Definite linkage with poverty – Household water connectivity (HH water connection) enables sanitation – Typical toilet designs (or any physical component) will have to consistent with the existing household structures 2
  3. 3. Disparities in rural sanitation – NSS 2010Scheduled Tribes Other Backward Castes 21.66 28.74 3.11 1.61 75.23 69.65Scheduled Caste Others 1.71 21.69 Open defecation 43.36 Unimproved 52.31 sanitation 76.61 Improved sanitation 4.33
  4. 4. Disparities in urban sanitation – NSS 2010Scheduled Tribe Other Backward Castes 14.76 21.23 2.73 2.52 76.26 82.51Scheduled Caste Others 4.12 3.03 22.95 2.51 Open defecation Unimproved sanitation 74.01 93.37 Improved sanitation
  5. 5. Disparities across States in urban water supply – NSS 20100% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Tap Improved Source Other
  6. 6. Disparities across States in rural water supply – NSS 20100% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Tap Improved Other
  7. 7. Disparities across wealth quintiles Rural sanitation - JMP Porrest 20% 100 80 60 40 Richest II Poorest 20% 20 0 IV Poorest 20% III Poorest 20% Improved toilets 1995 Improved toilets 2008
  8. 8. Disparities across wealth quintiles rural WS Porrest 20% 100 80 60 40 Richest II Poorest 20% 20 0 IV Poorest 20% III Poorest 20% Piped water on premises - 1995 Piped water on premises 2008 Other improved 1995 Other improved 2008
  9. 9. Disparities across wealth quintiles Urban sanitation Porrest 20% 100 80 60 40 II Poorest Richest 20% 20 0 IV Poorest III Poorest 20% 20% Improved toilets 1995 Improved toilets 2008
  10. 10. Distribution of population across States in national wealth quintiles – NFHS 2005-06100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Poorest II Lowest Middle IV Quintile Richest
  11. 11. Proposed strategy for inclusive programming• Inclusive Behaviour Change: All C4D activities in WASH include specific emphasis on reaching the marginalised, social norm change can facilitate this• Empowerment and Voice Strengthening: UNICEF build platforms with Govt, Civil Society, UN and the other main WASH actors to unite for improved service provision to the marginalised of India.• Knowledge Management: CEP first unpacks the issue of social exclusion and equity in the WASH sector and then designs targeted programmatic interventions to tackle these and following this to strengthen documentation of the process and impact on the marginalised.• Service Delivery: The main service delivery point to be adopted by Government is that progress in sanitation and water access to date is currently not reaching the poorest.• Aaccountability and Institutional Strengthening: Capacity building will continue – at individual and institutional level. Key experts on WASH and the excluded will be identified to build capacity into program planners and implementers in Govt., civil society.• Evidenced- based Policy Advocacy: Continue to promote the JMP methodology to highlight the actual usage of defined levels of service provision across different strata of society but looking also at other improved data sources with increased disaggregation possibilities (min to District level). 11
  12. 12. Some of the notable initiatives from India• Jharkhand: KAP findings study and GIS mapping of WASH among Adivasi groups.• Madhya Prasesh: Impact of district communication plan and mass media campaigns for excluded• Uttar Pradesh: GIS mapping of 11,000 water points has been completed for all five blocks of Chitrakoot and its scaled up to Lalitpur.• West Bengal: Consultation on converging backward region grant funds to prioritize neglected areas and partnership in Purulia district with women SHGs• Orissa: Mapping of views on sanitation in Scheduled Tribes and designing an inclusive communication strategy.• Assam: WASH in Tea Gardens Initiative to reach socially excluded people in the estates.• Chhattisgarh: partnership with civil society to work with socially excluded primitive tribes in civil strife affected areas.• Gujarat: Innovative solutions for water supply were trialed in remote tribal areas.• Bihar: Formative research for inclusive communication strategy development
  13. 13. Ways forward for for inclusive programming• Clear identification of social economic and other classification• Basic unit of effective coverage (like individual, Household)• Baselines of access and actual use• Status of disparities & causal factors• Monitoring and evaluation methodology• Evidence based advocacy for policy and political commitment• Universal and/or targeted approaches
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