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God (or devil) in the details :   text typography   Keith Tam1	Orthography2	 Figures (numbers)3	Detailing4	Alignment5	 Hyp...
1orthographyAn orthography is a standardized system for using aparticular writing system (script) to write a particularlan...
Capitals (uppercase) and small letters (lowercase)Inherent in the language, not simply stylistic variantsABCDEFG          ...
Different capitalisation methods for a book title(inherent in the orthography)The Medium is the Message                   ...
Stylistic variants denoting a ‘title of work’ using sentence case(external to the character set)The medium is the message ...
Common errorsEverything in it’s placeIts a beautiful dayRock ‘n’ rollDVD’sThe 1980’s
Common errorsEverything in its place                                        belong to ‘it’It’s a beautiful day            ...
Hyphens are different from dashesLike oratory, music, dance, calligraphy -- likeanything that lends its grace to language ...
Hyphens are different from dashesEuropean style: word space + en dash + word spaceLike oratory, music, dance, calligraphy ...
En dashesUse en dashes in place of the word ‘to’8:30 – 11:30 amMonday – FridayAlso use en dashes for compoundsVancouver–Se...
Hyphens or dashes?The shop windows are full of elaborately boxed andbe - ribboned who - knows - what. In one window is aba...
Yellow highlights = hyphenated wordsThe shop windows are full of elaborately boxed andbe-ribboned who-knows-what. In one w...
Yellow highlights = dashesThe shop windows are full of elaborately boxed andbe-ribboned who-knows-what. In one window is a...
Quotation marks : single or doubleSingle first, then double for quote within quoteSam says: ‘A “personnel” transporter?The...
Abbreviations and contractionsContractions, first and last letter   Abbreviations with missing lettersno need for full poi...
AcroynmsWithout full points   Archaic format with   Can be pronounced                      full points           widely ac...
Acroynms     Without full points   Archaic format with   Can be pronounced,                           full points         ...
Stylistic variant : italicsForeign wordsHis raison d’être is to enjoy life to the fullest.She went to a cha chaan teng for...
Stylistic variants for emphasisItalic (gentle emphasis)What on earth are you doing?Small caps (gentle emphasis)What on ear...
Dates20 June 1978 no punctuation necessary, the clearest20th June 1978 no punctuation necessary, ordinal numberJune 20, 19...
2figures (n umbers)
Oldstyle (text) figures work well in continuous textPlantin with default lining numeralsMr Phileas Fogg lived, in 1872, at...
Typefaces do not always come with oldstyle figuresNews Gothic MT with default lining numeralsMr Phileas Fogg lived, in 187...
Tabular lining figures (usually the default)132847513946                                   Monospaced and line up         ...
Proportional oldstyle figures (text figures)574841212481                                   Proportional oldstyle figures  ...
Proportional lining figures and tablular oldstyle figures132811475                                  Proportional lining fi...
Use real fraction characters1-1/2 cup freshly chopp   this is typing, not   professional typesetting
Use real fraction characters11/2 cup freshly choppedspecially designed fraction characternumerators1234567890/1234567890an...
Use dimensions mark & primes   apostrophe         close double quotation mark8’ x 10”8’ x 10”      this is a lowercase ‘x’...
Use dimensions mark & primes  feet                 inches8 × 10"8 × 10"         multiply         (dimensions mark)
Footnotes :  se true superior figures in the text  full size            u            ones in the notesThe exact origin of ...
3detailing
Prime marks should not be used as quotation marksprime	prime‘quote’	“quote”
Ligatures : two or more characters designed as oneet  first firstfloor floor	difficult difficult
More ligaturesTh ft fjst ct sp ſh ſi                         archaic ligatures used in old booksæ œ ß            language-...
True small caps and fake small capsHe was one of the most noticeable members ofthe Reform Club, though he seemed always to...
problem was to make the type as big and as    bold as possible. Michael Twyman writes,‘[…]    the need for bold type relat...
however, no reliably dated examples of a ‘true    slab-serif letter’ exist before the début of the    first egyptian print...
Widow : when paragraphs end on the top ofa new page or column – avoid!    known as egyptians or antiques).    The exact or...
The exact origin of the slab-serif letterforms    is unknown, but it is likely that they came    from signwriting. The fir...
‘Keep options’ can be used to automatically avoid orphans and widows and keep lines together                              ...
4Alignment
Centered setting (auto text wrap)        Like oratory, music, dance, calligraphy, like anything          that lends its gr...
Lines broken for sense with generous leading (manual line breaks)               Like oratory, music, dance, calligraphy,  ...
Flush left, ragged right setting without hyphenation (hard rag)        Like oratory, music, dance, calligraphy – like     ...
Flush left, ragged right setting without hyphenation (hard rag)                                                           ...
Flush left, ragged right setting with hyphenation (soft rag)        Like oratory, music, dance, calligraphy – like any-   ...
Justified:  ord and/or letter spaces are expanded or contracted to           w           fill the width of the column (wit...
Justified text with hyphenationHyphenation and justification settings are called ‘HJ’ for short        Like oratory, music...
Flush right, ragged left setting             Like oratory, music, dance, calligraphy – like anything that           lends ...
Without optical margin alignmentTheVancouverSymphonyOrchestraThe left edge of the text block doesntseem to be aligned, as ...
With optical margin alignment turned onTheVancouverSymphonyOrchestra                                 enter size of the typ...
Without optical margin alignmentThe obvious solution to this com-munication problem was to makethe type as big and as bold...
Optical margin alignment (hanging punctuation)The obvious solution to this com-munication problem was to makethe type as b...
5hyphenation justifiction (HJ)
Default settings with no hyphenation,   With hyphenation: slightly better butwith a rather narrow column width       still...
Default justification values	                Minimum	Desired	      MaximumWord spacing	80%	              100%	   133%Lette...
Default justification values	                Minimum	Desired	            MaximumWord spacing	80%	              100%	      ...
Default justification values	                Minimum	Desired	      MaximumWord spacing	80%	              100%	   133%Lette...
Default justification values	                Minimum	Desired	          MaximumWord spacing	80%	               100%	      1...
Default justification values	                 Minimum	Desired	      MaximumWord spacing	80%	               100%	   133%Let...
Default justification values	                   Minimum	Desired	      MaximumWord spacing	80%	                 100%	   133...
Default justification values	                   Minimum	Desired	              MaximumWord spacing	80%	                 100...
Default settings with no hyphenation,   With hyphenation: slightly better butwith a rather narrow column width       still...
Default settings with no hyphenation,   With hyphenation: slightly better butwith a rather narrow column width       still...
Default settings with no hyphenation,   With hyphenation  justificationwith a rather narrow column width       settings ad...
Default settings with no hyphenation,   With hyphenation  justificationwith a rather narrow column width       settings ad...
Good justification is impossible with               This block ofcolumns that are too narrow – avoid!                     ...
Word spacing = 100%said to be about the width of the lowercase ithatilendsiitsigraceitoilangua
Normal word spacing at 100% (optimal)Like oratory, music, dance, calligraphy – like anything thatlends its grace to langua...
Word spacing = 60%, words harder to be differentiatedLike oratory, music, dance, calligraphy – like anything thatlends its...
Word spacing = 180%, lines no longer cohere togetherLike oratory, music, dance, calligraphy  like anything                ...
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  1. 1. God (or devil) in the details : text typography Keith Tam1 Orthography2 Figures (numbers)3 Detailing4 Alignment5 Hyphenation & justification (H&J)
  2. 2. 1orthographyAn orthography is a standardized system for using aparticular writing system (script) to write a particularlanguage. It includes rules of spelling. Other elementsof written language that are part of orthography includehyphenation, capitalization, word breaks, emphasis, andpunctuation. (Wikipedia)
  3. 3. Capitals (uppercase) and small letters (lowercase)Inherent in the language, not simply stylistic variantsABCDEFG abcdefghijHIJKLMNO klmnopqrPQRSTUV stuvwxyzWXY&ZCapital and small letters have specific uses in the Englishlanguage. Other languages might have other orthographicconventions for the use of capital and small letters.
  4. 4. Different capitalisation methods for a book title(inherent in the orthography)The Medium is the Message most commonThe Medium Is The Message only important words need capitalisationThe medium is the message preferred for clarity, but not commonthe medium is the message incorrectTHE MEDIUM IS THE MESSAGE this is a stylistic choice, not an orthographic convention
  5. 5. Stylistic variants denoting a ‘title of work’ using sentence case(external to the character set)The medium is the message used in manuscripts but not typesettingThe medium is the message denotes a title by conventionThe medium is the message does not commonly denote a titleThe medium is the message does not commonly denote a title
  6. 6. Common errorsEverything in it’s placeIts a beautiful dayRock ‘n’ rollDVD’sThe 1980’s
  7. 7. Common errorsEverything in its place  belong to ‘it’It’s a beautiful day  = it isRock ’n’ roll  use an apostrophe for what’s missingDVDs  no apostrophe for pluralsThe 1980s  no apostrophe for decades: it is plural
  8. 8. Hyphens are different from dashesLike oratory, music, dance, calligraphy -- likeanything that lends its grace to language --typography is an art that can be deliberatelymisused.Like oratory, music, dance, calligraphy-likeanything that lends its grace to language-typography is an art that can be deliberatelymisused.
  9. 9. Hyphens are different from dashesEuropean style: word space + en dash + word spaceLike oratory, music, dance, calligraphy – likeanything that lends its grace to language –typography is an art that can be deliberatelymisused.North American style: thin space + em dash + thin spaceLike oratory, music, dance, calligraphy — likeanything that lends its grace to language —typography is an art that can be deliberatelymisused.
  10. 10. En dashesUse en dashes in place of the word ‘to’8:30 – 11:30 amMonday – FridayAlso use en dashes for compoundsVancouver–SeattleKowloon–Canton RailwayHuman–computer interaction
  11. 11. Hyphens or dashes?The shop windows are full of elaborately boxed andbe - ribboned who - knows - what. In one window is abank of   V sets - on the great majority of the screens Tis the face of Mr Helpmann - the Deputy Minister ofInformation. He is being interviewed. No - one both-ers to listen to Helpmann.
  12. 12. Yellow highlights = hyphenated wordsThe shop windows are full of elaborately boxed andbe-ribboned who-knows-what. In one window is abank of   V sets – on the great majority of the screens Tis the face of Mr Helpmann – the Deputy Minister ofInformation. He is being interviewed. No-one bothersto listen to Helpmann.
  13. 13. Yellow highlights = dashesThe shop windows are full of elaborately boxed andbe-ribboned who-knows-what. In one window is abank of   V sets – on the great majority of the screens Tis the face of Mr Helpmann – the Deputy Minister ofInformation. He is being interviewed. No-one bothersto listen to Helpmann.Do not use en dashes in hyphenated words!ice–creamice-cream
  14. 14. Quotation marks : single or doubleSingle first, then double for quote within quoteSam says: ‘A “personnel” transporter?They’ve got it wrong. I had a personaltransporter.’Double first, then single for quote within quoteSam says: “A ‘personnel’ transporter?They’ve got it wrong. I had a personaltransporter.”Both styles are correct, as long as it is consistent. I stronglyprefer the top one for its stylistic simplicity.
  15. 15. Abbreviations and contractionsContractions, first and last letter Abbreviations with missing lettersno need for full point at the end need full point at the endMister = Mr Professor = Prof.Missus = Mrs Reverend = Rev.Miss = Ms Company = Co.Doctor = Dr Avenue = Ave.Saint = StStreet = StRoad = RdLimited = LtdAssistant = Asst
  16. 16. AcroynmsWithout full points Archaic format with Can be pronounced full points widely acceptedLASER L.A.S.E.R. laserNATO N.A.T.O. NatoUNESCO U.N.E.S.C.O. UnescoIBM I.B.M. IbmWHO W.H.O. WhoUSA U.S.A. UsaC Y Leung C.Y. Leung —
  17. 17. Acroynms Without full points Archaic format with Can be pronounced, full points widely accepted LASER L.A.S.E.R. laser not NATO N.A.T.O. Natopreferred UNESCO U.N.E.S.C.O. Unesco IBM I.B.M. Ibm WHO W.H.O. Who confusing USA U.S.A. Usa common C Y Leung C.Y. Leung —
  18. 18. Stylistic variant : italicsForeign wordsHis raison d’être is to enjoy life to the fullest.She went to a cha chaan teng for breakfast.Ship nameThe Titanic was an ocean linear built in Liverpool.Movie, play or TV show titleI like Brazil very much – it is an excellent movie.Book titleThe image of the city is a classic text on urban design.Song titleWhitney Houston’s Greatest love of all was a hit.
  19. 19. Stylistic variants for emphasisItalic (gentle emphasis)What on earth are you doing?Small caps (gentle emphasis)What on earth are you doing?Bold, same or different typeface (stronger emphasis)What the hell are you doing?Underline (use sparaingly, or better yet, avoid)What the hell are you doing?Capital letters (use sparaingly, or better yet, avoid)What the HELL are you doing?
  20. 20. Dates20 June 1978 no punctuation necessary, the clearest20th June 1978 no punctuation necessary, ordinal numberJune 20, 1978 cardinal number (twenty), comma neededJune 20th, 1978 ordinal number (twentieth), comma needed20/6/1978 date, moth, year (British format)6/20/1978 month, date, year (US format)1978.6.20 year, month date
  21. 21. 2figures (n umbers)
  22. 22. Oldstyle (text) figures work well in continuous textPlantin with default lining numeralsMr Phileas Fogg lived, in 1872, at No. 7, SavilleRow, Burlington Gardens, the house in whichSheridan died in 1814. He was one of the mostnoticeable members of the Reform Club, thoughPlantin with oldstyle numerals – reads better and more refinedMr Phileas Fogg lived, in 1872, at No. 7, SavilleRow, Burlington Gardens, the house in whichSheridan died in 1814. He was one of the mostnoticeable members of the Reform Club, though
  23. 23. Typefaces do not always come with oldstyle figuresNews Gothic MT with default lining numeralsMr Phileas Fogg lived, in 1872, at No. 7, SavilleRow, Burlington Gardens, the house in whichSheridan died in 1814. He was one of themost noticeable members of the Reform Club,Scala Sans with oldstyle figuresMr Phileas Fogg lived, in 1872, at no. 7, SavilleRow, Burlington Gardens, the house in whichSheridan died in 1814. He was one of the mostnoticeable members of the Reform Club, though
  24. 24. Tabular lining figures (usually the default)132847513946 Monospaced and line up neatly in columns. Work well with uppercase text211738942813 and where absolute clarity is required for factual information, financial figures574841212481 and office documents. (Typeface: Minion Pro)Apple 58 SD1206Banana 1200 250 kcalLychee 314 20 FebruaryStarfruit 20312 500 ml
  25. 25. Proportional oldstyle figures (text figures)574841212481 Proportional oldstyle figures work harmoniously with381247349120 lowercase text as they have ascenders and descenders, but they don’t line up in384712948113 columns of figures. (Typeface: Minion Pro)Born 1978 in Hong Kongsd1206 They look out of placeSD1206 alongside uppercase letters but work well with small capitals.
  26. 26. Proportional lining figures and tablular oldstyle figures132811475 Proportional lining figures are cap-height but do not line up neatly in columns211738119 (monospaced).381247349120 Tabular oldstyle  figures have ascenders and descenders384712948113 but line up neatly in columns.
  27. 27. Use real fraction characters1-1/2 cup freshly chopp this is typing, not professional typesetting
  28. 28. Use real fraction characters11/2 cup freshly choppedspecially designed fraction characternumerators1234567890/1234567890any fractions could be typset in Minon Pro denominators
  29. 29. Use dimensions mark & primes apostrophe close double quotation mark8’ x 10”8’ x 10” this is a lowercase ‘x’, not a multiplication sign
  30. 30. Use dimensions mark & primes feet inches8 × 10"8 × 10" multiply (dimensions mark)
  31. 31. Footnotes : se true superior figures in the text full size u ones in the notesThe exact origin of the slab-serif letterforms is unknown,but it is likely that they came from signwriting.4According to James Mosley however, no reliably datedexamples of a ‘true slab-serif letter’ exist before the débutof the first egyptian printing type by Figgins.54 McLean: ‘An examination of egyptians’ p.395 Mosley defines the ‘true slab-serif letter’ as a ‘monoline, geometrical construction, with square, unbracketed serifs’. Mosley, The Nymph and the Grot p.50
  32. 32. 3detailing
  33. 33. Prime marks should not be used as quotation marksprime prime‘quote’ “quote”
  34. 34. Ligatures : two or more characters designed as oneet first firstfloor floor difficult difficult
  35. 35. More ligaturesTh ft fjst ct sp ſh ſi  archaic ligatures used in old booksæ œ ß language-specific ligatures : aesc, ethel, eszettcurriculum  vitæ æsthetics œuvre
  36. 36. True small caps and fake small capsHe was one of the most noticeable members ofthe Reform Club, though he seemed always toavoid attracting attention; an e n i g m at i c a l per-sonage, about whom little was known, exceptthat he was a polished man of the world.He was one of the most noticeable membersof the Reform Club, though he seemed alwaysto avoid attracting attention; an enigmaticalpersonage, about whom little was known, exceptthat he was a polished man of the world.
  37. 37. problem was to make the type as big and as bold as possible. Michael Twyman writes,‘[…] the need for bold type related to what might be described as the growth of non-linearity in graphic design’. During the first few decades of the nineteenth century, three main variet- ies of display typefaces emerged. They were, in order of appearance the fat faces, sanser- ifs (more generally known as grotesques or antiques) and slab-serifs (widely known as egyptians or antiques). The exact origin of the slab-serif letterformsOrphan : when paragraphs begin on the last line at thebottom of a page or column – avoid!
  38. 38. however, no reliably dated examples of a ‘true slab-serif letter’ exist before the début of the first egyptian printing type by Figgins. The first slab-serif typeface called ‘antique’ appeared in a supplement to a 1815 type specimen pub- lished by Vincent Figgins in 1817. It only had capitals, with serifs that were as thick as the main strokes. Its blackness exceeded that of the fat faces which was unprecedented. The origin of slab-serif letterformsOrphaned subhead : when a subheadappears at the bottom of a page, separatedfrom the paragraph that follows it.
  39. 39. Widow : when paragraphs end on the top ofa new page or column – avoid! known as egyptians or antiques). The exact origin of the slab-serif letterforms is unknown, but it is likely that they came from signwriting. According to James Mosley however, no reliably dated examples of a ‘true slab-serif letter’ exist before the début of the first egyptian printing type by Figgins. The first slab-serif typeface called ‘antique’ appeared in a supplement to a 1815 type specimen pub- lished by Vincent Figgins in 1817. It only had capitals, with serifs that were as thick as the
  40. 40. The exact origin of the slab-serif letterforms is unknown, but it is likely that they came from signwriting. The first slab-serif typeface called ‘antique’ appeared in a supplement to a 1815 type specimen published by Vincent Figgins It only had capitals, with serifs that were as thick as the main strokes. Its black- ness exceeded that of the fat faces which was unprecedented.Single words on the last line of a paragraph : as long asit is not hyphenated and not too short, it is not a problem.Could edit the text to avoid.(some call this a widow)
  41. 41. ‘Keep options’ can be used to automatically avoid orphans and widows and keep lines together keep headings with how many lines of text in the next paragraph to have at least how many lines in a paragraph at the start and end of the paragraph
  42. 42. 4Alignment
  43. 43. Centered setting (auto text wrap) Like oratory, music, dance, calligraphy, like anything that lends its grace to language, typography is an art that can be deliberately misused. It is a craft by which the meanings of a text (or its absence of meaning) can be clarified, honoured and shared, or knowingly disguised. In a world rife with unsolicited messages, typography must often draw attention to itself before it will be read. Yet in order to be read, it must relinquish the attention it has drawn. Typography with anything to say therefore aspires to a kind of statuesque transparency.
  44. 44. Lines broken for sense with generous leading (manual line breaks) Like oratory, music, dance, calligraphy, like anything that lends its grace to language, typography is an art that can be deliberately misused. It is a craft by which the meanings of a text (or its absence of meaning) can be clarified, honoured and shared, or knowingly disguised.
  45. 45. Flush left, ragged right setting without hyphenation (hard rag) Like oratory, music, dance, calligraphy – like anything that lends its grace to language – typography is an art that can be deliberately misused. It is a craft by which the meanings of a text (or its absence of meaning) can be clarified, honoured and shared, or knowingly disguised. In a world rife with unsolicited messages, typography must often draw attention to itself before it will be read. Yet in order to be read, it must relinquish the attention it has drawn. Typography with anything to say therefore aspires to a kind of statuesque transparency.
  46. 46. Flush left, ragged right setting without hyphenation (hard rag) rag Like oratory, music, dance, calligraphy – like anything that lends its grace to language – typography is an art that can be deliberately misused. It is a craft by which the meanings of a text (or its absence of meaning) can be clarified, honoured and shared, or knowingly disguised. In a world rife with unsolicited messages, typography must often draw attention to itself before it will be read. Yet in order to be read, it must relinquish the attention it has drawn. Typography with anything to say therefore aspires to a kind of statuesque transparency. The rag here is said to be quite ‘wild’, meaning very rough.
  47. 47. Flush left, ragged right setting with hyphenation (soft rag) Like oratory, music, dance, calligraphy – like any- thing that lends its grace to language – typography is an art that can be deliberately misused. It is a craft by which the meanings of a text (or its absence of meaning) can be clarified, honoured and shared, or knowingly disguised. In a world rife with unsolicited messages, typography must often draw attention to itself before it will be read. Yet in order to be read, it must relinquish the attention it has drawn. Typogra- phy with anything to say therefore aspires to a kind of statuesque transparency. Hyphenation makes the rag softer. Hyphenation does not affect readability too much if not excessive.
  48. 48. Justified: ord and/or letter spaces are expanded or contracted to w fill the width of the column (without hyphenation) Like oratory, music, dance, calligraphy – like anything that lends its grace to language – typography is an art that can be deliberately misused. It is a craft by which the meanings of a text (or its absence of meaning) can be clarified, honoured and shared, or knowingly disguised. In a world rife with unsolicited messages, typography must often draw attention to itself before it will be read.Yet in order to be read, it must relinquish the attention it has drawn.Typography with anything to say therefore aspires to a kind of statuesque transparency. Word spaces could vary too much if hyphenation is not turned on in justified setting. The texture could become quite uneven.
  49. 49. Justified text with hyphenationHyphenation and justification settings are called ‘HJ’ for short Like oratory, music, dance, calligraphy – like anything that lends its grace to language – typography is an art that can be deliberately misused. It is a craft by which the meanings of a text (or its absence of meaning) can be clarified, honoured and shared, or knowingly dis- guised. In a world rife with unsolicited messages, ty- pography must often draw attention to itself before it will be read. Yet in order to be read, it must relinquish the attention it has drawn. Typography with anything to say therefore aspires to a kind of statuesque trans- parency. Spacing is more even with hyphenation turned on.
  50. 50. Flush right, ragged left setting Like oratory, music, dance, calligraphy – like anything that lends its grace to language – typography is an art that can be deliberately misused. It is a craft by which the meanings of a text (or its absence of meaning) can be clarified, honoured and shared, or knowingly disguised. In a world rife with unsolicited messages, typography must often draw attention to itself before it will be read. Yet in order to be read, it must relinquish the attention it has drawn. Typography with anything to say therefore aspires to a kind of statuesque transparency.Not suitable for long texts, and certainly not forbody texts. Use sparingly, and break lines forsense (manual line breaks).
  51. 51. Without optical margin alignmentTheVancouverSymphonyOrchestraThe left edge of the text block doesntseem to be aligned, as the shapes ofthe letters vary.
  52. 52. With optical margin alignment turned onTheVancouverSymphonyOrchestra enter size of the type hereThe left edge is aligned opticallyinstead of mathematically. This tendsto work better with smaller text sizes.
  53. 53. Without optical margin alignmentThe obvious solution to this com-munication problem was to makethe type as big and as bold as pos-sible. Michael Twyman writes, ‘theneed for bold type related to whatmight be described as the growthof non-linearity in graphic design’.
  54. 54. Optical margin alignment (hanging punctuation)The obvious solution to this com-munication problem was to makethe type as big and as bold as pos-sible. Michael Twyman writes, ‘theneed for bold type related to whatmight be described as the growthof non-linearity in graphic design’.
  55. 55. 5hyphenation justifiction (HJ)
  56. 56. Default settings with no hyphenation, With hyphenation: slightly better butwith a rather narrow column width still not good enoughLike oratory, music, dance, Like oratory, music, dance,calligraphy – like anything that calligraphy – like anything thatlends its grace to language – lends its grace to language –typography is an art that can typography is an art that canbe deliberately misused. It is be deliberately misused. It is aa craft by which the meanings craft by which the meanings ofof a text (or its absence of a text (or its absence of mean-meaning) can be clarified, ing) can be clarified, honouredhonoured and shared, or and shared, or knowingly dis-knowingly disguised. In a world guised. In a world rife withrife with unsolicited messages, unsolicited messages, typogra-typography must often draw phy must often draw attentionattention to itself before it will to itself before it will be read.be read.Yet in order to be read, Yet in order to be read, it must
  57. 57. Default justification values Minimum Desired MaximumWord spacing 80% 100% 133%Letter spacing 0% 0% 0%Glyph scaling 100% 100% 100%
  58. 58. Default justification values Minimum Desired MaximumWord spacing 80% 100% 133%Letter spacing 0% 0% 0%Glyph scaling 100% 100% 100% Desired = normal word spacing what we really want
  59. 59. Default justification values Minimum Desired MaximumWord spacing 80% 100% 133%Letter spacing 0% 0% 0%Glyph scaling 100% 100% 100% Maximum = how much you allow to expand until it would not look good
  60. 60. Default justification values Minimum Desired MaximumWord spacing 80% 100% 133%Letter spacing 0% 0% 0%Glyph scaling 100% 100% 100% Minimum = how much you allow to contract until it would not look good
  61. 61. Default justification values Minimum Desired MaximumWord spacing 80% 100% 133%Letter spacing 0% 0% 0%Glyph scaling 100% 100% 100%Word spacing = spaces between wordsThis sample shows word spacing reduced to 60%This sample shows word spacing expanded to 180%
  62. 62. Default justification values Minimum Desired MaximumWord spacing 80% 100% 133%Letter spacing 0% 0% 0%Glyph scaling 100% 100% 100%Letter spacing = spaces between lettersThis sample shows letter spacing reduced to –5%This sample shows letter spacing expanded to +10%
  63. 63. Default justification values Minimum Desired MaximumWord spacing 80% 100% 133%Letter spacing 0% 0% 0%Glyph scaling 100% 100% 100%Glyph scaling = digitally condensing and expanding the type(use with extreme caution or not at all!)This sample shows a glyph scaling of 90%This sample shows a glyph scaling of 110%
  64. 64. Default settings with no hyphenation, With hyphenation: slightly better butwith a rather narrow column width still not good enoughLike oratory, music, dance, Like oratory, music, dance, cal-calligraphy – like anything that ligraphy – like anything that lendslends its grace to language – its grace to language – typographytypography is an art that can is an art that can be deliberatelybe deliberately misused. It is a misused. It is a craft by whichcraft by which the meanings of a the meanings of a text (or its ab-text (or its absence of meaning) sence of meaning) can be clar-can be clarified, honoured and ified, honoured and shared, orshared, or knowingly disguised. knowingly disguised. In a worldIn a world rife with unsolicited rife with unsolicited messages,messages, typography must typography must often draw at-often draw attention to itself tention to itself before it will bebefore it will be read.Yet in order read. Yet in order to be read, itto be read, it must relinquish must relinquish the attentionthe attention it has drawn. it has drawn. Typography with
  65. 65. Default settings with no hyphenation, With hyphenation: slightly better butwith a rather narrow column width still not good enoughLike oratory, music, dance, Like oratory, music, dance, cal-calligraphy – like anything that ligraphy – like anything that lendslends its grace to language – its grace to language – typographytypography is an art that can is an art that can be deliberatelybe deliberately misused. It is a misused. It is a craft by whichcraft by which the meanings of a the meanings of a text (or its ab-text (or its absence of meaning) sence of meaning) can be clar-can be clarified, honoured and ified, honoured and shared, orshared, or knowingly disguised. knowingly disguised. In a worldIn a world rife with unsolicited rife with unsolicited messages,messages, typography must typography must often draw at-often draw attention to itself tention to itself before it will bebefore it will be read.Yet in order read. Yet in order to be read, itto be read, it must relinquish must relinquish the attentionthe attention it has drawn. it has drawn. Typography with
  66. 66. Default settings with no hyphenation, With hyphenation justificationwith a rather narrow column width settings adjusted, and optical margin alignment turned onLike oratory, music, dance, Like oratory, music, dance, cal-calligraphy – like anything that ligraphy – like anything that lendslends its grace to language – its grace to language – typographytypography is an art that can is an art that can be deliberatelybe deliberately misused. It is a misused. It is a craft by which thecraft by which the meanings of a meanings of a text (or its absencetext (or its absence of meaning) of meaning) can be clarified, hon-can be clarified, honoured and oured and shared, or knowinglyshared, or knowingly disguised. disguised. In a world rife with un-In a world rife with unsolicited solicited messages, typographymessages, typography must must often draw attention to itselfoften draw attention to itself before it will be read.Yet in orderbefore it will be read.Yet in order to be read, it must relinquish theto be read, it must relinquish attention it has drawn. Typogra-the attention it has drawn. phy with anything to say therefore
  67. 67. Default settings with no hyphenation, With hyphenation justificationwith a rather narrow column width settings adjusted, and optical margin alignment turned onLike oratory, music, dance, Like oratory, music, dance, cal-calligraphy – like anything that ligraphy – like anything that lendslends its grace to language – its grace to language – typographytypography is an art that can is an art that can be deliberatelybe deliberately misused. It is a misused. It is a craft by which thecraft by which the meanings of a meanings of a text (or its absencetext (or its absence of meaning) of meaning) can be clarified, hon-can be clarified, honoured and oured and shared, or knowinglyshared, or knowingly disguised. disguised. In a world rife with un-In a world rife with unsolicited solicited messages, typographymessages, typography must must often draw attention to itselfoften draw attention to itself before it will be read.Yet in orderbefore it will be read.Yet in order to be read, it must relinquish theto be read, it must relinquish attention it has drawn. Typogra-the attention it has drawn. phy with anything to say therefore
  68. 68. Good justification is impossible with This block ofcolumns that are too narrow – avoid! text is far tooJustified alignment is good for immersivereading material that are meant to be read narrow forlargely in a linear fashion, eg novels, withsymmetrical layouts. justified set-Flush left, ragged right setting is generally ting. Thepreferred for more structured texts and non-linear reading, eg coffee table books, textbooks, enormousnon-fiction, etc. with asymmetrical layouts. word spaces make read- ing very dif- ficult and not to mention ugly.
  69. 69. Word spacing = 100%said to be about the width of the lowercase ithatilendsiitsigraceitoilangua
  70. 70. Normal word spacing at 100% (optimal)Like oratory, music, dance, calligraphy – like anything thatlends its grace to language – typography is an art that can bedeliberately misused. It is a craft by which the meanings ofa text (or its absence of meaning) can be clarified, honouredand shared, or knowingly disguised. In a world rife withunsolicited messages, typography must often draw attentionto itself before it will be read. Yet in order to be read, itmust relinquish the attention it has drawn. Typography withanything to say therefore aspires to a kind of statuesquetransparency.
  71. 71. Word spacing = 60%, words harder to be differentiatedLike oratory, music, dance, calligraphy – like anything thatlends its grace to language – typography is an art that can bedeliberately misused. It is a craft by which the meanings of atext (or its absence of meaning) can be clarified, honoured andshared, or knowingly disguised. In a world rife with unsolicitedmessages, typography must often draw attention to itselfbefore it will be read.Yet in order to be read, it must relinquishthe attention it has drawn.Typography with anything to saytherefore aspires to a kind of statuesque transparency.
  72. 72. Word spacing = 180%, lines no longer cohere togetherLike oratory, music, dance, calligraphy  like anything — that lends its grace to language  typography is an art — that can be deliberately misused. It is a craft by whichthe meanings of a text (or its absence of meaning)can be clarified, honoured and shared, or knowinglydisguised. In a world rife with unsolicited messages,typography must often draw attention to itself beforeit will be read. Yet in order to be read, it mustrelinquish the attention it has drawn. Typography withanything to say therefore aspires to a kind of statuesquetransparency.
  73. 73. end
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