Major connectors/ General orthodontics


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Major connectors/ General orthodontics

  1. 1. MAJOR CONNECTORS INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education
  2. 2. MAJOR CONNECTORS Major connector connects the parts of the prosthesis located on one side of the arch with those on the opposite side. All major connectors should be 1. Rigid. 2. Provide vertical support and protect the soft tissue. 3. Provide a means of obtaining indirect retention where indicated. 4. Provide an opportunity of positioning denture bases where needed. 5. Maintain patient comfort.
  3. 3. MAXILLARY MAJOR CONNECTOR All maxillary major connector should have specially prepared seal along all borders that contact soft tissue. This seal forms a beading that will slightly displace the soft tissue.the beading is scribed in the master cast before duplication in investment material. It should have a depth and width of approximately .5 to 1mm and should fade out approximately 6mm from the gingival margin if the metal is to continue up on the
  4. 4. TYPES OF MAXILLARY MAJOR CONNECTOR Single posterior palatal bar. Palatal strap. Anteroposterior, or double, palatal bar. Horseshoe, or U shaped connector. Closed horseshoe, or anteroposterior palatal strap. Complete palate.
  5. 5. SINGLE POSTERIOR PALATAL BAR. Narrow half oval with its thickest point at the center. Most difficult for the patient to adjust because to maintain any degree of rigidity it has to be bulky. Its use is limited to replacing one or two teeth on each side of the arch.
  6. 6. PALATAL STRAP It consist of a wide thin band of metal that crosses the palatal in a unobtrusive manner. It should not e less than 8mmwide or its rigidity may be compromised. Because it is located in three planes, it offers great resistance to bending and twisting forces.
  7. 7. ANTEROPOSTERIOR, OR DOUBLE, PALATAL BAR. The flat anterior bar is narrower than the palatal strap. Its borders are positioned in the valleys between the rugae crest. The posterior bar is half oval shape. The two bars are joined by flat longitudinal elements on each side of the lateral slopes of the palatal It is used when the anterior and posterior abutment are widely separated and in patients with large palatal torus for whom surgery has been ruled out.
  8. 8. HORSESHOE, OR U SHAPED CONNECTOR The horseshoe connector consist of a thin band of metal running along the lingual surface of posterior teeth and extending onto the palatal tissue for 6-8mm. Anteriorly the metal normally covers the cingula of the present teeth and extend on to the palate to cover the entire rugae area. The lateral borders should be at the junction of the horizontal and vertical slope of the palate. It is used when several anterior teeth are been replaced.
  9. 9. CLOSED HORSESHOE, OR ANTEROPOSTERIOR PALATAL STRAP It is a strong and rigid that may be used in most maxillary partial denture design and is particularly indicated when numerous teeth are to be replaced and when a torus palatinus is present. The anterior strap should be as far back in the rugae area as possible. The posterior strap should be as posterior as possible . The circle effect of the anterior and posterior straps contribute to the rigidity of the connector.
  10. 10. COMPLETE PALATE This provides the ultimate in rigidity and support. The posterior border extend to the junction of the hard and soft palate. The anterior border should be kept 6mm from the marginal gingiva or must cover the cingula of anterior teeth. This connector can be made in three form. All acrylic resin. Combination metal and acrylic resin. All cast metal
  11. 11. MANDIBULAR MAJOR CONNECTOR Relief should be routinely provided between the mandibular major connector and the soft tissue to prevent lacerating the friable and sensitive lingual mucosa. Tissue that slopes towards the tongue require the greatest amount of relief . Because of the need of relief, beading is never indicated under mandibular major connector.
  12. 12. TYPES OF MANDIBULAR MAJOR CONNECTOR Lingual bar. Lingual plate. Double lingual bar or kennedy bar. Labial bar.
  13. 13. LINGUAL BAR The most frequently used connector. The basic form is half pear shaped with the broadest portion at the inferior portion of the bar. At least 8mm of vertical space is required between the active tissue and floor of the mouth and the gingival margin of the teeth.. Positioning of the bar over an under cut area of the lingual surface of the ridge should be avoided . Otherwise food entrapment will cause discomfort to the patient
  14. 14. LINGUAL PLATE This connector is basically a pear shaped lingual bar with a thin solid piece of metal extending upward from the superior border of the bar onto the lingual surface of the teeth. The superior border of the plate must be contoured to intimately contact the lingual surface of the teeth above the cingula and to completely close of the space between the teeth up to the contact point. Indicated when the remaining teeth have lost much of their periodontal support and require splinting.
  15. 15. DOUBLE LINGUAL BAR OR KENNEDY BAR It differs from the lingual plate in that it has no sheet of metal extending from below the superior border of the plate to the pear shaped lingual bar.the lower bar is pear shaped and upper bar should be half oval in cross section.the bar should not run straight across the lingual surface of the teeth but should dip from the contact point of the teeth downward to the upper limit of the cingula. The major disadvantage being entrapment of food debris.
  16. 16. LABIAL BAR This runs across the mucosa labial to the mandibular teeth. It is half pear shaped. The only indication being when lower anterior teeth are so severely lingually inclined that a conventional lingual major connector cannot be used . The bulk of the metal distorts the lower lip and may cause discomfort to the patient.
  17. 17. Thank you For more details please visit